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Montenegro Government - 2024


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Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Montenegro

local long form: none

local short form: Crna Gora

former: People's Republic of Montenegro, Socialist Republic of Montenegro, Republic of Montenegro

etymology: the country's name locally as well as in most Western European languages means "black mountain" and refers to the dark coniferous forests on Mount Lovcen and the surrounding area

Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Podgorica; note - Cetinje retains the status of "Old Royal Capital"

geographic coordinates: 42 26 N, 19 16 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the name translates as "beneath Gorica"; the meaning of Gorica is "hillock"; the reference is to the small hill named Gorica that the city is built around

Administrative divisions

25 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina); Andrijevica, Bar, Berane, Bijelo Polje, Budva, Cetinje, Danilovgrad, Gusinje, Herceg Novi, Kolasin, Kotor, Mojkovac, Niksic, Petnjica, Plav, Pljevlja, Pluzine, Podgorica, Rozaje, Savnik, Tivat, Tuzi, Ulcinj, Zabljak, Zeta


3 June 2006 (from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro); notable earlier dates: 13 March 1852 (Principality of Montenegro established); 13 July 1878 (Congress of Berlin recognizes Montenegrin independence); 28 August 1910 (Kingdom of Montenegro established)

National holiday

Statehood Day, 13 July (1878, the day the Berlin Congress recognized Montenegro as the 27th independent state in the world, and 1941, the day the Montenegrins staged an uprising against fascist occupiers and sided with the partisan communist movement)


history: several previous; latest adopted 22 October 2007

amendments: proposed by the president of Montenegro, by the government, or by at least 25 members of the Assembly; passage of draft proposals requires two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly, followed by a public hearing; passage of draft amendments requires two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly; changes to certain constitutional articles, such as sovereignty, state symbols, citizenship, and constitutional change procedures, require three-fifths majority vote in a referendum; amended 2013

Legal system

civil law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Montenegro

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Jakov MILATOVIC (since 20 May 2023)

head of government: Prime Minister Milojko SPAJIC (since 31 October 2023)

cabinet: ministers act as cabinet

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 19 March 2023 with a runoff on 2 April 2023 (next to be held in 2028); prime minister nominated by the president, approved by the Assembly

election results:
Jakov MILATOVIC elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Milo DUKANOVIC (DPS) 35.4%, Jakov MILATOVIC (Europe Now!) 28.9%, Andrija MANDIC (DF) 19.3%, Aleksa BECIC (DCG) 11.1%, other 5.3%; percent of vote in second round - Jakov MILATOVIC 58.9%, Milo DUKANOVIC 41.1%

Milo DJUKANOVIC elected president in first round; percent of vote - Milo DJUKANOVIC (DPS) 53.9%, Mladen BOJANIC (independent) 33.4%, Draginja VUKSANOVIC (SDP) 8.2%, Marko MILACIC (PRAVA) 2.8%, other 1.7%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly or Skupstina (81 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 11 June 2023 (next to be held in June 2027)

election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - Europe Now! 25.5%, Together! 23.2%, For the Future of Montenegro 14.7%, Aleksa and Dritan - Count Bravely 12.5%, BP 7.1%, SNP-DEMOS 3.1%, Albanian Forum 1.9%, HGI 0.7%; seats by party/coalition Europe Now! 24, Together! 21, For the Future of Montenegro 13, Aleksa and Dritan - Count Bravely 11, BP 6, SNP-DEMOS 2, Albanian Forum 2, Albanian Alliance 1, HGI 1; composition - as of October 2023 - men 64, women 17, percent of women 21%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Vrhovni Sud (consists of the court president, deputy president, and 15 judges); Constitutional Court or Ustavni Sud (consists of the court president and 7 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president proposed by general session of the Supreme Court and elected by the Judicial Council, a 9-member body consisting of judges, lawyers designated by the Assembly, and the minister of judicial affairs; Supreme Court president elected for a single renewable, 5-year term; other judges elected by the Judicial Council for life; Constitutional Court judges - 2 proposed by the president of Montenegro and 5 by the Assembly, and elected by the Assembly; court president elected from among the court members; court president elected for a 3-year term, other judges serve 9-year terms

subordinate courts: Administrative Courts; Appellate Court; Commercial Courts; High Courts; basic courts

Political parties and leaders

Albanian Alliance (electoral coalition includes FORCA, PD, DSCG)
Albanian Alternative or AA [Nik DELJOSAJ]
Albanian Democratic League or LDSH [Nicola CAMAJ]
Albanian Forum (electoral coalition includes AA, LDSH, UDSH)
Aleksa and Dritan - Count Bravely! [Aleksa BECIC] (electoral coalition includes Democrats, URA)
Bosniak Party or BS [Ervin IBRAHIMOVIC]
Civic Movement United Reform Action or United Reform Action or URA [Dritan ABAZOVIC]
Croatian Civic Initiative or HGI [Adrian VUKSANOVIC]
Democratic Alliance or DEMOS [Miodrag LEKIC]
Democratic League in Montenegro or DSCG [Mehmet BARDHI]
Democratic Montenegro or Democrats [Aleksa BECIC]
Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS [Danijel ZIVKOVIC, acting]
Democratic People's Party or DNP [Milan KNEZEVIC]
Democratic Union of Albanians or UDSH [Mehmet ZENKA]
Europe Now! [Milojko SPAJIC]
For the Future of Montenegro or ZBCG [Milan KNEZEVIC] (coalition includes NSD, DNP, RP)
Liberal Party or LP [Andrija POPOVIC]
New Democratic Power or FORCA [Nazif CUNGU]
New Serb Democracy or NSD or NOVA [Andrija MANDIC]
Social Democrats or SD [Damir SEHOVIC]
Socialist People's Party or SNP [Vladimir JOKOVIC]
Together! (electoral coalition includes DPS, SD, LP, UDSH)
United Montenegro or UCG [Goran DANILOVIC] (split from DEMOS)
Workers' Party or RP [Maksim VUCINIC]

International organization participation


note: Montenegro is an EU candidate country whose satisfactory completion of accession criteria is required before being granted full EU membership

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chargé d'Affaires Linda CAMAJ (since 7 December 2023)

chancery: 1610 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC, 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 234-6108

FAX: [1] (202) 234-6109

email address and website:

United States of America - Embassies and consulates of Montenegro and visa regimes for foreign citizens (

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Judy Rising REINKE (since 20 December 2018)

embassy: Dzona Dzeksona 2, 81000 Podgorica

mailing address: 5570 Podgorica Place, Washington DC  20521-5570

telephone: [382] (0) 20-410-500

FAX: [382]  (0) 20-241-358

email address and website:

Flag description

a red field bordered by a narrow golden-yellow stripe with the Montenegrin coat of arms centered; the arms consist of a double-headed golden eagle - symbolizing the unity of church and state - surmounted by a crown; the eagle holds a golden scepter in its right claw and a blue orb in its left; the breast shield over the eagle shows a golden lion passant on a green field in front of a blue sky; the lion is a symbol of episcopal authority and harkens back to the three and a half centuries when Montenegro was ruled as a theocracy

National symbol(s)

double-headed eagle; national colors: red, gold

National anthem

name: "Oj, svijetla majska zoro" (Oh, Bright Dawn of May)

lyrics/music: Sekula DRLJEVIC/unknown, arranged by Zarko MIKOVIC

note: adopted 2004; music based on a Montenegrin folk song

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 4 (3 cultural, 1 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor (c); Durmitor National Park (n); Stećci Medieval Tombstones Graveyards (c); Fortified City of Kotor Venetian Defense Works (c)

NOTE: The information regarding Montenegro on this page is re-published from the 2024 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Montenegro 2024 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Montenegro 2024 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 04 May 24, Copyright © 2024 ITA all rights reserved.