Egypt Economy 2018, CIA World Factbook
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Egypt Economy 2018

SOURCE: 2018 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES











Egypt Economy 2018
SOURCE: 2018 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES


Page last updated on February 28, 2018

Economy - overview:
Occupying the northeast corner of the African continent, Egypt is bisected by the highly fertile Nile valley where most economic activity takes place. Egypt's economy was highly centralized during the rule of former President Gamal Abdel NASSER but opened up considerably under former Presidents Anwar EL-SADAT and Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK. Agriculture, hydrocarbons, manufacturing, tourism, and other service sectors drove the country’s relatively diverse economic activity.Despite Egypt’s mixed record for attracting foreign investment over the past two decades, poor living conditions and limited job opportunities have contributed to public discontent. These socioeconomic pressures were a major factor leading to the January 2011 revolution that ousted MUBARAK. The uncertain political, security, and policy environment since 2011 has restricted economic growth and failed to alleviate persistent unemployment, especially among the young.In late 2016, persistent dollar shortages and waning aid from its Gulf allies led Cairo to turn to the IMF for a 3-year, $12 billion loan program. To secure the deal, Cairo floated its currency, introduced new taxes, and cut energy subsidies - all of which pushed inflation above 30% for most of 2017, a high that had not been seen in a generation. Since the currency float, foreign investment in Egypt’s high interest treasury bills has risen exponentially, boosting both dollar availability and central bank reserves. Cairo will need to make a sustained effort to implement a range of business reforms, however, to induce foreign and local investment in manufacturing and other labor-intensive sectors.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$1.199 trillion (2017 est.) $1.152 trillion (2016 est.) $1.104 trillion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 22

GDP (official exchange rate):
$332.3 billion (2016 est.)
[see also: GDP (official exchange rate) country ranks ]

GDP - real growth rate:
4.1% (2017 est.) 4.3% (2016 est.) 4.4% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
[see also: GDP - real growth rate country ranks ]

GDP - per capita:
$13,000 (2017 est.) $12,800 (2016 est.) $12,400 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 119

Gross national saving:
9.7% of GDP (2017 est.) 9.1% of GDP (2016 est.) 10.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
[see also: Gross national saving country ranks ]

GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 79.2%
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - household consumption country ranks ]
government consumption: 12.2%
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - government consumption country ranks ]
investment in fixed capital: 17.3%
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - investment in fixed capital country ranks ]
investment in inventories: 1.3%
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - investment in inventories country ranks ]
exports of goods and services: 13.5%
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - exports of goods and services country ranks ]
imports of goods and services: -23.5% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - imports of goods and services country ranks ]

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 11.9%
[see also: GDP - composition, by sector of origin - agriculture country ranks ]
industry: 33.1%
[see also: GDP - composition, by sector of origin - industry country ranks ]
services: 55.7% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by sector of origin - services country ranks ]

Agriculture - products:
cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats

Industries:
textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures

Industrial production growth rate:
3.5% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
[see also: Industrial production growth rate country ranks ]

Labor force:
29.95 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
[see also: Labor force country ranks ]

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 29.2%
[see also: Labor force - by occupation - agriculture country ranks ]
industry: 23.5%
[see also: Labor force - by occupation - industry country ranks ]
services: 47.3% (2013 est.)
[see also: Labor force - by occupation - services country ranks ]

Unemployment rate:
12.2% (2017 est.) 12.7% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 156
[see also: Unemployment rate country ranks ]

Population below poverty line:
25.2% (2011 est.)
[see also: Population below poverty line country ranks ]

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4%
[see also: Household income or consumption by percentage share - lowest 10% country ranks ]
highest 10%: 26.6% (2008)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
30.8 (2008) 32.1 (2005)
country comparison to the world: 121
[see also: Distribution of family income - Gini index country ranks ]

Budget:
revenues: $35.54 billion
[see also: Budget - revenues country ranks ]
expenditures: $55.09 billion (2017 est.)
[see also: Budget - expenditures country ranks ]

Taxes and other revenues:
14.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 193
[see also: Taxes and other revenues country ranks ]

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-9.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 206
[see also: Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) country ranks ]

Public debt:
104.4% of GDP (2017 est.) 111.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: data cover central government debt and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions
country comparison to the world: 15
[see also: Public debt country ranks ]

Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
23.5% (2017 est.) 10.2% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 219
[see also: Inflation rate (consumer prices) country ranks ]

Central bank discount rate:
9.75% (30 October 2014) 8.75% (5 December 2013)
country comparison to the world: 25
[see also: Central bank discount rate country ranks ]

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
19.5% (31 December 2017 est.) 13.6% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
[see also: Commercial bank prime lending rate country ranks ]

Stock of narrow money:
$43.56 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $34.51 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
[see also: Stock of narrow money country ranks ]

Stock of broad money:
$196.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $146.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
[see also: Stock of broad money country ranks ]

Stock of domestic credit:
$194.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $178.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
[see also: Stock of domestic credit country ranks ]

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$55.19 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $70.08 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $61.63 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
[see also: Market value of publicly traded shares country ranks ]

Current account balance:
-$19.83 billion (2017 est.) -$19.83 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191
[see also: Current account balance country ranks ]

Exports:
$23.53 billion (2017 est.) $20.02 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
[see also: Exports country ranks ]

Exports - commodities:
crude oil and petroleum products, fruits and vegetables, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals, processed food

Exports - partners:
UAE 12.5%, Saudi Arabia 7.7%, Italy 6.5%, Turkey 6.3%, UK 4.6%, US 4.5% (2016)

Imports:
$53.02 billion (2017 est.) $56.71 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
[see also: Imports country ranks ]

Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels

Imports - partners:
China 12.9%, Germany 8.7%, US 5.3%, Italy 4.5%, Turkey 4.3%, Saudi Arabia 4.1% (2016)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$34.02 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $23.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
[see also: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold country ranks ]

Debt - external:
$76.31 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $62.38 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
[see also: Debt - external country ranks ]

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$103.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $97.14 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
[see also: Stock of direct foreign investment - at home country ranks ]

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$7.547 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $7.257 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
[see also: Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad country ranks ]

Exchange rates:
Egyptian pounds (EGP) per US dollar - 18.05 (2017 est.) 10.07 (2016 est.) 10.07 (2015 est.) 7.7133 (2014 est.) 7.08 (2013 est.)


NOTE: 1) The information regarding Egypt on this page is re-published from the 2018 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Egypt Economy 2018 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Egypt Economy 2018 should be addressed to the CIA.
2) The rank that you see is the CIA reported rank, which may habe the following issues:
  a) The assign increasing rank number, alphabetically for countries with the same value of the ranked item, whereas we assign them the same rank.
  b) The CIA sometimes assignes counterintuitive ranks. For example, it assigns unemployment rates in increasing order, whereas we rank them in decreasing order






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