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    • Telephone system:
      24,400,000 telephones; 20,900,000 telephones in urban areas and 3,500,000 telephones in rural areas; of these, total installed in homes 15,400,000; total pay phones for long distant calls 34,100; about 164 telephones/1,000 persons; Russia is enlisting foreign help, by means of joint ventures, to speed up the modernization of its telecommunications system; in 1992, only 661,000 new telephones were installed compared with 855,000 in 1991, and in 1992 the number of unsatisfied applications for telephones reached 11,000,000; expanded access to international E-mail service available via Sprint network; the inadequacy of Russian telecommunications is a severe handicap to the economy, especially with respect to international connections

        NMT-450 analog cellular telephone networks are operational and growing in Moscow and St. Petersburg

        intercity fiberoptic cable installation remains limited

        international traffic is handled by an inadequate system of satellites, land lines, microwave radio relay and outdated submarine cables; this traffic passes through the international gateway switch in Moscow which carries most of the international traffic for the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States; a new Russian Raduga satellite will link Moscow and St. Petersburg with Rome from whence calls will be relayed to destinations in Europe and overseas; satellite earth stations - INTELSAT, Intersputnik, Eutelsat (Moscow), INMARSAT, Orbita

    • Radio:

        broadcast stations:
        AM 1,050, FM 1,050, shortwave 1,050

        48.8 million (radio receivers with multiple speaker systems for program diffusion 74,300,000)

    • Television:

        broadcast stations:

        54.2 million

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Revised 13-August-1997