China People - 2023



1,413,142,846 (2023 est.)

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noun: Chinese (singular and plural)

adjective: Chinese

Ethnic groups

Han Chinese 91.1%, ethnic minorities 8.9% (includes Zhang, Hui, Manchu, Uighur, Miao, Yi, Tujia, Tibetan, Mongol, Dong, Buyei, Yao, Bai, Korean, Hani, Li, Kazakh, Dai, and other nationalities) (2021 est.)

note: the PRC officially recognizes 56 ethnic groups


Standard Chinese or Mandarin (official; Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry); note - Zhuang is official in Guangxi Zhuang, Yue is official in Guangdong, Mongolian is official in Nei Mongol, Uyghur is official in Xinjiang Uygur, Kyrgyz is official in Xinjiang Uyghur, and Tibetan is official in Xizang (Tibet)

major-language sample(s):
世界概況  –  不可缺少的基本消息來源 (Standard Chinese)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Mandarin audio sample

folk religion 21.9%, Buddhist 18.2%, Christian 5.1%, Muslim 1.8%, Hindu < 0.1%, Jewish < 0.1%, other 0.7% (includes Daoist (Taoist)), unaffiliated 52.1% (2021 est.)

note: officially atheist

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.48% (male 124,166,174/female 108,729,429)

15-64 years: 69.4% (male 504,637,819/female 476,146,909)

65 years and over: 14.11% (2023 est.) (male 92,426,805/female 107,035,710)

2023 population pyramid

total dependency ratio: 44.5

youth dependency ratio: 25.5

elderly dependency ratio: 19

potential support ratio: 5.3 (2021 est.)

note: data do not include Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan

Median age

total: 38.4 years

male: 37.5 years

female: 39.4 years (2020 est.)

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Population growth rate

0.18% (2023 est.)

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Birth rate

9.69 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

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Death rate

7.82 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

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Net migration rate

-0.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

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Population distribution

overwhelming majority of the population is found in the eastern half of the country; the west, with its vast mountainous and desert areas, remains sparsely populated; though ranked first in the world in total population, overall density is less than that of many other countries in Asia and Europe; high population density is found along the Yangtze and Yellow River valleys, the Xi Jiang River delta, the Sichuan Basin (around Chengdu), in and around Beijing, and the industrial area around Shenyang


urban population: 64.6% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.78% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

note: data do not include Hong Kong and Macau

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

29.211 million Shanghai, 21.766 million BEIJING (capital), 17.341 million Chongqing, 14.284 million Guangzhou, 14.239 million Tianjin, 13.073 million Shenzhen (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.14 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female

total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

23 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

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Infant mortality rate

total: 6.49 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 6.93 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 6.01 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

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Life expectancy at birth

total population: 78.23 years

male: 75.5 years

female: 81.2 years (2023 est.)

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Total fertility rate

1.45 children born/woman (2023 est.)

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Gross reproduction rate

0.69 (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

84.5% (2017)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 97.3% of population

rural: 91.5% of population

total: 95.1% of population

unimproved: urban: 2.7% of population

rural: 8.5% of population

total: 4.9% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

5.6% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

2.23 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

4.3 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 97.6% of population

rural: 90.6% of population

total: 94.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 2.4% of population

rural: 9.4% of population

total: 5.1% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, severe fever thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS)

soil contact diseases: hantaviral hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

6.2% (2016)

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Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 4.48 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 1.66 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.18 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 2.63 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

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Tobacco use

total: 25.6% (2020 est.)

male: 49.4% (2020 est.)

female: 1.7% (2020 est.)

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Children under the age of 5 years underweight

2.4% (2013)

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Currently married women (ages 15-49)

75.9% (2023 est.)

Education expenditures

3.6% of GDP (2020 est.)

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definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 96.8%

male: 98.5%

female: 95.2% (2018)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 14 years (2015)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 11.4%

male: 12.1%

female: 10.4% (2021 est.)

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People - note

in October 2015, the Chinese Government announced that it would change its rules to allow all couples to have two children, loosening a 1979 mandate that restricted many couples to one child; the new policy was implemented on 1 January 2016 to address China’s rapidly aging population and future economic needs

NOTE: The information regarding China on this page is re-published from the 2023 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of China 2023 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about China 2023 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 22 Aug 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.