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Eswatini Government 2019

SOURCE: 2019 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES











Eswatini Government 2019
SOURCE: 2019 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES


Page last updated on February 08, 2019

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Eswatini
conventional short form: Eswatini
local long form: Umbuso weSwatini
local short form: Eswatini
etymology: the country name derives from 19th century King MSWATI II, under whose rule Swazi territory was expanded and unified
note: pronounced ay-swatini

Government type:
constitutional monarchy

Capital:
name: Mbabane (administrative capital); Lobamba (royal and legislative capital)
geographic coordinates: 26 19 S, 31 08 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
4 regions; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini, Shiselweni

Independence:
6 September 1968 (from the UK)

National holiday:
Independence Day (Somhlolo Day), 6 September (1968)

Constitution:
history: previous 1968, 1978; latest signed by the king 26 July 2005, effective 8 February 2006 (2017)
amendments: proposed at a joint sitting of both houses of Parliament; passage requires majority vote by both houses and/or majority vote in a referendum, and assent by the king; passage of amendments affecting "specially entrenched" constitutional provisions requires at least three-fourths majority vote by both houses, passage by simple majority vote in a referendum, and assent by the king; passage of "entrenched" provisions requires at least two-thirds majority vote of both houses, passage in a referendum, and assent by the king (2017)

Legal system:
mixed legal system of civil, common, and customary law

International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Eswatini
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage:
18 years of age
[see also: Suffrage country ranks ]

Executive branch:
chief of state: King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986)
head of government: Prime Minister Ambrose Mandvulo DLAMINI (since 29 October 2018); Deputy Prime Minister Paul DLAMINI (since 2013)
cabinet: Cabinet recommended by the prime minister, confirmed by the monarch; at least one-half of the cabinet membership must be appointed from among elected members of the House of Assembly
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch from among members of the House of Assembly

Legislative branch:
description: bicameral Parliament (Libandla) consists of:
Senate (30 seats; 20 members appointed by the monarch and 10 indirectly elected by simple majority vote by the House of Assembly; members serve 5-year terms) House of Assembly (65 seats; 55 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies or tinkhundla by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed, 10 members appointed by the monarch; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 30 October 2013 (next to be held - NA)
House of Assembly - last held on 21 September 2018 (next to be held in 2023)
election results: Senate - percent of seats by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 20, women 10, percent of women 33.3%
House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - independent 59; composition - men 60, women 5, percent of women 7.7%; note - total Parliament percent of women 15.8%

Judicial branch:
highest courts: the Supreme Court of the Judicature comprising the Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and at least 6 justices) and the High Court (consists of the chief justice - ex officio - and at least 12 justices); note - the Supreme Court has jurisdiction in all constitutional matters
judge selection and term of office: justices of the Supreme Court of the Judicature appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission or JSC, a judicial advisory body consisting of the Supreme Court Chief Justice, 4 members appointed by the monarch, and the JSC head; justices of both courts eligible for retirement at age 65 with mandatory retirement at age 75 for Supreme Court justices and at age 70 for High Court justices
subordinate courts: magistrates' courts; National Swazi Courts for administering customary/traditional laws (jurisdiction restricted to customary law for Swazi citizens)
note: the national constitution as amended in 2006 shifted judicial power from the monarch and vested it exclusively in the judiciary

Political parties and leaders:
the status of political parties, previously banned, is unclear under the 2006 constitution; the following are considered political associations:
African United Democratic Party or AUDP [Sibusiso DLAMINI]
Ngwane National Liberatory Congress or NNLC [Dr. Alvit DLAMINI]
People's United Democratic Movement or PUDEMO [Mario MASUKU]
Swazi Democratic Party or SWADEPA [Jan SITHOLE]

International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Njabuliso Busisiwe Sikhulile GWEBU (since 24 April 2017)
chancery: 1712 New Hampshire Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5002
FAX: [1] (202) 234-8254

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lisa J. PETERSON (since February 2016)
embassy: corner of MR 103 and Cultural Center Drive, Ezulwini
mailing address: P.O. Box D202, The Gables, H106
telephone: [268] 2417-9000
FAX: [268] 2416-3344

Flag description:
three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue; the red band is edged in yellow; centered in the red band is a large black and white shield covering two spears and a staff decorated with feather tassels, all placed horizontally; blue stands for peace and stability, red represents past struggles, and yellow the mineral resources of the country; the shield, spears, and staff symbolize protection from the country's enemies, while the black and white of the shield are meant to portray black and white people living in peaceful coexistence

National symbol(s):
lion, elephant; national colors: blue, yellow, red

National anthem:
name: "Nkulunkulu Mnikati wetibusiso temaSwati" (Oh God, Bestower of the Blessings of the Swazi)
lyrics/music: Andrease Enoke Fanyana SIMELANE/David Kenneth RYCROFT
note: adopted 1968; uses elements of both ethnic Swazi and Western music styles


NOTE: 1) The information regarding Eswatini on this page is re-published from the 2019 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Eswatini Government 2019 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Eswatini Government 2019 should be addressed to the CIA.
2) The rank that you see is the CIA reported rank, which may habe the following issues:
  a) They assign increasing rank number, alphabetically for countries with the same value of the ranked item, whereas we assign them the same rank.
  b) The CIA sometimes assignes counterintuitive ranks. For example, it assigns unemployment rates in increasing order, whereas we rank them in decreasing order






This page was last modified 08-Feb-19
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