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Germany Economy 2018

SOURCE: 2018 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES











Germany Economy 2018
SOURCE: 2018 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES


Page last updated on February 28, 2018

Economy - overview:
The German economy - the fifth largest economy in the world in PPP terms and Europe's largest - is a leading exporter of machinery, vehicles, chemicals, and household equipment and benefits from a highly skilled labor force. Like its Western European neighbors, Germany faces significant demographic challenges to sustained long-term growth. Low fertility rates and a large increase in net immigration are increasing pressure on the country's social welfare system and necessitate structural reforms.Reforms launched by the government of Chancellor Gerhard SCHROEDER (1998-2005), deemed necessary to address chronically high unemployment and low average growth, contributed to strong growth and falling unemployment. These advances, as well as a government subsidized, reduced working hour scheme, help explain the relatively modest increase in unemployment during the 2008-09 recession - the deepest since World War II. The German Government introduced a minimum wage in 2015 that increased to $9.79 (8.84 euros) in January 2017.Stimulus and stabilization efforts initiated in 2008 and 2009 and tax cuts introduced in Chancellor Angela MERKEL's second term increased Germany's total budget deficit - including federal, state, and municipal - to 4.1% in 2010, but slower spending and higher tax revenues reduced the deficit to 0.8% in 2011 and in 2017 Germany reached a budget surplus of 0.7%. A constitutional amendment approved in 2009 limits the federal government to structural deficits of no more than 0.35% of GDP per annum as of 2016, though the target was already reached in 2012.The German economy suffers from low levels of investment, and a government plan to invest 15 billion euros during 2016-18, largely in infrastructure, is intended to spur needed private investment. Following the March 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, Chancellor Angela MERKEL announced in May 2011 that eight of the country's 17 nuclear reactors would be shut down immediately and the remaining plants would close by 2022. Germany plans to replace nuclear power largely with renewable energy, which accounted for 29.5% of gross electricity consumption in 2016, up from 9% in 2000. Before the shutdown of the eight reactors, Germany relied on nuclear power for 23% of its electricity generating capacity and 46% of its base-load electricity production. Domestic consumption, bolstered by low energy prices and a weak euro, and exports are likely to drive German GDP growth again in 2018.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$4.15 trillion (2017 est.) $4.066 trillion (2016 est.) $3.992 trillion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 6

GDP (official exchange rate):
$3.652 trillion (2016 est.)
[see also: GDP (official exchange rate) country ranks ]

GDP - real growth rate:
2.1% (2017 est.) 1.9% (2016 est.) 1.5% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149
[see also: GDP - real growth rate country ranks ]

GDP - per capita:
$50,200 (2017 est.) $49,300 (2016 est.) $48,900 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 27

Gross national saving:
27.6% of GDP (2017 est.) 27.5% of GDP (2016 est.) 27.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
[see also: Gross national saving country ranks ]

GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 53.7%
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - household consumption country ranks ]
government consumption: 19.9%
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - government consumption country ranks ]
investment in fixed capital: 20.1%
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - investment in fixed capital country ranks ]
investment in inventories: -1%
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - investment in inventories country ranks ]
exports of goods and services: 47.3%
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - exports of goods and services country ranks ]
imports of goods and services: -40% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - imports of goods and services country ranks ]

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 0.6%
[see also: GDP - composition, by sector of origin - agriculture country ranks ]
industry: 30.1%
[see also: GDP - composition, by sector of origin - industry country ranks ]
services: 69.3% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by sector of origin - services country ranks ]

Agriculture - products:
potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; milk products; cattle, pigs, poultry

Industries:
among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, automobiles, food and beverages, shipbuilding, textiles

Industrial production growth rate:
1.4% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 156
[see also: Industrial production growth rate country ranks ]

Labor force:
45.9 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
[see also: Labor force country ranks ]

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 1.4%
[see also: Labor force - by occupation - agriculture country ranks ]
industry: 24.2%
[see also: Labor force - by occupation - industry country ranks ]
services: 74.3% (2016)
[see also: Labor force - by occupation - services country ranks ]

Unemployment rate:
3.8% (2017 est.) 4.2% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
[see also: Unemployment rate country ranks ]

Population below poverty line:
16.7% (2015 est.)
[see also: Population below poverty line country ranks ]

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.6%
[see also: Household income or consumption by percentage share - lowest 10% country ranks ]
highest 10%: 24% (2000)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
27 (2006) 30 (1994)
country comparison to the world: 137
[see also: Distribution of family income - Gini index country ranks ]

Budget:
revenues: $1.598 trillion
[see also: Budget - revenues country ranks ]
expenditures: $1.573 trillion (2017 est.)
[see also: Budget - expenditures country ranks ]

Taxes and other revenues:
43.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
[see also: Taxes and other revenues country ranks ]

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
0.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
[see also: Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) country ranks ]

Public debt:
65.7% of GDP (2017 est.) 68.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government and social security funds; the series are presented as a percentage of GDP and in millions of euro; GDP used as a denominator is the gross domestic product at current market prices; data expressed in national currency are converted into euro using end-of-year exchange rates provided by the European Central Bank
country comparison to the world: 61
[see also: Public debt country ranks ]

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.6% (2017 est.) 0.4% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
[see also: Inflation rate (consumer prices) country ranks ]

Central bank discount rate:
0.25% (31 December 2016) 0.3% (31 December 2010)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
country comparison to the world: 135
[see also: Central bank discount rate country ranks ]

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
1.8% (31 December 2017 est.) 1.6% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 179
[see also: Commercial bank prime lending rate country ranks ]

Stock of narrow money:
$2.312 trillion (31 December 2017 est.) $2.016 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
country comparison to the world: 5
[see also: Stock of narrow money country ranks ]

Stock of broad money:
$3.282 trillion (31 December 2017 est.) $2.908 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
[see also: Stock of broad money country ranks ]

Stock of domestic credit:
$4.766 trillion (31 December 2017 est.) $4.433 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
[see also: Stock of domestic credit country ranks ]

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$1.716 trillion (31 December 2015 est.) $1.739 trillion (31 December 2014 est.) $1.936 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
[see also: Market value of publicly traded shares country ranks ]

Current account balance:
$296 billion (2017 est.) $290.4 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
[see also: Current account balance country ranks ]

Exports:
$1.401 trillion (2017 est.) $1.322 trillion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
[see also: Exports country ranks ]

Exports - commodities:
motor vehicles, machinery, chemicals, computer and electronic products, electrical equipment, pharmaceuticals, metals, transport equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, rubber and plastic products

Exports - partners:
US 8.9%, France 8.4%, UK 7.1%, Netherlands 6.5%, China 6.4%, Italy 5.1%, Austria 5%, Poland 4.5%, Switzerland 4.2% (2016)

Imports:
$1.104 trillion (2017 est.) $1.022 trillion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
[see also: Imports country ranks ]

Imports - commodities:
machinery, data processing equipment, vehicles, chemicals, oil and gas, metals, electric equipment, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, agricultural products

Imports - partners:
Netherlands 13.3%, China 7.3%, France 7.3%, Belgium 6.1%, Italy 5.5%, Poland 5.2%, Czech Republic 4.7%, US 4.6%, Switzerland 4.4%, Austria 4.4%, UK 4.1% (2016)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$185.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $173.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
[see also: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold country ranks ]

Debt - external:
$5.326 trillion (31 March 2016 est.) $5.21 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
[see also: Debt - external country ranks ]

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$1.455 trillion (31 December 2017 est.) $1.391 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
[see also: Stock of direct foreign investment - at home country ranks ]

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$2.074 trillion (31 December 2017 est.) $1.981 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
[see also: Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad country ranks ]

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.906 (2017 est.) 0.9214 (2016 est.) 0.9214 (2015 est.) 0.885 (2014 est.) 0.7634 (2013 est.)


NOTE: 1) The information regarding Germany on this page is re-published from the 2018 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Germany Economy 2018 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Germany Economy 2018 should be addressed to the CIA.
2) The rank that you see is the CIA reported rank, which may habe the following issues:
  a) The assign increasing rank number, alphabetically for countries with the same value of the ranked item, whereas we assign them the same rank.
  b) The CIA sometimes assignes counterintuitive ranks. For example, it assigns unemployment rates in increasing order, whereas we rank them in decreasing order






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