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Canada Geography 2018

SOURCE: 2018 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES











Canada Geography 2018
SOURCE: 2018 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES


Page last updated on February 28, 2018

Location:
Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates:
60 00 N, 95 00 W

Map references:
North America

Area:
total: 9,984,670 sq km
[see also: Area - total country ranks ]
land: 9,093,507 sq km
[see also: Area - land country ranks ]
water: 891,163 sq km
[see also: Area - water country ranks ]
country comparison to the world: 3

Area - comparative:
slightly larger than the US

Land boundaries:
total: 8,893 km
[see also: Land boundaries - total country ranks ]
border countries (1): US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)
note: Canada is the world's largest country that borders only one country

Coastline:
202,080 km
note: the Canadian Arctic Archipelago - consisting of 36,563 islands, several of them some of the world's largest - contributes to Canada easily having the longest coastline in the world
[see also: Coastline country ranks ]

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
[see also: Maritime claims - territorial sea country ranks ]
contiguous zone: 24 nm
[see also: Maritime claims - contiguous zone country ranks ]
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
[see also: Maritime claims - exclusive economic zone country ranks ]
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
[see also: Maritime claims - continental shelf country ranks ]

Climate:
varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north
More Climate Details

Terrain:
mostly plains with mountains in west, lowlands in southeast

Elevation:
mean elevation: 487 m
[see also: Elevation - mean elevation country ranks ]
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m

Natural resources:
iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, rare earth elements, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower

Land use:
agricultural land: 6.8% arable land 4.7%; permanent crops 0.5%; permanent pasture 1.6%
[see also: Land use - agricultural land country ranks ]
forest: 34.1%
[see also: Land use - forest country ranks ]
other: 59.1% (2011 est.)
[see also: Land use - other country ranks ]

Irrigated land:
8,700 sq km (2012)
[see also: Irrigated land country ranks ]

Population - distribution:
vast majority of Canadians are positioned in a discontinuous band within approximately 300 km (180 mi) of the southern border with the United States; the most populated province is Ontario, followed by Quebec and British Columbia

Natural hazards:
continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains
volcanism: the vast majority of volcanoes in Western Canada's Coast Mountains remain dormant

Environment - current issues:
metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting agricultural and forest productivity; air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:
second-largest country in world (after Russia) and largest in the Americas; strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km (100 mi) of the US border; Canada has more fresh water than any other country and almost 9% of Canadian territory is water; Canada has at least 2 million and possibly over 3 million lakes - that is more than all other countries combined


NOTE: 1) The information regarding Canada on this page is re-published from the 2018 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Canada Geography 2018 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Canada Geography 2018 should be addressed to the CIA.
2) The rank that you see is the CIA reported rank, which may habe the following issues:
  a) The assign increasing rank number, alphabetically for countries with the same value of the ranked item, whereas we assign them the same rank.
  b) The CIA sometimes assignes counterintuitive ranks. For example, it assigns unemployment rates in increasing order, whereas we rank them in decreasing order






This page was last modified 28-Feb-18
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