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Mozambique Issues - 2024


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Disputes - international

Mozambique-Eswatini: none identified

Mozambique-Malawi:  the two countries have held exercises to reaffirm boundaries a number of times

Mozambique-South Africa: South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration

Mozambique-Tanzania: none identified

Mozambique-Zambia: none identified

Mozambique-Zimbabwe: none identified

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 10,655 (Burundi) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2023); 9,325 (Democratic Republic of Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2024)

IDPs: 850,599 (north Mozambique, violence between the government and an opposition group, violence associated with extremists groups in 2018, political violence 2019) (2023)

Trafficking in persons

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List — Mozambique does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so; the government increased investigations and prosecutions, trained law enforcement and front-line officials, published and disseminated draft standard operating procedures (SOPs) for victim referral and care and raising public awareness; officials convened government and civil society stakeholders and coordinated with neighboring governments; however, the government did not demonstrate overall increasing efforts, compared with the previous reporting period, to expand its anti-trafficking capacity; despite increased investigations, Mozambique did not report identifying any victims and lacked adequate procedures to screen vulnerable populations for trafficking; for the seventh consecutive year, the government failed to adopt its draft National Referral Mechanism and SOPs for care and referral of victims; Mozambique did not report providing financial or in-kind support to the civil society organizations that identify and assist victims; the lack of a formally adopted National Action Plan, including dedicated resources for preventing trafficking, reduced integration of anti-trafficking efforts; reports of low-level official complicity in trafficking crimes persisted; the government did not provide sufficient resources to victim protection services, relying on NGOs and international organizations to provide the majority of services to victims; the government lacked effective policies or laws to regulate foreign labor recruiters and hold them liable for fraudulent recruiting; therefore, Mozambique was downgraded to Tier 2 Watch List (2023)

trafficking profile: human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Mozambique, as well as Mozambicans abroad; forced child labor occurs in agriculture, mining, and market vending in rural areas, often with the complicity of family members; migrants, especially women and girls from rural areas in neighboring countries such as Malawi, are lured to cities in Mozambique, Eswatini, or South Africa   with promises of employment or education but are exploited in domestic servitude or sex trafficking; individuals with albinism may be vulnerable to sex and labor trafficking by traditional healers; Mozambican girls are exploited in bars, roadside clubs, overnight stopping points, and restaurants along the southern transport corridor that links Maputo with Eswatini and South Africa; girls are exploited in sex trafficking in and around mining worksites; women and girls are recruited online with false employment promises, then exploited in sex trafficking or forced labor; children from vulnerable families are at risk of trafficking, including children from Gaza province who migrate to Maputo and work in street vending; child sex trafficking is prevalent in the cities that have highly mobile populations and large numbers of long-distance truck drivers; individuals in displacement camps or otherwise affected by cyclones were vulnerable to trafficking; non-state armed groups exploited women and children, among the over one million IDPs in northern and central Mozambique displaced by violent extremism, in forced labor and sex trafficking; non-state armed groups also recruited or used child soldiers; extremists lure youth with promises of employment in the fishing sector, and then force them to fight with non-state armed groups; Mozambican men and boys are exploited in forced labor on South African farms and mines before being turned over to police for deportation as undocumented migrants; Mozambican boys who migrate to Eswatini are at risk of forced labor; Mozambican adults and girls are exploited in forced labor and sex trafficking abroad, including in Angola, Cyprus, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and Portugal; traffickers allegedly bribe officials to move victims within the country and across borders to Eswatini and South Africa (2023)

Illicit drugs

a transit country for large shipments of heroin and methamphetamine originating from Afghanistan to primarily South Africa

NOTE: The information regarding Mozambique on this page is re-published from the 2024 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Mozambique 2024 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Mozambique 2024 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 04 May 24, Copyright © 2024 ITA all rights reserved.