Turkey Environment - 2021


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Environment - current issues

water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; land degradation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic; conservation of biodiversity

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Environmental Modification

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 41.97 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 372.72 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 57.53 megatons (2020 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 6.016 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 2.898 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 50.05 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

211.6 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)


temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior

Land use

agricultural land: 49.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 26.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 4% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 19% (2018 est.)

forest: 14.9% (2018 est.)

other: 35.4% (2018 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

forest revenues: 0.08% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0.05% of GDP (2018 est.)


urban population: 76.6% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 1.11% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major infectious diseases

respiratory diseases: Covid-19 (2020)

note: widespread ongoing transmission of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is occurring throughout Turkey; as of 6 June 2021, Turkey has reported a total of 5,537,386 cases of COVID-19 or 6,565.62 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 100,000 population with 60 cumulative deaths per 100,000 population; as of 19 July 2021, 46.29% of the population has received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 31.283 million tons (2015 est.)

NOTE: The information regarding Turkey on this page is re-published from the 2021 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Turkey 2021 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Turkey 2021 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 16 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.