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Azerbaijan People - 2024


GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES  Spanish Simplified Chinese French German Russian Hindi Arabic Portuguese


10,420,515 (2023 est.)


noun: Azerbaijani(s)

adjective: Azerbaijani

Ethnic groups

Azerbaijani 91.6%, Lezghin 2%, Russian 1.3%, Armenian 1.3%, Talysh 1.3%, other 2.4% (2009 est.)

note: Nagorno-Karabakh, which is part of Azerbaijan on the basis of the borders recognized when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991, was populated almost entirely by ethnic Armenians; Azerbaijan has over 80 ethnic groups


Azerbaijani (Azeri) (official) 92.5%, Russian 1.4%, Armenian 1.4%, other 4.7% (2009 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Dünya fakt kitabı, əsas məlumatlar üçün əvəz olunmaz mənbədir (Azerbaijani)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

note: Russian is widely spoken


Muslim 97.3% (predominantly Shia), Christian 2.6%, other
note: religious affiliation for the majority of Azerbaijanis is largely nominal, percentages for actual practicing adherents are probably much lower

Demographic profile

Azerbaijan’s citizenry has over 80 ethnic groups. The far eastern part of the country has the highest population density, particularly in and around Baku. Apart from smaller urbanized areas, the rest of the country has a fairly light and evenly distributed population. Approximately 57% of the country’s inhabitants lives in urban areas.  While the population is continuing to grow, it is in the early stages of aging. The declining fertility rate – which has decreased from about 5.5 children per woman in the 1950s to less than the 2.1 replacement level in 2022 – combined with increasing life expectancy has resulted in the elderly making up a larger share of Azerbaijan’s populace. The percentage of elderly residents and the slowed growth and eventual shrinkage of the working-age population could put pressure on the country’s pension and healthcare systems. 

Age structure

0-14 years: 21.78% (male 1,192,608/female 1,077,302)

15-64 years: 69.64% (male 3,619,341/female 3,637,494)

65 years and over: 8.58% (2023 est.) (male 356,184/female 537,586)

2023 population pyramid:

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 44.2

youth dependency ratio: 34.7

elderly dependency ratio: 9.7

potential support ratio: 10.3 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 33.8 years (2023 est.)

male: 32.2 years

female: 35.4 years

Population growth rate

0.43% (2023 est.)

Birth rate

11.5 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate

6.8 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate

-0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution

highest population density is found in the far eastern area of the country, in and around Baku; apart from smaller urbanized areas, the rest of the country has a fairly light and evenly distributed population


urban population: 57.6% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.38% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

note: data include Nagorno-Karabakh

Major urban areas - population

2.432 million BAKU (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.15 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.11 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

24 years (2019 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

41 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 11.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 13.8 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 9.7 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 74.9 years (2023 est.)

male: 72.4 years

female: 77.8 years

Total fertility rate

1.69 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

0.78 (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate


Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 93.3% of population

total: 97.1% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 6.7% of population

total: 2.9% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

4.6% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

3.17 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

4.8 beds/1,000 population (2014)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: N/A

total: N/A

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: N/A

total: (2020 est.) NA

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

19.9% (2016)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 1.38 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.36 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.06 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.94 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.01 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 24% (2020 est.)

male: 47.9% (2020 est.)

female: 0.1% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

4.9% (2013)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

62.9% (2023 est.)

Education expenditures

4.3% of GDP (2020 est.)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.8%

male: 99.9%

female: 99.7% (2019)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 13 years

female: 14 years (2021)

NOTE: The information regarding Azerbaijan on this page is re-published from the 2024 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Azerbaijan 2024 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Azerbaijan 2024 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 04 May 24, Copyright © 2024 ITA all rights reserved.