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Russia


    • Names:

        conventional long form:
        Russian Federation

        conventional short form:
        Russia

        local long form:
        Rossiyskaya Federatsiya

        local short form:
        Rossiya

        former:
        Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

    • Digraph:
      RS

    • Type:
      federation

    • Capital:
      Moscow

    • Administrative divisions:
      21 autonomous republics (avtomnykh respublik, singular - avtomnaya respublika); Adygea (Maykop), Bashkortostan (Ufa), Buryatia (Ulan-Ude), Chechnya (Groznyy), Chuvashia (Cheboksary), Dagestan (Makhachkala), Gorno-Altay (Gorno-Altaysk), Ingushetia (Nazran'), Kabardino-Balkaria (Nal'chik), Kalmykia (Elista), Karachay-Cherkessia (Cherkessk), Karelia (Petrozavodsk), Khakassia (Abakan), Komi (Syktyvkar), Mari El (Yoshkar-Ola), Mordovia (Saransk), North Ossetia (Vladikavkaz), Tatarstan (Kazan'), Tuva (Kyzyl), Udmurtia (Izhevsk), Yakutia - also known as Sakha (Yakutsk); 49 oblasts (oblastey, singular - oblast'); Amur (Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangel'sk, Astrakhan', Belgorod, Bryansk, Chelyabinsk, Chita, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy), Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma, Kurgan, Kursk, Leningrad (St. Petersburg), Lipetsk, Magadan, Moscow, Murmansk, Nizhniy Novgorod, Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orel, Orenburg, Penza, Perm', Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan', Sakhalin (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Samara, Saratov, Smolensk, Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg), Tambov, Tomsk, Tula, Tver', Tyumen', Ul'yanovsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh, Yaroslavl'; 6 krays (krayev, singular - kray); Altay (Barnaul), Khabarovsk, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Primorskiy (Vladivostok), Stavropol'; 10 autonomous okrugs; Aga (Aginskoye), Chukotka (Anadyr'), Evenkia (Tura), Khantia-Mansia (Khanty-Mansiysk), Koryakia (Palana), Nenetsia (Nar'yan-Mar), Permyakia (Kudymkar), Taymyria (Dudinka), Ust'-Onda (Ust'-Ordynskiy), Yamalia (Salekhard); 1 autonomous oblast (avtomnykh oblast'); Birobijan

        note:
        the autonomous republics of Chechnya and Ingushetia were formerly the autonomous republic of Checheno-Ingushetia (the boundary between Chechenia and Ingushetia has yet to be determined); the cities of Moscow and St. Petersburg are federal cities; an administrative division has the same name as its administrative center (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

    • Independence:
      24 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

    • National holiday:
      Independence Day, June 12 (1990)

    • Constitution:
      adopted 12 December 1993

    • Legal system:
      based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts

    • Suffrage:
      18 years of age; universal

    • Executive branch:

        chief of state:
        President Boris Nikolayevich YEL'TSIN (since 12 June 1991); election last held 12 June 1991 (next to be held NA 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; note - no vice president; if the president dies in office, cannot exercise his powers because of ill health, is impeached, or resigns, the premier succeeds him; the premier serves as acting president until a new presidential election is held, which must be within three months

        head of government:
        Premier and Chairman of the Council of Ministers Viktor Stepanovich CHERNOMYRDIN (since 14 December 1992); First Deputy Chairmen of the Council of Ministers Oleg SOSKOVETS (since 30 April 1993) and Anatoliy CHUBAYS (since 5 November 1994)

        Security Council:
        originally established as a presidential advisory body in June 1991, but restructured in March 1992 with responsibility for managing individual and state security

        Presidential Administration:
        drafts presidential edicts and provides staff and policy support to the entire executive branch

        cabinet:
        Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

        Group of Assistants:
        schedules president's appointments, processes presidential edicts and other official documents, and houses the president's press service and primary speechwriters

        Council of Heads of Republics:
        includes the leaders of the 21 ethnic-based Republics

        Council of Heads of Administrations:
        includes the leaders of the 66 autonomous territories and regions, and the mayors of Moscow and St. Petersburg

        Presidential Council:
        prepares policy papers for the president

    • Legislative branch:
      bicameral Federal Assembly

        Federation Council:
        elections last held 12 December 1993 (next to be held NA); results - two members elected from each of Russia's 89 territorial units for a total of 176 deputies; 2 seats unfilled as of 15 May 1994 (Chechnya did not participate in the election); Speaker Vladimir SHUMEYKO (Russia's Democratic Choice)

        State Duma:
        elections last held 12 December 1993 (next to be held NA December 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (450 total) Russia's Democratic Choice 78, New Regional Policy 66, Liberal Democrats 63, Agrarian Party 55, Communist Party of the Russian Federation 45, Unity and Accord 30, Yavlinskiy-Boldyrev-Lukin Bloc (Yabloko) 27, Women of Russia 23, Democratic Party of Russia 15, Russia's Path 12, other parties 23, affiliation unknown 12, unfilled (as of 13 March 1994; Chechnya did not participate in the election) 1; Speaker Ivan RYBKIN (Agrarian Party); note - as of 11 April 1995, seats were as follows: Russia's Democratic Choice 54, New Regional Policy 32, Liberal Democrats 54, Agrarian Party 51, Communist Party of the Russian Federation 45, Unity and Accord 25, Yavlinskiy-Boldyrev-Lukin Bloc (Yabloko) 28, Liberal Democratic Union of 12 December 9, Women of Russia 22, Democratic Party of Russia 10, Russia's Path 12, Duma 96 23, Russia 35, Stability 36, affiliation unknown 14

    • Judicial branch:
      Constitutional Court, Supreme Court (highest court for criminal, civil, and administrative cases), Superior Court of Arbitration (highest court that resolves economic disputes)

    • Political parties and leaders:

        pro-market democrats:
        Party of Russian Unity and Accord, Sergey SHAKHRAY; Russia's Democratic Choice Party, Yegor GAYDAR; Russian Movement for Democratic Reforms, Anatoliy SOBCHAK; Yavlinskiy-Boldyrev-Lukin Bloc (Yabloko), Grigoriy YAVLINSKIY; Liberal Democratic Union of 12 December, Boris FEDOROV

        centrists/special interest parties:
        Civic Union for Stability, Justice, and Progress, Arkadiy VOL'SKIY; Democratic Party of Russia, Sergey GLAZ'YEV; Women of Russia, Alevtina FEDULOVA; Social Democratic Peoples' Party, Vasiliy LIPITSKIY; New Regional Policy (NRP), Vladimir MEDVEDEV

        anti-market and/or ultranationalist parties:
        Agrarian Party, Mikhail LAPSHIN; Communist Party of the Russian Federation, Gennadiy ZYUGANOV; Liberal Democratic Party of Russia, Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY; Derzhava, Aleksandr RUTSKOY

        note:
        more than 20 political parties and associations tried to gather enough signatures to run slates of candidates in the 12 December 1993 legislative elections, but only 13 succeeded

    • Other political or pressure groups:
      NA

    • Member of:
      BSEC, CBSS, CCC, CE (guest), CERN (observer), CIS, EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NACC, NSG, OAS (observer), OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIH, UNOMOZ, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

    • Diplomatic representation in US:

        chief of mission:
        Ambassador Sergey LAVROV

        chancery:
        2650 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007

        telephone:
        [1] (202) 298-5700 through 5704

        FAX:
        [1] (202) 298-5735

        consulate(s) general:
        New York, San Francisco, and Seattle

    • US diplomatic representation:

        chief of mission:
        Ambassador Thomas R. PICKERING

        embassy:
        Novinskiy Bul'var 19/23, Moscow

        mailing address:
        APO AE 09721

        telephone:
        [7] (095) 252-24-51 through 59

        FAX:
        [7] (095) 956-42-61

        consulate(s) general:
        St. Petersburg, Vladivostok, Yekaterinburg

    • Flag:
      three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red






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