Nigeria Issues - 2021


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Disputes - international

Joint Border Commission with Cameroon reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately cedes sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a phaseout of Nigerian control within two years while resolving patriation issues; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates in the ICJ decision and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay in implementation; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 67,456 (Cameroon) (2021)

IDPs: 2,880,168 (northeast Nigeria; Boko Haram attacks and counterinsurgency efforts in northern Nigeria; communal violence between Christians and Muslims in the middle belt region, political violence; flooding; forced evictions; cattle rustling; competition for resources) (2021)

Illicit drugs

a transit point for heroin and cocaine intended for European, East Asian, and North American markets; consumer of amphetamines; safe haven for Nigerian narcotraffickers operating worldwide; major money-laundering center; massive corruption and criminal activity; Nigeria has improved some anti-money-laundering controls, resulting in its removal from the Financial Action Task Force's (FATF's) Noncooperative Countries and Territories List in June 2006; Nigeria's anti-money-laundering regime continues to be monitored by FATF

Trafficking in persons

current situation: human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Nigeria along with victims from Nigeria abroad; internal trafficking involving recruiting victims from rural areas for commercial sex  and forced labor in domestic work, street vending, mining, agriculture, begging and textile
manufacturing; traffickers operate “baby factories” where women held against their will are raped and children are sold into forced labor or sex trafficking or rented to beggars to increase their profits; women are often taken to other West and Central African countries, South Africa, Europe and the Middle East for commercial sex; Boko Haram and ISIS-WA forcibly recruit, abduct, and use child soldiers as young as 12 as cooks, spies, messengers, bodyguards, armed combatants, and suicide bombers; they abduct women and girls in the northern region of Nigeria for sexual slavery and forced labor

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List — Nigeria does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so; the government is continuing to train officials and raise public awareness; the government established anti-trafficking task forces in Borno and Ekiti states and used new technology to collect victim testimony; authorities prosecuted three government officials complicit in human trafficking; the government is drafting a memoranda of understanding that will improve coordination between government agencies; however, security forces used at least two children in support roles; some security officials were involved in sex trafficking; no criminal charges were made against military officials or members of the Civilian Joint Task Force for sex trafficking or the use of child soldiers; no protections were given to female and child trafficking victims allegedly associated with insurgencies; fewer traffickers were convicted; Nigeria was downgraded to Tier 2 Watch List (2020)

NOTE: The information regarding Nigeria on this page is re-published from the 2021 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Nigeria 2021 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Nigeria 2021 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 16 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.