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Turkmenistan People - 2024


GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES  Spanish Simplified Chinese French German Russian Hindi Arabic Portuguese


5,690,818 (2023 est.)

note: some sources suggest Turkmenistan's population could be as much as 1 to 2 million people lower than available estimates because of large-scale emigration during the last 10 years


noun: Turkmenistani(s)

adjective: Turkmenistani

Ethnic groups

Turkmen 85%, Uzbek 5%, Russian 4%, other 6% (2003 est.)


Turkmen (official) 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%

major-language sample(s):
Dünýä Faktlar Kitaby – esasy maglumatlaryň wajyp çeşmesidir (Turkmen)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.


Muslim 93%, Christian 6.4%, Buddhist

Demographic profile

While Turkmenistan reputedly has a population of more than 5.6 million, the figure is most likely considerably less. Getting an accurate population estimate for the country is impossible because then President Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW withheld the results of the last two censuses. The 2012 census results reportedly show that nearly 2 million citizens have emigrated in the last decade, which prompted BERDIMUHAMEDOW to order another census. Results of this census, covering 2008-2018, also were not released to the public but purportedly are similar. Another census was held in December 2022.

Authorities have reacted to the dramatic population decline by preventing Turkmen from leaving the country, including removing citizens from international flights and refusing to provide necessary documents. Turkmenistan’s rise in outmigration – mainly to Turkey, Russia, and Uzbekistan – coincided with the country’s 2013-2014 economic crisis. The outflow has been sustained by poor living standards, inflation, low income, and a lack of health care. At the same time, Ashbagat is encouraging people to have more children to make up for its shrinking population.

Age structure

0-14 years: 24.63% (male 710,040/female 691,487)

15-64 years: 68.82% (male 1,943,930/female 1,972,723)

65 years and over: 6.55% (2023 est.) (male 163,121/female 209,517)

2022 population pyramid: 2023 population pyramid:

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 56.6

youth dependency ratio: 48.9

elderly dependency ratio: 7.7

potential support ratio: 13 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 30.7 years (2023 est.)

male: 30.2 years

female: 31.2 years

Population growth rate

0.95% (2023 est.)

Birth rate

17.2 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate

6 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate

-1.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution

the most densely populated areas are the southern, eastern, and northeastern oases; approximately 50% of the population lives in and around the capital of Ashgabat


urban population: 54% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 2.23% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

902,000 ASHGABAT (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

24.2 years (2019)

Maternal mortality ratio

5 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 36.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 44.7 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 28.4 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 72.1 years (2023 est.)

male: 69.1 years

female: 75.3 years

Total fertility rate

2.03 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

0.99 (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

49.7% (2019)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

5.7% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

2.23 physicians/1,000 population (2014)

Hospital bed density

4 beds/1,000 population (2014)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.8% of population

rural: 99.9% of population

total: 99.8% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.2% of population

rural: 0.1% of population

total: 0.2% of population (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

18.6% (2016)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 2.88 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.65 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 1.25 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.98 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 5.5% (2020 est.)

male: 10.6% (2020 est.)

female: 0.4% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

3.1% (2019)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

64.3% (2023 est.)

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 0.2%

women married by age 18: 6.1% (2019 est.)

Education expenditures

3.1% of GDP (2019 est.)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.7%

male: 99.8%

female: 99.6% (2015)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 13 years

male: 13 years

female: 13 years (2020)

NOTE: The information regarding Turkmenistan on this page is re-published from the 2024 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Turkmenistan 2024 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Turkmenistan 2024 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 04 May 24, Copyright © 2024 ITA all rights reserved.