India Geography 2019


India Geography 2019

Page last updated on February 08, 2019

Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan

Geographic coordinates:
20 00 N, 77 00 E

Map references:

total: 3,287,263 sq km
[see also: Area - total country ranks ]
land: 2,973,193 sq km
[see also: Area - land country ranks ]
water: 314,070 sq km
[see also: Area - water country ranks ]
country comparison to the world: 8

Area - comparative:
slightly more than one-third the size of the US

Area comparison map:Area comparison map

slightly more than one-third the size of the US

Land boundaries:
total: 13,888 km
[see also: Land boundaries - total country ranks ]
border countries (6): Bangladesh 4142 km, Bhutan 659 km, Burma 1468 km, China 2659 km, Nepal 1770 km, Pakistan 3190 km

7,000 km
[see also: Coastline country ranks ]

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
[see also: Maritime claims - territorial sea country ranks ]
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
[see also: Maritime claims - exclusive economic zone country ranks ]
contiguous zone: 24 nm
[see also: Maritime claims - contiguous zone country ranks ]
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
[see also: Maritime claims - continental shelf country ranks ]

varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
More Climate Details

upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north

mean elevation: 160 m
[see also: Elevation - mean elevation country ranks ]
elevation extremes: 0 m lowest point: Indian Ocean
8586 highest point: Kanchenjunga

Natural resources:
coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), antimony, iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, rare earth elements, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land

Land use:
agricultural land: 60.5% (2011 est.)
[see also: Land use - agricultural land country ranks ]
arable land: 52.8% (2011 est.)
[see also: Land use - arable land country ranks ]
permanent crops: 4.2% (2011 est.)
[see also: Land use - permanent crops country ranks ]
permanent pasture: 3.5% (2011 est.)
[see also: Land use - permanent pasture country ranks ]
forest: 23.1% (2011 est.)
[see also: Land use - forest country ranks ]
other: 16.4% (2011 est.)
[see also: Land use - other country ranks ]

Irrigated land:
667,000 sq km (2012)
[see also: Irrigated land country ranks ]

Population distribution:
with the notable exception of the deserts in the northwest, including the Thar Desert, and the mountain fringe in the north, a very high population density exists throughout most of the country; the core of the population is in the north along the banks of the Ganges, with other river valleys and southern coastal areas also having large population concentrations

Natural hazards:
droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes

volcanism: Barren Island (354 m) in the Andaman Sea has been active in recent years

Environment - current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources; preservation and quality of forests; biodiversity loss

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain in the world, lies on the border with Nepal

NOTE: 1) The information regarding India on this page is re-published from the 2019 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of India Geography 2019 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about India Geography 2019 should be addressed to the CIA.
2) The rank that you see is the CIA reported rank, which may habe the following issues:
  a) They assign increasing rank number, alphabetically for countries with the same value of the ranked item, whereas we assign them the same rank.
  b) The CIA sometimes assignes counterintuitive ranks. For example, it assigns unemployment rates in increasing order, whereas we rank them in decreasing order

This page was last modified 08-Feb-19
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