Tonga Environment - 2023


SOURCE: 2023 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK

Environment - current issues

deforestation from land being cleared for agriculture and settlement; soil exhaustion; water pollution due to salinization, sewage, and toxic chemicals from farming activities; coral reefs and marine populations threatened

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Climate

tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool season (May to December)

Land use

agricultural land: 43.1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 22.2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 15.3% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 5.6% (2018 est.)

forest: 12.5% (2018 est.)

other: 44.4% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 23.2% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.99% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.03% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 10.08 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 0.13 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 0.12 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 17,238 tons (2012 est.)

Total renewable water resources

0 cubic meters (2017 est.)

NOTE: The information regarding Tonga on this page is re-published from the 2023 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Tonga 2023 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Tonga 2023 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 10 Nov 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.