Tanzania People - 2023


SOURCE: 2023 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK

GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES  Spanish Simplified Chinese French German Russian Hindi Arabic Portuguese

Population

65,642,682 (2023 est.)

Nationality

noun: Tanzanian(s)

adjective: Tanzanian

Ethnic groups

mainland - African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, African, mixed Arab and African

Languages

Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages; note - Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of the Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources including Arabic and English; it has become the lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one of the local languages

major-language sample(s):
The World Factbook, Chanzo cha Lazima Kuhusu Habari ya Msingi. (Kiswahili)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Kiswahili audio sample:

Religions

Christian 63.1%, Muslim 34.1%, folk religion 1.1%, Buddhist <1%, Hindu <1%, Jewish <1%, other <1%, unspecified 1.6% (2020 est.)

note: Zanzibar is almost entirely Muslim

Demographic profile

Tanzania has the largest population in East Africa and the lowest population density; more than a third of the population is urban. Tanzania’s youthful population – over 60% of the population is under 25 as of 2020 – is growing rapidly because of the high total fertility rate of 4.4 children per woman, as of 2022. Progress in reducing the birth rate has stalled, sustaining the country’s nearly 3% annual growth rate. The maternal mortality rate has improved since 2000, yet it remains very high because of early and frequent pregnancies, inadequate maternal health services, and a lack of skilled birth attendants – problems that are worse among poor and rural women. Tanzania has made strides in reducing under-5 and infant mortality rates, but a recent drop in immunization threatens to undermine gains in child health. Malaria is a leading killer of children under 5, while HIV is the main source of adult mortality.

For Tanzania, most migration is internal, rural to urban movement, while some temporary labor migration from towns to plantations takes place seasonally for harvests. Tanzania was Africa’s largest refugee-hosting country for decades, hosting hundreds of thousands of refugees from the Great Lakes region, primarily Burundi, over the last fifty years. However, the assisted repatriation and naturalization of tens of thousands of Burundian refugees between 2002 and 2014 dramatically reduced the refugee population. Tanzania is increasingly a transit country for illegal migrants from the Horn of Africa and the Great Lakes region who are heading to southern Africa for security reasons and/or economic opportunities. Some of these migrants choose to settle in Tanzania.

Age structure

0-14 years: 41.5% (male 13,765,789/female 13,475,555)

15-64 years: 55.15% (male 18,076,988/female 18,123,677)

65 years and over: 3.35% (2023 est.) (male 933,786/female 1,266,887)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 87.7

youth dependency ratio: 81.9

elderly dependency ratio: 5.9

potential support ratio: 20.4 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 18.2 years

male: 17.9 years

female: 18.4 years (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

2.75% (2023 est.)

Birth rate

32.9 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate

5.02 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate

-0.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution

the largest and most populous East African country; population distribution is extremely uneven, but greater population clusters occur in the northern half of country and along the east coast as shown in this population distribution map

Urbanization

urban population: 37.4% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 4.89% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

262,000 Dodoma (legislative capital) (2018), 7.776 million DAR ES SALAAM (administrative capital), 1.311 million Mwanza, 800,000 Zanzibar (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

19.8 years (2015/16 est.)

note: data represents median age at first birth among women 20-49

Maternal mortality ratio

238 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 30.25 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 32.97 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 27.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 70.48 years

male: 68.72 years

female: 72.29 years (2023 est.)

Total fertility rate

4.33 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

2.13 (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

38.4% (2015/16)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 95.1% of population

rural: 59.4% of population

total: 72% of population

unimproved: urban: 4.9% of population

rural: 40.6% of population

total: 28% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

3.8% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

0.05 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density

0.7 beds/1,000 population

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 89.4% of population

rural: 29.2% of population

total: 50.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 10.6% of population

rural: 70.8% of population

total: 49.6% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

8.4% (2016)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 7.81 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.74 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.09 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.38 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 6.6 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 8.7% (2020 est.)

male: 14% (2020 est.)

female: 3.4% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

14.6% (2018)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

59.5% (2023 est.)

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 5.2%

women married by age 18: 30.5%

men married by age 18: 3.9% (2016 est.)

Education expenditures

3.3% of GDP (2021 est.)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili), English, or Arabic

total population: 81.8%

male: 85.5%

female: 78.2% (2021)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 9 years

male: 9 years

female: 9 years (2021)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 4.6%

male: 3.7%

female: 5.5% (2021 est.)

NOTE: The information regarding Tanzania on this page is re-published from the 2023 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Tanzania 2023 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Tanzania 2023 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 06 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.