Germany Transportation - 2023


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National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 20 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1,113

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 109,796,202 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 7,969,860,000 (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix



539 (2021)

Airports - with paved runways


civil airports: 49

military airports: 21

joint use (civil-military) airports: 6

other airports: 242

note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports - with unpaved runways


note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control


23 (2021)


37 km condensate, 26,985 km gas, 2,400 km oil, 4,479 km refined products, 8 km water (2013)


total: 39,379 km (2020) 20,942 km electrified

15 km 0.900-mm gauge, 24 km 0.750-mm gauge (2015)


total: 830,000 km (2022) 830,000 km

paved: 830,000 km (2022) (includes 13,155 km of expressways)

note: includes local roads


7,300 km (2022) (Rhine River carries most goods; Main-Danube Canal links North Sea and Black Sea)

Merchant marine

total: 592

by type: bulk carrier 1, container ship 72, general cargo 79, oil tanker 34, other 406 (2022)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s):
Baltic Sea: Kiel, Rostock
North Sea: Bremerhaven, Brunsbuttel, Emden, Hamburg, Wilhelmshaven

oil terminal(s): Brunsbuttel Canal terminals

container port(s) (TEUs): Bremen/Bremerhaven (5,018,900), Hamburg (8,715,000) (2021)

LNG terminal(s) (import): Hamburg; Brunsbuettel (FSRU); Lubmin (FSRU); Wilhelmshaven (FSRU)

river port(s): Bremen (Weser); Bremerhaven (Geeste); Duisburg, Karlsruhe, Neuss-Dusseldorf (Rhine); Lubeck (Wakenitz); Brunsbuttel, Hamburg (Elbe)

Transportation - note

Germany operates one PC 5 or 6 class icebreaker based in the North Atlantic
note - PC indicates a Polar Class vessel: PC 5 - year-round operation in medium first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions (ice thickness up to 70-120 cm); PC 6 - summer/autumn operation in medium first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions (ice thickness up to 30-70 cm)

NOTE: The information regarding Germany on this page is re-published from the 2023 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Germany 2023 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Germany 2023 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 06 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.