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T

Tandem repeat sequences
Multiple copies of the same base sequence on a chromosome; used as markers in physical mapping.
See also: physical map

Taper needle

Taper needle (synonyms: non cutting, atraumatic, round)
The body of this needle tapers down to a fine point, permitting minimum tissue damage. This needle is especially suitable for soft tissue.
See also: needles

Targeted mutagenesis
Deliberate change in the genetic structure directed at a specific site on the chromosome. Used in research to determine the targeted region's function.
See also: mutation, polymorphism

Technology transfer
The process of transferring scientific findings from research laboratories to the commercial sector.

Telomerase
The enzyme that directs the replication of telomeres.

Telomere
The end of a chromosome. This specialized structure is involved in the replication and stability of linear DNA molecules.
See also: DNA replication

Teratogenic
Substances such as chemicals or radiation that cause abnormal development of a embryo.
See also: mutatgen

Thymine (T)
A nitrogenous base, one member of the base pair AT (adenine-thymine). It is one of the four bases in DNA that make up the letters ATGC, thymine is the "T". The others are adenine, guanine, and cytosine. Thymine always pairs with adenine.
See also: base pair, nucleotide

Toxicogenomics
The study of how genomes respond to environmental stressors or toxicants. Combines genome-wide mRNA expression profiling with protein expression patterns using bioinformatics to understand the role of gene-environment interactions in disease and dysfunction.

Transcription
The synthesis of an RNA copy from a sequence of DNA (a gene); the first step in gene expression. It is The process by which RNA polymerase assembles an RNA molecule complementary to the template strand (antisense) of the DNA. The product may be messenger RNA, transfer RNA or ribosomal RNA.
See also: translation

Transcription factor
A protein that binds to regulatory regions and helps control gene expression.

Transcriptome
The full complement of activated genes, mRNAs, or transcripts in a particular tissue at a particular time

Transfection
The introduction of foreign DNA into a host cell.
See also: cloning vector, gene therapy

Transfer RNA (tRNA)
A class of RNA having structures with triplet nucleotide sequences that are complementary to the triplet nucleotide coding sequences of mRNA. The role of tRNAs in protein synthesis is to bond with amino acids and transfer them to the ribosomes, where proteins are assembled according to the genetic code carried by mRNA.

Transformation
A process by which the genetic material carried by an individual cell is altered by incorporation of exogenous DNA into its genome.

Transgenic
An experimentally produced organism in which DNA has been artificially introduced and incorporated into the organism's germ line.
See also: cell, DNA, gene, nucleus, germ line

Translation
The process by which messenger RNA directs a ribosome to assemble a polypeptide. As specified in the genetic code each codon in the mRNA corresponds to an amino acid. The assembly of the protein stops when the ribosome encounters one of three possible stop codons.
See also: transcription

Translocation
A mutation in which a large segment of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome.
See also: mutation

Transposable element
A class of DNA sequences that can move from one chromosomal site to another.

Trisomy
Possessing three copies of a particular chromosome instead of the normal two copies.
See also: cell, gene, gene expression, chromosome


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