Djibouti-Somalia: Djibouti maintains economic ties and border accords with "Somaliland" leadership while maintaining some political ties to various factions in Somalia;
Djibouti-Eritrea: in 2008, Eritrean troops moved across the border on Ras Doumera peninsula and occupied Doumera Island with undefined sovereignty in the Red Sea; the Eritrean occupation of remote Doumeira Island and portions peninsula persists unabated as of September 2009; porous boundary over largely uninhabited areas provides access for smuggling and other illegal activities; as of 7 June 2010, Qatar was mediating Eritrea-Djibouti border dispute,
Djibouti-Ethiopia: While Djibouti has had significant issues along its border with neighbors such as Somalia and Eritrea, the Ethiopia-Djibouti relationship has been relatively harmonious; diplomatic relations between the two countries were initially established in 1984; historically, there is co-ownership of the Addis Ababa-Djibout railways and acts as a symbol of the healthy bi-lateral partnership between both Ethiopia and Djibouti; in 1991 a Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation was signed by the two countries; Ethiopia uses the Port of Djibouti as a major hub for export and import of goods since 1998; after establishing independence, there have been no major disputes along this border.
refugees (country of origin): 14,152 (Somalia), 6,518 (Yemen) (mid-year 2022)
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List — Djibouti does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so; Djibouti partnered with international experts to expand training, formalized standard operating procedures for victim identification, enhanced a partnership with an international organization to develop victim referral procedures for transiting migrants, appointed a government focal point and inter-ministerial task force to combat human trafficking, and conducted awareness campaigns; however, the government did not demonstrate overall increasing efforts to improve its anti-trafficking capacity; the government did not convict any traffickers for the fifth consecutive year, and judges continue to use outdated versions of the penal code that do not include the 2016 anti-trafficking law; officials did not identify any trafficking victims for the third consecutive year and lacked formal services for victims; despite training, some front-line officials’ limited understanding of trafficking continued to inhibit law enforcement and victim identification; for the seventh consecutive year, the government only partially implemented its 2015-2022 national action plan; therefore, Djibouti remained on Tier 2 Watch List for the second consecutive year (2022)
trafficking profile: human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Djibouti, and to a lesser extent, traffickers exploit victims from Djibouti abroad; adults and children, primarily undocumented economic migrants from Ethiopia and Somalia, transit Djibouti en route to Yemen and other locations in the Middle East, particularly Saudi Arabia; a number of these migrants are exploited in forced labor and sex trafficking at their intended destinations, and they are also vulnerable to trafficking at various transit points, particularly Yemen; economic migrants who transit Djibouti to return to their home countries are vulnerable to trafficking; Djibouti—with a population of less than one million—hosts more than 35,000 refugees and asylum-seekers, and many of them have endured and remained vulnerable to trafficking; Djiboutian and migrant women and children living in the streets face exploitation in sex trafficking or forced labor; traffickers, including family members, may exploit local and migrant children in forced begging; foreign workers—including Ethiopians, Yemenis, Indians, Pakistanis, and Filipinos—may be exploited in forced labor in domestic servitude, construction, and food service sectors; Cuban medical professionals in Djibouti may have been forced to work by the Cuban government (2022)
NOTE: The information regarding Djibouti on this page is re-published from the 2023 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Djibouti 2023 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Djibouti 2023 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.
This page was last modified 10 Nov 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.