Nigeria Environment - 2021


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Environment - current issues

serious overpopulation and rapid urbanization have led to numerous environmental problems; urban air and water pollution; rapid deforestation; soil degradation; loss of arable land; oil pollution - water, air, and soil have suffered serious damage from oil spills

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Tropical Timber 2006

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 48.73 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 120.37 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 143.99 megatons (2020 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 5 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 1.965 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 5.51 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

286.2 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)


varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north

Land use

agricultural land: 78% (2018 est.)

arable land: 37.3% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 7.4% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 33.3% (2018 est.)

forest: 9.5% (2018 est.)

other: 12.5% (2018 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

forest revenues: 1.02% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)


urban population: 52.7% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 3.92% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever

water contact diseases: leptospirosis and schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis

aerosolized dust or soil contact diseases: Lassa fever

note: on 7 October 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a Travel Health Notice for a Yellow Fever outbreak in Nigeria; a large, ongoing outbreak of yellow fever in Nigeria began in September 2017; the outbreak is now spread throughout the country with the Nigerian Ministry of Health reporting cases of the disease in all 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory; the CDC recommends travelers going to Nigeria should receive vaccination against yellow fever at least 10 days before travel and should take steps to prevent mosquito bites while there; those never vaccinated against yellow fever should avoid travel to Nigeria during the outbreak
note: widespread ongoing transmission of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is occurring throughout Nigeria; as of 19 July 2021, Nigeria has reported a total of 169,678 cases of COVID-19 or 82.31 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 100,000 population with 1.03 cumulative death per 100,000 population; as of 19 July 2021, 1.23% of the population has received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine

Food insecurity

widespread lack of access: due to persistent civil conflict in the northern areas - according to the latest analysis, about 12.8 million people are assessed to be in need of humanitarian assistance in the June−August 2021 period as a result of worsening conflict that is driving new population displacements; over 2.8 million people are estimated to be internally displaced in northeastern states of Adamawa, Borno and Yobe, due to communal clashes in northwestern/northcentral zones and natural disasters; the areas inaccessible to humanitarian interventions are facing the worst food insecurity conditions (2021)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 27,614,830 tons (2009 est.)

NOTE: The information regarding Nigeria on this page is re-published from the 2021 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Nigeria 2021 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Nigeria 2021 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 16 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.