- A method of separating large molecules (such as DNA fragments or proteins) from a mixture of similar molecules. An electric current is passed through a medium containing the mixture, and each kind of molecule travels through the medium at a different rate, depending on its electrical charge and size. Agarose and acrylamide gels are the media commonly used for electrophoresis of proteins and nucleic acids.
- A process using high-voltage current to make cell membranes permeable to allow the introduction of new DNA; commonly used in recombinant DNA technology.
Embryonic stem (ES) cells
- An embryonic cell that can replicate indefinitely, transform into other types of cells, and serve as a continuous source of new cells.
- A protein that acts as a catalyst, speeding the rate at which a biochemical reaction proceeds but not altering the direction or nature of the reaction. Organisms could not function if they had
- One gene interfers with or prevents the expression of another gene located at a different locus.
- Common bacterium that has been studied intensively by geneticists because of its small genome size, normal lack of pathogenicity, and ease of growth in the laboratory.
- The study of improving a species by artificial selection; usually refers to the selective breeding of humans.
- Cell or organism with membrane-bound, structurally discrete nucleus and other well-developed subcellular compartments. Eukaryotes include all organisms except viruses, bacteria, and bluegreen algae.
- DNA originating outside an organism that has been introducted into the organism.
- The protein-coding DNA sequence of a gene.
The region of a gene that contains the code for producing the
gene's protein. Each exon codes for a specific portion of the
complete protein. In some species (including humans), a gene's
exons are separated by long regions of DNA (called introns or
sometimes "junk DNA") that have no apparent function.
- An enzyme that cleaves nucleotides sequentially from free ends of a linear nucleic acid substrate.
Expressed sequence tag (EST)
- A short strand of DNA that is a part of a cDNA molecule and can act as identifier of a gene. Used in locating and mapping genes.
cDNA, sequence tagged site