Israel Environment - 2021


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Environment - current issues

limited arable land and restricted natural freshwater resources; desertification; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; groundwater pollution from industrial and domestic waste, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Marine Life Conservation

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 19.46 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 65.17 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 13.02 megatons (2020 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 983 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 72 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 1.249 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

1.78 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)


temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas

Land use

agricultural land: 23.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 13.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 3.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 6.3% (2018 est.)

forest: 7.1% (2018 est.)

other: 69.1% (2018 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

forest revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 176

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 116


urban population: 92.7% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 1.51% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 5.4 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 1.35 million tons (2017 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 25% (2017 est.)

NOTE: The information regarding Israel on this page is re-published from the 2021 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Israel 2021 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Israel 2021 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 16 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.