Kazakhstan Issues - 2021


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Disputes - international

in January 2019, the Kyrgyz Republic ratified the demarcation agreement of the Kazakh-Kyrgyz border; the demarcation of the Kazakh-Uzbek borders is ongoing; the ongoing demarcation with Russia began in 2007; demarcation with China completed in 2002

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 7,999 (2020)

Illicit drugs

significant illicit cultivation of cannabis for CIS markets, as well as limited cultivation of opium poppy and ephedra (for the drug ephedrine); limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the rest of Europe; significant consumer of opiates

Trafficking in persons

current situation: human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Kazakhstan and Kazakhstanis abroad; traffickers lure victims from rural areas to larger cities with fake offers of employment; traffickers coerce or force Kazakhstani men and women into labor in Russia, Bahrain, Brazil, the Republic of Korea, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates; sex traffickers exploit Kazakhstani women and girls in the Middle East, Europe, East Asia, the United States, Central Asian and Eastern European countries and rural areas in Kazakhstan; children are forced to beg and adults and children may be coerced into criminal behavior; traffickers are increasingly using debt-based coercion; traffickers capitalize on tough law enforcement policies on migrants to coerce them to remain and leverage these policies to threaten victims with punishment and deportation if they notify authorities, which fosters a distrust in law enforcement

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List — Kazakhstan does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so; the government adopted amendments increasing criminal penalties for traffickers, including rescinding the provision allowing alleged traffickers to pay a settlement to victims to withdraw their criminal cases; authorities developed victim identification guidelines for diplomatic staff and provided victim identification training to some labor inspectors; the government took initial steps toward improving its annual NGO funding process; the government’s efforts to identify and protect foreign victims increased; foreign victims who did not participate in criminal investigations were ineligible for services and were deported; law enforcement continued to make limited efforts to investigate, prosecute, and convict labor trafficking crimes; trafficking convictions decreased for the fourth consecutive year; NGOs reported allegations of police officers’ involvement in human trafficking, but few police or other officials suspected of complicity were investigated or prosecuted (2020)

NOTE: The information regarding Kazakhstan on this page is re-published from the 2021 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Kazakhstan 2021 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Kazakhstan 2021 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

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