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Vietnam Issues - 2024


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Disputes - international

Vietnam-Cambodia: Cambodia accuses Vietnam of a wide variety of illicit cross-border activities; issues include casinos built in Cambodia near the border, narcotics trafficking, trafficking of women and children, petrol smuggling, illegal timber trade, and illegal migration; progress on a joint development area with Cambodia is hampered by an unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands; in December 2021, leaders from the two countries agreed to fully complete the remaining border demarcation and the upgrading of border checkpoints

Vietnam-Cambodia-Laos: Cambodia and Laos protest Vietnamese squatters and armed encroachments along border; Cambodia accuses Vietnam of a wide variety of illicit cross-border activities

Vietnam-China: an estimated 300,000 Vietnamese refugees reside in China; the decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary was completed in 2009; small territorial exchanges were made during the demarcation; cross border trafficking in women and children and illegal wildlife trade are problems along this border; China occupies features in the Spratly and Paracel Islands claimed by Vietnam

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 35,475 (2022); note - Vietnam's stateless ethnic Chinese Cambodian population dates to the 1970s when thousands of Cambodians fled to Vietnam to escape the Khmer Rouge and were no longer recognized as Cambodian citizens; Vietnamese women who gave up their citizenship to marry foreign men have found themselves stateless after divorcing and returning home to Vietnam; the government addressed this problem in 2009, and Vietnamese women are beginning to reclaim their citizenship

Trafficking in persons

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List — Vietnam does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so; the government made key achievements during the reporting period, therefore Vietnam was upgraded to Tier 2 Watch List; Vietnam initiated more investigations, prosecuted and convicted more traffickers, increased international law enforcement cooperation, and initiated criminal proceedings against allegedly complicit officials; officials also identified and assisted more victims and implemented protection for overseas workers; despite these achievements, the government did not proactively identify trafficking victims forced to work in cyber scams or provide services, including foreign national victims in Vietnam; authorities inspected thousands of the most at-risk establishments for sex trafficking but only identified two victims (2023)

trafficking profile: human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Vietnam, as well as Vietnamese abroad; 55% of workers work in the informal economy where labor laws are not effectively enforced, increasing vulnerability to trafficking; Vietnamese men and women who migrate abroad, using illicit brokerage networks operated by Vietnamese nationals based abroad or state-owned or state-regulated recruitment enterprises, are vulnerable to debt bondage or other forms of exploitation; victims are subjected to forced labor in construction, agriculture, mining, maritime industries, logging, and manufacturing primarily in Japan, Laos, Malaysia, South Korea, and in some parts of the Middle East, the UK, and other countries in Europe; reports have increased of Vietnamese labor trafficking victims in Taiwan, continental Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and in Pacific maritime industries; Vietnamese traffickers, including members of Vietnam’s diplomatic service, reportedly have exploited Vietnamese nationals in forced labor in Saudi Arabia; many Vietnamese are subjected to forced labor under the auspices of Japan’s Technical Intern Training Program and in agricultural education programs in Israel; other Vietnamese are exploited at Chinese-owned factories associated with China’s Belt and Road Initiative in the Balkan region; widespread social stigma increases LGBTQI+ individuals’ vulnerability to trafficking; traffickers lure Vietnamese women and children with fraudulent job opportunities and send them to brothels on the borders of Cambodia, China, and Laos or elsewhere in Asia, West Africa, and Europe; Vietnamese women and girls are also exploited in sex trafficking in Vietnam, as well as Burma; sometimes family members or small-scale networks exploit Vietnamese men, women, and children—including street children and children with disabilities—in forced labor; child sex tourists from Asia, the UK, other countries in Europe, Australia, Canada, and the US exploit children in Vietnam (2023)

Illicit drugs

a transshipment and destination country for all types of illegal drugs; most transshipments destined for other Asian countries and not the United States; heroin transits from Thailand, Laos, and Burma for domestic use and shipping to r countries in Southeast Asia, Oceania, China and Taiwan; methamphetamine and amphetamine type stimulants from Burma locally consumed and shipped; South American cocaine locally consumed and distributed to Southeast Asia and Oceania

NOTE: The information regarding Vietnam on this page is re-published from the 2024 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Vietnam 2024 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Vietnam 2024 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 04 May 24, Copyright © 2024 ITA all rights reserved.