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United States Economy 2019

SOURCE: 2019 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES











United States Economy 2019
SOURCE: 2019 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES


Page last updated on February 08, 2019

Economy - overview:
The US has the most technologically powerful economy in the world, with a per capita GDP of $59,500. US firms are at or near the forefront in technological advances, especially in computers, pharmaceuticals, and medical, aerospace, and military equipment; however, their advantage has narrowed since the end of World War II. Based on a comparison of GDP measured at purchasing power parity conversion rates, the US economy in 2014, having stood as the largest in the world for more than a century, slipped into second place behind China, which has more than tripled the US growth rate for each year of the past four decades.

In the US, private individuals and business firms make most of the decisions, and the federal and state governments buy needed goods and services predominantly in the private marketplace. US business firms enjoy greater flexibility than their counterparts in Western Europe and Japan in decisions to expand capital plant, to lay off surplus workers, and to develop new products. At the same time, businesses face higher barriers to enter their rivals' home markets than foreign firms face entering US markets.

Long-term problems for the US include stagnation of wages for lower-income families, inadequate investment in deteriorating infrastructure, rapidly rising medical and pension costs of an aging population, energy shortages, and sizable current account and budget deficits.

The onrush of technology has been a driving factor in the gradual development of a "two-tier" labor market in which those at the bottom lack the education and the professional/technical skills of those at the top and, more and more, fail to get comparable pay raises, health insurance coverage, and other benefits. But the globalization of trade, and especially the rise of low-wage producers such as China, has put additional downward pressure on wages and upward pressure on the return to capital. Since 1975, practically all the gains in household income have gone to the top 20% of households. Since 1996, dividends and capital gains have grown faster than wages or any other category of after-tax income.

Imported oil accounts for more than 50% of US consumption and oil has a major impact on the overall health of the economy. Crude oil prices doubled between 2001 and 2006, the year home prices peaked; higher gasoline prices ate into consumers' budgets and many individuals fell behind in their mortgage payments. Oil prices climbed another 50% between 2006 and 2008, and bank foreclosures more than doubled in the same period. Besides dampening the housing market, soaring oil prices caused a drop in the value of the dollar and a deterioration in the US merchandise trade deficit, which peaked at $840 billion in 2008. Because the US economy is energy-intensive, falling oil prices since 2013 have alleviated many of the problems the earlier increases had created.

The sub-prime mortgage crisis, falling home prices, investment bank failures, tight credit, and the global economic downturn pushed the US into a recession by mid-2008. GDP contracted until the third quarter of 2009, the deepest and longest downturn since the Great Depression. To help stabilize financial markets, the US Congress established a $700 billion Troubled Asset Relief Program in October 2008. The government used some of these funds to purchase equity in US banks and industrial corporations, much of which had been returned to the government by early 2011. In January 2009, Congress passed and former President Barack OBAMA signed a bill providing an additional $787 billion fiscal stimulus to be used over 10 years - two-thirds on additional spending and one-third on tax cuts - to create jobs and to help the economy recover. In 2010 and 2011, the federal budget deficit reached nearly 9% of GDP. In 2012, the Federal Government reduced the growth of spending and the deficit shrank to 7.6% of GDP. US revenues from taxes and other sources are lower, as a percentage of GDP, than those of most other countries.

Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan required major shifts in national resources from civilian to military purposes and contributed to the growth of the budget deficit and public debt. Through FY 2018, the direct costs of the wars will have totaled more than $1.9 trillion, according to US Government figures.

In March 2010, former President OBAMA signed into law the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), a health insurance reform that was designed to extend coverage to an additional 32 million Americans by 2016, through private health insurance for the general population and Medicaid for the impoverished. Total spending on healthcare - public plus private - rose from 9.0% of GDP in 1980 to 17.9% in 2010.

In July 2010, the former president signed the DODD-FRANK Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, a law designed to promote financial stability by protecting consumers from financial abuses, ending taxpayer bailouts of financial firms, dealing with troubled banks that are "too big to fail," and improving accountability and transparency in the financial system - in particular, by requiring certain financial derivatives to be traded in markets that are subject to government regulation and oversight.

The Federal Reserve Board (Fed) announced plans in December 2012 to purchase $85 billion per month of mortgage-backed and Treasury securities in an effort to hold down long-term interest rates, and to keep short-term rates near zero until unemployment dropped below 6.5% or inflation rose above 2.5%. The Fed ended its purchases during the summer of 2014, after the unemployment rate dropped to 6.2%, inflation stood at 1.7%, and public debt fell below 74% of GDP. In December 2015, the Fed raised its target for the benchmark federal funds rate by 0.25%, the first increase since the recession began. With continued low growth, the Fed opted to raise rates several times since then, and in December 2017, the target rate stood at 1.5%.

In December 2017, Congress passed and President Donald TRUMP signed the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, which, among its various provisions, reduces the corporate tax rate from 35% to 21%; lowers the individual tax rate for those with the highest incomes from 39.6% to 37%, and by lesser percentages for those at lower income levels; changes many deductions and credits used to calculate taxable income; and eliminates in 2019 the penalty imposed on taxpayers who do not obtain the minimum amount of health insurance required under the ACA. The new taxes took effect on 1 January 2018; the tax cut for corporations are permanent, but those for individuals are scheduled to expire after 2025. The Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT) under the Congressional Budget Office estimates that the new law will reduce tax revenues and increase the federal deficit by about $1.45 trillion over the 2018-2027 period. This amount would decline if economic growth were to exceed the JCT’s estimate.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$19.49 trillion (2017 est.)
$19.06 trillion (2016 est.)
$18.77 trillion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 2
[see also: GDP country ranks ]

GDP (official exchange rate):
$19.49 trillion (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP (official exchange rate) country ranks ]

GDP - real growth rate:
2.2% (2017 est.)
1.6% (2016 est.)
2.9% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
[see also: GDP - real growth rate country ranks ]

GDP - per capita:
$59,800 (2017 est.)
$58,900 (2016 est.)
$58,400 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 19
[see also: GDP - per capita country ranks ]

Gross national saving:
18.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
18.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
[see also: Gross national saving country ranks ]

GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 68.4% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - household consumption country ranks ]
government consumption: 17.3% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - government consumption country ranks ]
investment in fixed capital: 17.2% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - investment in fixed capital country ranks ]
investment in inventories: 0.1% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - investment in inventories country ranks ]
exports of goods and services: 12.1% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - exports of goods and services country ranks ]
imports of goods and services: -15% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - imports of goods and services country ranks ]

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 0.9% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by sector of origin - agriculture country ranks ]
industry: 19.1% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by sector of origin - industry country ranks ]
services: 80% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by sector of origin - services country ranks ]

Agriculture - products:
wheat, corn, other grains, fruits, vegetables, cotton; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish; forest products

Industries:
highly diversified, world leading, high-technology innovator, second-largest industrial output in the world; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing, consumer goods, lumber, mining

Industrial production growth rate:
2.3% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122
[see also: Industrial production growth rate country ranks ]

Labor force:
160.4 million (2017 est.)
note: includes unemployed
country comparison to the world: 3
[see also: Labor force country ranks ]

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 0.7% (2009)
[see also: Labor force - by occupation - agriculture country ranks ]
industry: 20.3% (2009)
[see also: Labor force - by occupation - industry country ranks ]
services: 37.3% (2009)
[see also: Labor force - by occupation - services country ranks ]
industry and services: 24.2% (2009)
manufacturing: 17.6% (2009)
farming, forestry, and fishing: 0.7% (2009)
manufacturing, extraction, transportation, and crafts: 20.3% (2009)
managerial, professional, and technical: 37.3% (2009)
sales and office: 24.2% (2009)
other services: 17.6% (2009)
note: figures exclude the unemployed

Unemployment rate:
4.4% (2017 est.)
4.9% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
[see also: Unemployment rate country ranks ]

Population below poverty line:
15.1% (2010 est.)
[see also: Population below poverty line country ranks ]

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2%
[see also: Household income or consumption by percentage share - lowest 10% country ranks ]
highest 10%: 30% (2007 est.)
[see also: Household income or consumption by percentage share - highest 10% country ranks ]

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
45 (2007)
40.8 (1997)
country comparison to the world: 41
[see also: Distribution of family income - Gini index country ranks ]

Budget:
revenues: 3.315 trillion (2017 est.)
[see also: Budget - revenues country ranks ]
expenditures: 3.981 trillion (2017 est.)
note: revenues exclude social contributions of approximately $1.0 trillion; expenditures exclude social benefits of approximately $2.3 trillion

Taxes and other revenues:
17% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
note: excludes contributions for social security and other programs; if social contributions were added, taxes and other revenues would amount to approximately 22% of GDP
country comparison to the world: 172
[see also: Taxes and other revenues country ranks ]

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-3.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
[see also: Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) country ranks ]

Public debt:
78.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
81.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: data cover only what the United States Treasury denotes as "Debt Held by the Public," which includes all debt instruments issued by the Treasury that are owned by non-US Government entities; the data include Treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by individual US states, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of Treasury borrowings from surpluses in the trusts for Federal Social Security, Federal Employees, Hospital and Supplemental Medical Insurance (Medicare), Disability and Unemployment, and several other smaller trusts; if data for intragovernment debt were added, "gross debt" would increase by about one-third of GDP
country comparison to the world: 36
[see also: Public debt country ranks ]

Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.1% (2017 est.)
1.3% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
[see also: Inflation rate (consumer prices) country ranks ]

Central bank discount rate:
0.5% (31 December 2010)
0.5% (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 137
[see also: Central bank discount rate country ranks ]

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
4.1% (31 December 2017 est.)
3.51% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
[see also: Commercial bank prime lending rate country ranks ]

Stock of narrow money:
$3.512 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.251 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
[see also: Stock of narrow money country ranks ]

Stock of broad money:
$3.512 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.251 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
[see also: Stock of broad money country ranks ]

Stock of domestic credit:
$21.59 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$20.24 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
[see also: Stock of domestic credit country ranks ]

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$25.07 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$26.33 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$24.03 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1
[see also: Market value of publicly traded shares country ranks ]

Current account balance:
-$449.1 billion (2017 est.)
-$432.9 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 206
[see also: Current account balance country ranks ]

Exports:
$1.553 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.456 trillion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
[see also: Exports country ranks ]

Exports - partners:
Canada 18.3%, Mexico 15.7%, China 8.4%, Japan 4.4% (2017)

Exports - commodities:
agricultural products (soybeans, fruit, corn) 9.2%, industrial supplies (organic chemicals) 26.8%, capital goods (transistors, aircraft, motor vehicle parts, computers, telecommunications equipment) 49.0%, consumer goods (automobiles, medicines) 15.0% (2008 est.)

Imports:
$2.361 trillion (2017 est.)
$2.208 trillion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1
[see also: Imports country ranks ]

Imports - commodities:
agricultural products 4.9%, industrial supplies 32.9% (crude oil 8.2%), capital goods 30.4% (computers, telecommunications equipment, motor vehicle parts, office machines, electric power machinery), consumer goods 31.8% (automobiles, clothing, medicines, furniture, toys) (2008 est.)

Imports - partners:
China 21.6%, Mexico 13.4%, Canada 12.8%, Japan 5.8%, Germany 5% (2017)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$123.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$117.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
[see also: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold country ranks ]

Debt - external:
$17.91 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$17.85 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
note: approximately 4/5ths of US external debt is denominated in US dollars; foreign lenders have been willing to hold US dollar denominated debt instruments because they view the dollar as the world's reserve currency
country comparison to the world: 1
[see also: Debt - external country ranks ]

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$4.08 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.614 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
[see also: Stock of direct foreign investment - at home country ranks ]

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$5.711 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.352 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
[see also: Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad country ranks ]

Exchange rates:
British pounds per US dollar: 0.7836 (2017 est.), 0.738 (2016 est.), 0.738 (2015 est.), 0.607 (2014 est), 0.6391 (2013 est.)
Canadian dollars per US dollar: 1, 1.308 (2017 est.), 1.3256 (2016 est.), 1.3256 (2015 est.), 1.2788 (2014 est.), 1.0298 (2013 est.)
Chinese yuan per US dollar: 1, 6.7588 (2017 est.), 6.6445 (2016 est.), 6.2275 (2015 est.), 6.1434 (2014 est.), 6.1958 (2013 est.)
euros per US dollar: 0.885 (2017 est.), 0.903 (2016 est.), 0.9214(2015 est.), 0.885 (2014 est.), 0.7634 (2013 est.)
Japanese yen per US dollar: 111.10 (2017 est.), 108.76 (2016 est.), 108.76 (2015 est.), 121.02 (2014 est.), 97.44 (2013 est.)


NOTE: 1) The information regarding United States on this page is re-published from the 2019 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of United States Economy 2019 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about United States Economy 2019 should be addressed to the CIA.
2) The rank that you see is the CIA reported rank, which may habe the following issues:
  a) They assign increasing rank number, alphabetically for countries with the same value of the ranked item, whereas we assign them the same rank.
  b) The CIA sometimes assignes counterintuitive ranks. For example, it assigns unemployment rates in increasing order, whereas we rank them in decreasing order






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