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Syria People - 2024


GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES  Spanish Simplified Chinese French German Russian Hindi Arabic Portuguese


22,933,531 (2023 est.)

note: approximately 22,900 Israeli settlers live in the Golan Heights (2018)


noun: Syrian(s)

adjective: Syrian

Ethnic groups

Arab ~50%, Alawite ~15%, Kurd ~10%, Levantine ~10%, other ~15% (includes Druze, Ismaili, Imami, Nusairi, Assyrian, Turkoman, Armenian)


Arabic (official), Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian, French, English

major-language sample(s):
كتاب حقائق العالم، المصدر الذي لا يمكن الاستغناء عنه للمعلومات الأساسية (Arabic)

ڕاستییەکانی جیهان، باشترین سەرچاوەیە بۆ زانیارییە بنەڕەتییەکان (Kurdish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Arabic audio sample:
Kurdish audio sample:


Muslim 87% (official; includes Sunni 74% and Alawi, Ismaili, and Shia 13%), Christian 10% (includes Orthodox, Uniate, and Nestorian), Druze 3%

note:  the Christian population may be considerably smaller as a result of Christians fleeing the country during the ongoing civil war

Age structure

0-14 years: 33.27% (male 3,914,737/female 3,716,362)

15-64 years: 62.58% (male 7,141,423/female 7,209,386)

65 years and over: 4.15% (2023 est.) (male 445,288/female 506,335)

2023 population pyramid:

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 55.4

youth dependency ratio: 53

elderly dependency ratio: 7.4

potential support ratio: 13.5 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 23.9 years (2023 est.)

male: 23.3 years

female: 24.5 years

Population growth rate

6.39% (2023 est.)

Birth rate

22.2 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate

4.1 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate

45.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.) NA

Population distribution

significant population density along the Mediterranean coast; larger concentrations found in the major cities of Damascus, Aleppo (the country's largest city), and Hims (Homs); more than half of the population lives in the coastal plain, the province of Halab, and the Euphrates River valley

note: the ongoing civil war has altered the population distribution


urban population: 57.4% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 5.38% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

2.585 million DAMASCUS (capital), 2.203 million Aleppo, 1.443 million Hims (Homs), 996,000 Hamah (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

30 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 15.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 17.1 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 13.8 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 74.6 years (2023 est.)

male: 73.1 years

female: 76.1 years

Total fertility rate

2.74 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

1.33 (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate


Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.6% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 99.8% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.4% of population

rural: 0.7% of population

total: 0.2% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure


Physicians density

1.29 physicians/1,000 population (2016)

Hospital bed density

1.4 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.5% of population

rural: 99.5% of population

total: 99.5% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.5% of population

rural: 0.5% of population

total: 0.5% of population (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

27.8% (2016)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 0.13 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.02 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.11 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight


Currently married women (ages 15-49)

52.6% (2023 est.)

Education expenditures



definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 86.4%

male: 91.7%

female: 81% (2015)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 9 years

male: 9 years

female: 9 years (2013)

NOTE: The information regarding Syria on this page is re-published from the 2024 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Syria 2024 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Syria 2024 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 04 May 24, Copyright © 2024 ITA all rights reserved.