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Mongolia Economy 2019

SOURCE: 2019 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES











Mongolia Economy 2019
SOURCE: 2019 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES


Page last updated on February 08, 2019

Economy - overview:
Foreign direct investment in Mongolia's extractive industries – which are based on extensive deposits of copper, gold, coal, molybdenum, fluorspar, uranium, tin, and tungsten - has transformed Mongolia's landlocked economy from its traditional dependence on herding and agriculture. Exports now account for more than 40% of GDP. Mongolia depends on China for more than 60% of its external trade - China receives some 90% of Mongolia's exports and supplies Mongolia with more than one-third of its imports. Mongolia also relies on Russia for 90% of its energy supplies, leaving it vulnerable to price increases. Remittances from Mongolians working abroad, particularly in South Korea, are significant.

Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990 and 1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. The following decade saw Mongolia endure both deep recession, because of political inaction, and natural disasters, as well as strong economic growth, because of market reforms and extensive privatization of the formerly state-run economy. The country opened a fledgling stock exchange in 1991. Mongolia joined the WTO in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade regimes.

Growth averaged nearly 9% per year in 2004-08 largely because of high copper prices globally and new gold production. By late 2008, Mongolia was hit by the global financial crisis and Mongolia's real economy contracted 1.3% in 2009. In early 2009, the IMF reached a $236 million Stand-by Arrangement with Mongolia and it emerged from the crisis with a stronger banking sector and better fiscal management. In October 2009, Mongolia passed long-awaited legislation on an investment agreement to develop the Oyu Tolgoi (OT) mine, among the world's largest untapped copper-gold deposits. However, a dispute with foreign investors developing OT called into question the attractiveness of Mongolia as a destination for foreign investment. This caused a severe drop in FDI, and a slowing economy, leading to the dismissal of Prime Minister Norovyn ALTANKHUYAG in November 2014. The economy had grown more than 10% per year between 2011 and 2013 - largely on the strength of commodity exports and high government spending - before slowing to 7.8% in 2014, and falling to the 2% level in 2015. Growth rebounded from a brief 1.6% contraction in the third quarter of 2016 to 5.8% during the first three quarters of 2017, largely due to rising commodity prices.

The May 2015 agreement with Rio Tinto to restart the OT mine and the subsequent $4.4 billion finance package signing in December 2015 stemmed the loss of investor confidence. The current government has made restoring investor trust and reviving the economy its top priority, but has failed to invigorate the economy in the face of the large drop-off in foreign direct investment, mounting external debt, and a sizeable budget deficit. Mongolia secured a $5.5 billion financial assistance package from the IMF and a host of international creditors in May 2017, which is expected to improve Mongolia’s long-term fiscal and economic stability as long as Ulaanbaatar can advance the agreement’s difficult contingent reforms, such as consolidating the government’s off-balance sheet liabilities and rehabilitating the Mongolian banking sector.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$39.73 billion (2017 est.)
$37.81 billion (2016 est.)
$37.38 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 120
[see also: GDP country ranks ]

GDP (official exchange rate):
$11.14 billion (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP (official exchange rate) country ranks ]

GDP - real growth rate:
5.1% (2017 est.)
1.2% (2016 est.)
2.4% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
[see also: GDP - real growth rate country ranks ]

GDP - per capita:
$13,000 (2017 est.)
$12,500 (2016 est.)
$12,600 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 120
[see also: GDP - per capita country ranks ]

Gross national saving:
26.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
23.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
22.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
[see also: Gross national saving country ranks ]

GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 49.2% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - household consumption country ranks ]
government consumption: 12.3% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - government consumption country ranks ]
investment in fixed capital: 23.8% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - investment in fixed capital country ranks ]
investment in inventories: 12.4% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - investment in inventories country ranks ]
exports of goods and services: 59.5% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - exports of goods and services country ranks ]
imports of goods and services: -57.1% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - imports of goods and services country ranks ]

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 12.1% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by sector of origin - agriculture country ranks ]
industry: 38.2% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by sector of origin - industry country ranks ]
services: 49.7% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by sector of origin - services country ranks ]

Agriculture - products:
wheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses

Industries:
construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing

Industrial production growth rate:
-1% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
[see also: Industrial production growth rate country ranks ]

Labor force:
1.241 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
[see also: Labor force country ranks ]

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 31.1%
[see also: Labor force - by occupation - agriculture country ranks ]
industry: 18.5%
[see also: Labor force - by occupation - industry country ranks ]
services: 50.5% (2016)
[see also: Labor force - by occupation - services country ranks ]

Unemployment rate:
8% (2017 est.)
7.9% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
[see also: Unemployment rate country ranks ]

Population below poverty line:
29.6% (2016 est.)
[see also: Population below poverty line country ranks ]

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 13.7%
[see also: Household income or consumption by percentage share - lowest 10% country ranks ]
highest 10%: 5.7% (2017)
[see also: Household income or consumption by percentage share - highest 10% country ranks ]

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
34 (2017)
36.5 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 104
[see also: Distribution of family income - Gini index country ranks ]

Budget:
revenues: 2.967 billion (2017 est.)
[see also: Budget - revenues country ranks ]
expenditures: 3.681 billion (2017 est.)
[see also: Budget - expenditures country ranks ]

Taxes and other revenues:
26.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
[see also: Taxes and other revenues country ranks ]

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-6.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
[see also: Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) country ranks ]

Public debt:
91.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
90% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
[see also: Public debt country ranks ]

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.6% (2017 est.)
0.5% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169
[see also: Inflation rate (consumer prices) country ranks ]

Central bank discount rate:
11% (25 December 2017)
14% (19 December 2016)
country comparison to the world: 19
[see also: Central bank discount rate country ranks ]

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
20.01% (31 December 2017 est.)
19.74% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
[see also: Commercial bank prime lending rate country ranks ]

Stock of narrow money:
$1.164 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$862.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
[see also: Stock of narrow money country ranks ]

Stock of broad money:
$1.164 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$862.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
[see also: Stock of broad money country ranks ]

Stock of domestic credit:
$7.542 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.312 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
[see also: Stock of domestic credit country ranks ]

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$632.6 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$766.1 million (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.095 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
[see also: Market value of publicly traded shares country ranks ]

Current account balance:
-$1.155 billion (2017 est.)
-$700 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
[see also: Current account balance country ranks ]

Exports:
$5.834 billion (2017 est.)
$4.916 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
[see also: Exports country ranks ]

Exports - partners:
China 85%, UK 10.7% (2017)

Exports - commodities:
copper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals, coal, crude oil

Imports:
$4.345 billion (2017 est.)
$3.466 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
[see also: Imports country ranks ]

Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, cigarettes and tobacco, appliances, soap and detergent

Imports - partners:
China 32.6%, Russia 28.1%, Japan 8.4%, US 4.8%, South Korea 4.6% (2017)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$3.016 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.296 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
[see also: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold country ranks ]

Debt - external:
$25.33 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$24.63 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
[see also: Debt - external country ranks ]

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$18.02 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$16.28 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
[see also: Stock of direct foreign investment - at home country ranks ]

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$495 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$455.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
[see also: Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad country ranks ]

Exchange rates:
togrog/tugriks (MNT) per US dollar -
2,378.1 (2017 est.)
2,140.3 (2016 est.)
2,140.3 (2015 est.)
1,970.3 (2014 est.)
1,817.9 (2013 est.)


NOTE: 1) The information regarding Mongolia on this page is re-published from the 2019 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Mongolia Economy 2019 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Mongolia Economy 2019 should be addressed to the CIA.
2) The rank that you see is the CIA reported rank, which may habe the following issues:
  a) They assign increasing rank number, alphabetically for countries with the same value of the ranked item, whereas we assign them the same rank.
  b) The CIA sometimes assignes counterintuitive ranks. For example, it assigns unemployment rates in increasing order, whereas we rank them in decreasing order






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