Canada People - 2023


GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES  Spanish Simplified Chinese French German Russian Hindi Arabic Portuguese


38,516,736 (2023 est.)


noun: Canadian(s)

adjective: Canadian

Ethnic groups

Canadian 15.6%, English 14.7%, Scottish 12.1%, French 11%, Irish 12.1%, German 8.1%, Chinese 4.7%, Italian 4.3%, First Nations 1.7%, Indian 3.7%, Ukrainian 3.5%, Metis 1.5% (2021 est.)

note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic origin


English (official) 87.1%, French (official) 29.1%, Chinese languages 4.2%, Spanish 3.2%, Punjabi 2.6%, Arabic 2.4%, Tagalog 2.3%, Italian 1.5% (2022 est.)

major-language sample(s):
The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information. (English)

The World Factbook, une source indispensable d'informations de base. (French)

French audio sample:


Christian 53.3%, Muslim 4.9%, Hindu 2.3%, Sikh 2.1%, Buddhist 1%, Jewish 0.9%, Traditional (North American Indigenous) 0.2%, other religions and traditional spirituality 0.6%, none 34.6% (2021 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.65% (male 3,097,585/female 2,930,056)

15-64 years: 63.85% (male 12,367,172/female 12,224,077)

65 years and over: 20.5% (2023 est.) (male 3,630,580/female 4,267,266)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 52.1

youth dependency ratio: 23.9

elderly dependency ratio: 28.2

potential support ratio: 3.6 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 41.8 years

male: 40.6 years

female: 42.9 years (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

0.73% (2023 est.)

Birth rate

10.11 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate

8.17 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate

5.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution

vast majority of Canadians are positioned in a discontinuous band within approximately 300 km of the southern border with the United States; the most populated province is Ontario, followed by Quebec and British Columbia


urban population: 81.9% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.95% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

6.372 million Toronto, 4.308 million Montreal, 2.657 million Vancouver, 1.640 million Calgary, 1.544 million Edmonton, 1.437 million OTTAWA (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

29.4 years (2019 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

11 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 4.31 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.6 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 83.99 years

male: 81.72 years

female: 86.39 years (2023 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.57 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

0.77 (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate


Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.3% of population

rural: 99.1% of population

total: 99.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.7% of population

rural: 0.9% of population

total: 0.8% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

12.9% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

2.44 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

2.5 beds/1,000 population (2019)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.1% of population

rural: 98.9% of population

total: 99% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.9% of population

rural: 1.1% of population

total: 1% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

note: on 22 March 2023, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a Travel Alert for polio in North America; Canada is currently considered a high risk to travelers for circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV); vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) is a strain of the weakened poliovirus that was initially included in oral polio vaccine (OPV) and that has changed over time and behaves more like the wild or naturally occurring virus; this means it can be spread more easily to people who are unvaccinated against polio and who come in contact with the stool or respiratory secretions, such as from a sneeze, of an “infected” person who received oral polio vaccine; the CDC recommends that before any international travel, anyone unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or with an unknown polio vaccination status should complete the routine polio vaccine series; before travel to any high-risk destination, the CDC recommends that adults who previously completed the full, routine polio vaccine series receive a single, lifetime booster dose of polio vaccine

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

29.4% (2016)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 8 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 3.5 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 2 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 2.1 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.4 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 13% (2020 est.)

male: 15.3% (2020 est.)

female: 10.7% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight


Currently married women (ages 15-49)

52.2% (2023 est.)

Education expenditures

5.2% of GDP (2020 est.)


total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 17 years

male: 16 years

female: 17 years (2020)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 14%

male: 15%

female: 13.1% (2021 est.)

NOTE: The information regarding Canada on this page is re-published from the 2023 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Canada 2023 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Canada 2023 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 06 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.