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Mexico Geography 2019

SOURCE: 2019 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES











Mexico Geography 2019
SOURCE: 2019 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES


Page last updated on February 08, 2019

Location:
North America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, between Belize and the United States and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and the United States

Geographic coordinates:
23 00 N, 102 00 W

Map references:
North America

Area:
total: 1,964,375 sq km
[see also: Area - total country ranks ]
land: 1,943,945 sq km
[see also: Area - land country ranks ]
water: 20,430 sq km
[see also: Area - water country ranks ]
country comparison to the world: 15

Area - comparative:
slightly less than three times the size of Texas


Area comparison map:Area comparison map

slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 4,389 km
[see also: Land boundaries - total country ranks ]
border countries (3): Belize 276 km, Guatemala 958 km, US 3155 km

Coastline:
9,330 km
[see also: Coastline country ranks ]

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
[see also: Maritime claims - territorial sea country ranks ]
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
[see also: Maritime claims - exclusive economic zone country ranks ]
contiguous zone: 24 nm
[see also: Maritime claims - contiguous zone country ranks ]
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
[see also: Maritime claims - continental shelf country ranks ]

Climate:
varies from tropical to desert
More Climate Details

Terrain:
high, rugged mountains; low coastal plains; high plateaus; desert

Elevation:
mean elevation: 1,111 m
[see also: Elevation - mean elevation country ranks ]
elevation extremes: -10 m lowest point: Laguna Salada
5636 highest point: Volcan Pico de Orizaba

Natural resources:
petroleum, silver, antimony, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber

Land use:
agricultural land: 54.9% (2011 est.)
[see also: Land use - agricultural land country ranks ]
arable land: 11.8% (2011 est.)
[see also: Land use - arable land country ranks ]
permanent crops: 1.4% (2011 est.)
[see also: Land use - permanent crops country ranks ]
permanent pasture: 41.7% (2011 est.)
[see also: Land use - permanent pasture country ranks ]
forest: 33.3% (2011 est.)
[see also: Land use - forest country ranks ]
other: 11.8% (2011 est.)
[see also: Land use - other country ranks ]

Irrigated land:
65,000 sq km (2012)
[see also: Irrigated land country ranks ]

Population distribution:
most of the population is found in the middle of the country between the states of Jalisco and Veracruz; approximately a quarter of the population lives in and around Mexico City

Natural hazards:
tsunamis along the Pacific coast, volcanoes and destructive earthquakes in the center and south, and hurricanes on the Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coasts

volcanism: volcanic activity in the central-southern part of the country; the volcanoes in Baja California are mostly dormant; Colima (3,850 m), which erupted in 2010, is Mexico's most active volcano and is responsible for causing periodic evacuations of nearby villagers; it has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Popocatepetl (5,426 m) poses a threat to Mexico City; other historically active volcanoes include Barcena, Ceboruco, El Chichon, Michoacan-Guanajuato, Pico de Orizaba, San Martin, Socorro, and Tacana; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

Environment - current issues:
scarcity of hazardous waste disposal facilities; rural to urban migration; natural freshwater resources scarce and polluted in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast; raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas; deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification; deteriorating agricultural lands; serious air and water pollution in the national capital and urban centers along US-Mexico border; land subsidence in Valley of Mexico caused by groundwater depletion
note: the government considers the lack of clean water and deforestation national security issues

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

note 1: strategic location on southern border of US; corn (maize), one of the world's major grain crops, almost certainly originated in Mexico

note 2: Mexico is one of the countries along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire

note 3: the prominent Yucatan Peninsula that divides the Gulf of Mexico from the Caribbean Sea is shared by Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize; just on the northern coast of Yucatan, near the town of Chicxulub (pronounce cheek-sha-loob), lie the remnants of a massive crater (some 150 km in diameter and extending well out into the Gulf of Mexico); formed by an asteroid or comet when it struck the earth 66 million years ago, the impact is now widely accepted as initiating a worldwide climate disruption that caused a mass extinction of 75% of all the earth's plant and animal species - including the non-avian dinosaurs


NOTE: 1) The information regarding Mexico on this page is re-published from the 2019 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Mexico Geography 2019 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Mexico Geography 2019 should be addressed to the CIA.
2) The rank that you see is the CIA reported rank, which may habe the following issues:
  a) They assign increasing rank number, alphabetically for countries with the same value of the ranked item, whereas we assign them the same rank.
  b) The CIA sometimes assignes counterintuitive ranks. For example, it assigns unemployment rates in increasing order, whereas we rank them in decreasing order






This page was last modified 08-Feb-19
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