Haiti Environment - 2021


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Environment - current issues

extensive deforestation (much of the remaining forested land is being cleared for agriculture and used as fuel); soil erosion; overpopulation leads to inadequate supplies of potable water and and a lack of sanitation; natural disasters

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 14.63 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 2.98 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 6.12 megatons (2020 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 190 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 51 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 1.209 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

14.022 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)


tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds

Land use

agricultural land: 66.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 38.5% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 10.2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 17.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 3.6% (2018 est.)

other: 30% (2018 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

forest revenues: 0.68% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 60

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 110


urban population: 58% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 2.47% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

Food insecurity

severe localized food insecurity: due to reduced agricultural production and socio political turmoil - about 4.4 million people are forecast to be facing severe acute food insecurity or to be in need of urgent food assistance in the March-June 2021 time period; the high levels of food insecurity reflect the worsening household access to food, which was constrained by the negative effects of the COVID‑19 pandemic, primarily through income and job losses; the low availability of locally produced staple crops and high prices of food items exacerbated the situation; the ongoing socio‑political unrest has disrupted market activities, especially in urban areas, and reduced mobility due to road blockage has further affected the access to food (2021)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 2,309,852 tons (2015 est.)

NOTE: The information regarding Haiti on this page is re-published from the 2021 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Haiti 2021 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Haiti 2021 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 16 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.