Cuba People - 2023


GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES  Spanish Simplified Chinese French German Russian Hindi Arabic Portuguese


10,985,974 (2023 est.)


noun: Cuban(s)

adjective: Cuban

Ethnic groups

White 64.1%, Mulatto or mixed 26.6%, Black 9.3% (2012 est.)

note: data represent racial self-identification from Cuba's 2012 national census


Spanish (official)

major-language sample(s):
La Libreta Informativa del Mundo, la fuente indispensable de información básica. (Spanish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Spanish audio file:


Christian 58.9%, folk religion 17.6%, Buddhist <1%, Hindu <1%, Jewish <1%, Muslim <1%, other <1%, none 23.2% (2020 est.)

note: folk religions include religions of African origin, spiritualism, and others intermingled with Catholicism or Protestantism; data is estimative because no authoritative source on religious affiliation exists for Cuba

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.39% (male 926,457/female 874,347)

15-64 years: 66.81% (male 3,692,573/female 3,647,316)

65 years and over: 16.8% (2023 est.) (male 835,005/female 1,010,276)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 45.9

youth dependency ratio: 23.1

elderly dependency ratio: 22.9

potential support ratio: 4.4 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 42.1 years

male: 40.2 years

female: 43.8 years (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.19% (2023 est.)

Birth rate

9.99 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate

9.37 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate

-2.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution

large population clusters found throughout the country, the more significant ones being in the larger towns and cities, particularly the capital of Havana


urban population: 77.5% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.19% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

2.149 million HAVANA (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female

total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

39 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 4.07 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.58 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 79.87 years

male: 77.53 years

female: 82.35 years (2023 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.71 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

0.83 (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

69% (2019)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 98.9% of population

rural: 97% of population

total: 98.5% of population

unimproved: urban: 1.1% of population

rural: 3% of population

total: 1.5% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

12.5% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

8.42 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density

5.3 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 94.8% of population

rural: 87% of population

total: 93% of population

unimproved: urban: 5.2% of population

rural: 13% of population

total: 7% of population (2017 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: intermediate (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

24.6% (2016)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 4.7 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 1.77 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.23 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 2.69 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.01 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 17.9% (2020 est.)

male: 25.5% (2020 est.)

female: 10.3% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

2.4% (2019)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

58% (2023 est.)

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 4.8%

women married by age 18: 29.4%

men married by age 18: 5.9% (2019 est.)

Education expenditures



definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.7%

male: 99.6%

female: 99.7% (2021)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 13 years

female: 15 years (2021)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 7.4%

male: 7.6%

female: 7% (2021 est.)

People - note

illicit emigration is a continuing problem; Cubans attempt to depart the island and enter the US using homemade rafts, alien smugglers, direct flights, or falsified visas; Cubans also use non-maritime routes to enter the US including direct flights to Miami and overland via the southwest border; the number of Cubans migrating to the US surged after the announcement of normalization of US-Cuban relations in late December 2014 but has decreased since the end of the so-called "wet-foot, dry-foot" policy on 12 January 2017

NOTE: The information regarding Cuba on this page is re-published from the 2023 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Cuba 2023 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Cuba 2023 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 06 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.