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Mauritania PEOPLE 2017
https://theodora.com/wfbcurrent/mauritania/mauritania_people.html
SOURCE: 2017 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES











Mauritania PEOPLE 2017
SOURCE: 2017 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES


Page last updated on January 12, 2017

Population:
3,677,293 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
[see also: Population country ranks ]

Nationality:
noun: Mauritanian(s)
adjective: Mauritanian

Ethnic groups:
black Moors (Haratines - Arab-speaking slaves, former slaves, and their descendants of African origin, enslaved by white Moors) 40%, white Moors (of Arab-Berber descent, known as Bidhan) 30%, black Africans (non-Arabic speaking, Halpulaar, Soninke, Wolof, and Bamara ethnic groups) 30%

Languages:
Arabic (official and national), Pulaar, Soninke, Wolof (all national languages), French
note: the spoken Arabic in Mauritania differs considerably from the modern standard Arabic used for official written purposes or in the media; the Mauritanian dialect, which incorporates many Berber words, is referred to as Hassaniya

Religions:
Muslim (official) 100%

Demographic profile:
With a sustained total fertility rate of about 4 children per woman and almost 60% of the population under the age of 25, Mauritania’s population is likely to continue growing for the foreseeable future. Mauritania’s large youth cohort is vital to its development prospects, but available schooling does not adequately prepare students for the workplace. Girls continue to be underrepresented in the classroom, educational quality remains poor, and the dropout rate is high. The literacy rate is only about 50%, even though access to primary education has improved since the mid-2000s. Women’s restricted access to education and discriminatory laws maintain gender inequality – worsened by early and forced marriages and female genital cutting. The denial of education to black Moors also helps to perpetuate slavery. Although Mauritania abolished slavery in 1981 (the last country in the world to do so) and made it a criminal offense in 2007, the millenniums-old practice persists largely because anti-slavery laws are rarely enforced and the custom is so ingrained. Up to 20% of Mauritania’s population is estimated to be enslaved, the highest rate worldwide. Drought, poverty, and unemployment have driven outmigration from Mauritania since the 1970s. Early flows were directed toward other West African countries, including Senegal, Mali, Cote d’Ivoire, and Gambia. The 1989 Mauritania-Senegal conflict forced thousands of black Mauritanians to take refuge in Senegal and pushed labor migrants toward the Gulf, Libya, and Europe in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Mauritania has accepted migrants from neighboring countries to fill labor shortages since its independence in 1960 and more recently has received refugees escaping civil wars, including tens of thousands of Tuaregs who fled Mali in 2012. Mauritania was an important transit point for sub-Saharan migrants moving illegally to North Africa and Europe. In the mid-2000s, as border patrols increased in the Strait of Gibraltar, security increased around Spain’s North African enclaves (Ceuta and Melilla), and Moroccan border controls intensified, illegal migration flows shifted from the Western Mediterranean to Spain’s Canary Islands. In 2006, departure points moved southward along the West African coast from Morocco and Western Sahara to Mauritania’s two key ports (Nouadhibou and the capital Nouakchott), and illegal migration to the Canaries peaked at almost 32,000. The numbers fell dramatically in the following years because of joint patrolling off the West African coast by Frontex (the EU’s border protection agency), Spain, Mauritania, and Senegal; the expansion of Spain’s border surveillance system; and the 2008 European economic downturn.

Age structure:
0-14 years: 38.87% (male 717,790/female 711,694)
[see also: Age structure 0-14 years country ranks ]
15-24 years: 19.86% (male 357,460/female 372,744)
[see also: Age structure 15-24 years country ranks ]
25-54 years: 32.96% (male 561,341/female 650,580)
[see also: Age structure 25-54 years country ranks ]
55-64 years: 4.61% (male 76,372/female 93,065)
[see also: Age structure 55-64 years country ranks ]
65 years and over: 3.71% (male 57,814/female 78,433) (2016 est.)
[see also: Age structure 65 years and over country ranks ]
population pyramid:
A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page under the References tab.

Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 76.1%
[see also: Dependency ratios - total dependency ratio country ranks ]
youth dependency ratio: 70.5%
[see also: Dependency ratios - youth dependency ratio country ranks ]
elderly dependency ratio: 5.7%
[see also: Dependency ratios - elderly dependency ratio country ranks ]
potential support ratio: 17.7% (2015 est.)
[see also: Dependency ratios - potential support ratio country ranks ]

Median age:
total: 20.3 years
[see also: Median age - total country ranks ]
male: 19.3 years
[see also: Median age - male country ranks ]
female: 21.2 years (2016 est.)
[see also: Median age - female country ranks ]
country comparison to the world: 189

Population growth rate:
2.2% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
[see also: Population growth rate country ranks ]

Birth rate:
30.9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
[see also: Birth rate country ranks ]

Death rate:
8.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
[see also: Death rate country ranks ]

Net migration rate:
-0.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
[see also: Net migration rate country ranks ]

Population distribution:
with most of the country being a desert, vast areas of the country, particularly in the central, northern, and eastern areas, are without sizeable population clusters; half the population lives in or around the coastal capital of Nouakchott; smaller clusters are found near the southern border with Mali and Senegal

Urbanization:
urban population: 59.9% of total population (2015)
[see also: Urbanization - urban population country ranks ]
rate of urbanization: 3.54% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
[see also: Urbanization - rate of urbanization country ranks ]

Major urban areas - population:
NOUAKCHOTT (capital) 968,000 (2015)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
[see also: Sex ratio - at birth country ranks ]
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
[see also: Sex ratio - 0-14 years country ranks ]
15-24 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
[see also: Sex ratio - 15-24 years country ranks ]
25-54 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
[see also: Sex ratio - 25-54 years country ranks ]
55-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
[see also: Sex ratio - 55-64 years country ranks ]
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
[see also: Sex ratio - 65 years and over country ranks ]
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
602 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
[see also: Maternal mortality rate country ranks ]

Infant mortality rate:
total: 53.3 deaths/1,000 live births
[see also: Infant mortality rate - total country ranks ]
male: 58.1 deaths/1,000 live births
[see also: Infant mortality rate - male country ranks ]
female: 48.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
[see also: Infant mortality rate - female country ranks ]
country comparison to the world: 28

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63 years
[see also: Life expectancy at birth - total country ranks ]
male: 60.7 years
[see also: Life expectancy at birth - male country ranks ]
female: 65.4 years (2016 est.)
[see also: Life expectancy at birth - female country ranks ]
country comparison to the world: 192

Total fertility rate:
3.93 children born/woman (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
[see also: Total fertility rate country ranks ]

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
9.3% (2007)
[see also: Contraceptive prevalence rate country ranks ]

Health expenditures:
3.8% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 100
[see also: Health expenditures country ranks ]

Physicians density:
0.13 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
[see also: Physicians density country ranks ]

Hospital bed density:
0.4 beds/1,000 population (2006)
[see also: Hospital bed density country ranks ]

Drinking water source:
improved: urban: 58.4% of population rural: 57.1% of population total: 57.9% of population
[see also: Drinking water source - Improved - total country ranks ]
unimproved: urban: 41.6% of population rural: 42.9% of population total: 42.1% of population (2015 est.)
[see also: Drinking water source - Unimproved - total country ranks ]

Sanitation facility access:
improved: urban: 57.5% of population rural: 13.8% of population total: 40% of population
[see also: Sanitation facility access - Total Improved country ranks ]
unimproved: urban: 42.5% of population rural: 86.2% of population total: 60% of population (2015 est.)
[see also: Sanitation facility access - Total UnImproved country ranks ]

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.57% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
[see also: HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate country ranks ]

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
13,700 (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
[see also: HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS country ranks ]

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
1,000 (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
[see also: HIV/AIDS - deaths country ranks ]

Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
8.6% (2014)
country comparison to the world: 127
[see also: Obesity - adult prevalence rate country ranks ]

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
19.5% (2012)
country comparison to the world: 32
[see also: Children under the age of 5 years underweight country ranks ]

Education expenditures:
2.9% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 120
[see also: Education expenditures - percent of GDP country ranks ]

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 52.1%
[see also: Literacy - total country ranks ]
male: 62.6%
[see also: Literacy - male country ranks ]
female: 41.6% (2015 est.)
[see also: Literacy - female country ranks ]

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 8 years
[see also: School life expectancy - total country ranks ]
male: 9 years
[see also: School life expectancy - male country ranks ]
female: 8 years (2013)
[see also: School life expectancy - female country ranks ]

Child labor - children ages 5-14:
total number: 127,251
[see also: Child labor - children ages 5-14 - total number country ranks ]
percentage: 16% (2007 est.)


[see also: Child labor - children ages 5-14 - percentage country ranks ]


NOTE: The information regarding Mauritania on this page is re-published from the 2017 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Mauritania PEOPLE 2017 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Mauritania PEOPLE 2017 should be addressed to the CIA.




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