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Ghana PEOPLE 2018

SOURCE: 2018 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES











Ghana PEOPLE 2018
SOURCE: 2018 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES


Page last updated on February 28, 2018

Population:
27,499,924
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
[see also: Population country ranks ]

Nationality:
noun: Ghanaian(s)
adjective: Ghanaian

Ethnic groups:
Akan 47.5%, Mole-Dagbon 16.6%, Ewe 13.9%, Ga-Dangme 7.4%, Gurma 5.7%, Guan 3.7%, Grusi 2.5%, Mande 1.1%, other 1.4% (2010 est.)

Languages:
Asante 16%, Ewe 14%, Fante 11.6%, Boron (Brong) 4.9%, Dagomba 4.4%, Dangme 4.2%, Dagarte (Dagaba) 3.9%, Kokomba 3.5%, Akyem 3.2%, Ga 3.1%, other 31.2%
note: English is the official language (2010 est.)

Religions:
Christian 71.2% (Pentecostal/Charismatic 28.3%, Protestant 18.4%, Catholic 13.1%, other 11.4%), Muslim 17.6%, traditional 5.2%, other 0.8%, none 5.2% (2010 est.)

Demographic profile:
Ghana has a young age structure, with approximately 57% of the population under the age of 25. Its total fertility rate fell significantly during the 1980s and 1990s but has stalled at around four children per woman for the last few years. Fertility remains higher in the northern region than the Greater Accra region. On average, desired fertility has remained stable for several years; urban dwellers want fewer children than rural residents. Increased life expectancy, due to better health care, nutrition, and hygiene, and reduced fertility have increased Ghana’s share of elderly persons; Ghana’s proportion of persons aged 60+ is among the highest in sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty has declined in Ghana, but it remains pervasive in the northern region, which is susceptible to droughts and floods and has less access to transportation infrastructure, markets, fertile farming land, and industrial centers. The northern region also has lower school enrollment, higher illiteracy, and fewer opportunities for women. Ghana was a country of immigration in the early years after its 1957 independence, attracting labor migrants largely from Nigeria and other neighboring countries to mine minerals and harvest cocoa – immigrants composed about 12% of Ghana’s population in 1960. In the late 1960s, worsening economic and social conditions discouraged immigration, and hundreds of thousands of immigrants, mostly Nigerians, were expelled. During the 1970s, severe drought and an economic downturn transformed Ghana into a country of emigration; neighboring Cote d’Ivoire was the initial destination. Later, hundreds of thousands of Ghanaians migrated to Nigeria to work in its booming oil industry, but most were deported in 1983 and 1985 as oil prices plummeted. Many Ghanaians then turned to more distant destinations, including other parts of Africa, Europe, and North America, but the majority continued to migrate within West Africa. Since the 1990s, increased emigration of skilled Ghanaians, especially to the US and the UK, drained the country of its health care and education professionals. Internally, poverty and other developmental disparities continue to drive Ghanaians from the north to the south, particularly to its urban centers.

Age structure:
0-14 years: 38.01% (male 5,253,430/female 5,198,892)
[see also: Age structure - 0-14 years country ranks ]
15-24 years: 18.63% (male 2,548,661/female 2,575,160)
[see also: Age structure - 15-24 years country ranks ]
25-54 years: 34.14% (male 4,554,972/female 4,834,765)
[see also: Age structure - 25-54 years country ranks ]
55-64 years: 4.97% (male 664,866/female 701,277)
[see also: Age structure - 55-64 years country ranks ]
65 years and over: 4.25% (male 538,790/female 629,111) (2017 est.)

population pyramid:
A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page under the References tab.

Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 73
[see also: Dependency ratios - total dependency ratio country ranks ]
youth dependency ratio: 67.1
[see also: Dependency ratios - youth dependency ratio country ranks ]
elderly dependency ratio: 5.9
[see also: Dependency ratios - elderly dependency ratio country ranks ]
potential support ratio: 17.1 (2015 est.)
[see also: Dependency ratios - potential support ratio country ranks ]

Median age:
total: 21.1 years
[see also: Median age - total country ranks ]
male: 20.6 years
[see also: Median age - male country ranks ]
female: 21.6 years (2017 est.)
[see also: Median age - female country ranks ]
country comparison to the world: 185

Population growth rate:
2.17% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
[see also: Population growth rate country ranks ]

Birth rate:
30.5 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
[see also: Birth rate country ranks ]

Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
[see also: Death rate country ranks ]

Net migration rate:
-1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
[see also: Net migration rate country ranks ]

Population distribution:
population is concentrated in the southern half of the country, with the highest concentrations being on or near the Atlantic coast

Urbanization:
urban population: 55.3% of total population (2017)
[see also: Urbanization - urban population country ranks ]
rate of urbanization: 3.07% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
[see also: Urbanization - rate of urbanization country ranks ]

Major urban areas - population:
Kumasi 2.599 million; ACCRA (capital) 2.277 million (2015)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
[see also: Sex ratio - at birth country ranks ]
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
[see also: Sex ratio - 0-14 years country ranks ]
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
[see also: Sex ratio - 15-24 years country ranks ]
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
[see also: Sex ratio - 25-54 years country ranks ]
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
[see also: Sex ratio - 55-64 years country ranks ]
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
[see also: Sex ratio - 65 years and over country ranks ]
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
[see also: Sex ratio - total population country ranks ]

Mother's mean age at first birth:
22.6 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio:
319 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
[see also: Maternal mortality ratio country ranks ]

Infant mortality rate:
total: 35.2 deaths/1,000 live births
[see also: Infant mortality rate - total country ranks ]
male: 39.1 deaths/1,000 live births
[see also: Infant mortality rate - male country ranks ]
female: 31.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
[see also: Infant mortality rate - female country ranks ]
country comparison to the world: 53

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 67 years
[see also: Life expectancy at birth - total population country ranks ]
male: 64.5 years
[see also: Life expectancy at birth - male country ranks ]
female: 69.6 years (2017 est.)
[see also: Life expectancy at birth - female country ranks ]
country comparison to the world: 172
[See also: Healthy Life Expectancy ]
[See also: Health Performance ]

Total fertility rate:
4 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
[see also: Total fertility rate country ranks ]

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
30.6% (2016)
[see also: Contraceptive prevalence rate country ranks ]

Health expenditures:
3.6% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 168
[see also: Health expenditures country ranks ]

Physicians density:
0.1 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
[see also: Physicians density country ranks ]

Hospital bed density:
0.9 beds/1,000 population (2011)
[see also: Hospital bed density country ranks ]

Drinking water source:
improved: urban: 92.6% of population rural: 84% of population total: 88.7% of population
unimproved: urban: 7.4% of population rural: 16% of population total: 11.3% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
improved: urban: 20.2% of population rural: 8.6% of population total: 14.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 79.8% of population rural: 91.4% of population total: 85.1% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
1.6% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
[see also: HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate country ranks ]

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
290,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
[see also: HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS country ranks ]

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
15,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
[see also: HIV/AIDS - deaths country ranks ]

Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
10.9% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 136
[see also: Obesity - adult prevalence rate country ranks ]

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
11% (2014)
country comparison to the world: 55
[see also: Children under the age of 5 years underweight country ranks ]

Education expenditures:
6.2% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 13

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 76.6%
[see also: Literacy - total population country ranks ]
male: 82%
[see also: Literacy - male country ranks ]
female: 71.4% (2015 est.)
[see also: Literacy - female country ranks ]

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 12 years
[see also: School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) - total country ranks ]
male: 12 years
[see also: School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) - male country ranks ]
female: 12 years (2015)
[see also: School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) - female country ranks ]

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 11.2%
[see also: Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 - total country ranks ]
male: 10.2%
[see also: Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 - male country ranks ]
female: 12% (2010 est.)
[see also: Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 - female country ranks ]
country comparison to the world: 115


NOTE: 1) The information regarding Ghana on this page is re-published from the 2018 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Ghana PEOPLE 2018 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Ghana PEOPLE 2018 should be addressed to the CIA.
2) The rank that you see is the CIA reported rank, which may habe the following issues:
  a) The assign increasing rank number, alphabetically for countries with the same value of the ranked item, whereas we assign them the same rank.
  b) The CIA sometimes assignes counterintuitive ranks. For example, it assigns unemployment rates in increasing order, whereas we rank them in decreasing order






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