| RECIPIES | BEAUTY | FASHION | DESIGN | STYLE | SHOPPING | PERFUME | SHOES | WATCHES | EYEWEAR | DIAMONDS | HEALTH | JOBS |
Culinary Dictionary
Cooking Glossary - Food Industry Terminology

    Custom Search
    Feedback form







A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

- C -

Cabanossi: A salami-type sausage popular in Southern Europe.

Cabbage: Common cabbage has a tight round head of waxy, tightly wrapped light green leaves. Other varieties include white and red.

Cabra: [Spanish] goat.

Cabrito: A dish of young cooked goat that is popular in Portugal, Spain and Mexico.

Cabrito: [Spanish] unweaned goat; suckling goat; kid goat; usually split and spit roasted whole; considered a delicacy in Mexico and the Southwest; a favorite dish in northern Mexico, especially at Easter.

Cacahuates: [Spanish] peanuts.

Cacciatore: An Italian stew-like dish flavored with onions, herbs, mushrooms, tomatoes and sometimes wine.

Cacoa: (kuh-KOW) Tropical evergreen tree cultivated for its seed pods from which cocoa powder and cocoa butter are produced.

Cactus paddle: In the southwest and Mexico, the large, flat, fleshy, oval green pads of the nopal cactus are prepared as a vegetable. When cooked, pieces have the color and translucence of cooked bell pepper, but they are also viscid, like okra. The flavor is something between a bell pepper and artichoke or asparagus or okra.

Cactus: The pads and fruits of the Opuntia cactus are cooked and eaten.

Cafe Brulot: Coffee spiced with cinnamon, sugar, lemon or orange rind, and brandy; sometimes served flaming.

Cafe Brulot: Spices and other ingredients flamed with brandy or some other spirits to which hot coffee is added.

Cafe Noir: Black coffee.

Cafe: [Spanish] coffee.

Caffeine: A mild organic stimulant found in foods such as coffee, tea and chocolate; acts as a stimulant on the nervous system, kidneys and heart, dilates the blood vessels and induces the release of insulin in the body.

Cage (food industry term): A secure area used to store selected products, such as cigarettes and aerosols.

Caguama: [Spanish] sea turtle.

Cajeta: [Spanish] originally a little wooden box made to hold sweets; burned milk; goat's milk caramel; goat's milk that has been mixed with sugar and cooked into a brown paste; dessert, usually of fruit or milk, cooked with sugar until thick.

Cajun: Cooking influenced by southern U.S. and French cuisine.

Cake cooler: Wire rack.

Cake Flour, Pastry Flour: A fine-textured, wheat flour with a high starch content used for making cakes, pastry doughs and other tender baked goods.

Cake flour: Fine-textured, silky flour milled from soft wheat, with a low protein content for making cakes, cookies, pastries and some breads.

Cake tin: Baking pan.

Cake: A broad range of sweet, baked pastry confections containing flour, sugar, flavorings and eggs and/or leavening agents such as baking powder or baking soda.

Cal: dolomitic lime; slaked lime; mineral added to corn when making nixtamal masa to loosen the kernels' skins.

Cala: A deep-fried, sweet rice cake resembling doughnut holes sprinkled with sugar, commonly served in New Orleans around the holiday of Revillion.

Calabacita: [Spanish] squash; zucchini. A variety of summer squash found in Latin American and Mexican cooking.

Calabash: A variety of passion fruit native to Central America and the Caribbean. Shaped similar to an apple with a thin yellow-brown skin. In Southern cooking the term applies to breaded or battered fried fish.

Calabaza: Baked pumpkin.

Calabaza: [Spanish] pumpkin. This pumpkin-like winter squash, usually sold in slices or hunks in markets catering to Central and South Americans. Also known as West Indian pumpkin, calabaza is quite frequently better than pumpkin when cooked in the same way.

Calamares: [Spanish] squid.

Calamari: This ten:armed cephalopod, commonly known as "squid," is related to the octopus. They vary in size from 1 inch to 80 feet in length. The meat is firm and chewy, with a somewhat sweet flavor. Over:cooking can lead to a rubbery texture.

Calamari: Italian and [Spanish] squid.

Calamata olives: Purple-black Greek olives of generally high quality. Also spelled kalamata olives.

Calcium: A necessary mineral found in all dairy products, most dark leafy green vegetables (such as kale, turnip greens and broccoli), dried peas and beans, sardines and canned salmon with bones. Almost 100 percent of the body's supply of calcium goes into forming and maintaining bones and teeth.

Caldero: [Spanish] heavy kettle.

Caldillo: A thick Mexican stew of meat, potatoes and chiles. Also the name used to define a light Spanish broth.

Caldillo: [Spanish] little soup; thick stew with beef and chiles; commonly served in El Paso and Juarez.

Caldo (caldillo): [Spanish] broth, stock or clear soup.

Caldo de cerdo: [Spanish] pork broth.

Caldo Verde: A Portuguese soup made from a sharp flavored cabbage, potatoes, broth, and olive oil. Sausage is then cooked in the soup.

Calendar (food industry term): A chronological list by month of the major trade shows pertaining to the supermarket industry.

Calendar marketing agreement (cma) (food industry term): An agreement between a retailer and a manufacturer in which the retailer agrees to promote the manufacturer's products according to a specific schedule.

Calf fries: [Spanish] ranch treat of quick-fried calf scrotum; also called mountain oysters.

Calico bass: One of a large number of North American freshwater fish closely related to the perch. Known for their bright, sunny colors, calico bass are also known as "sunfish."

California sheepshead: A saltwater fish belonging to the wrasse family. Also called "sheepshead," "fathead," and "redhead." Its meat is white, tender, and lean.

Callo de hacha: [Spanish] pinna clam.

Calorie Free: A food containing less than 5 calories per serving.

Calorie: A unit of heat used to measure food energy. Also written as kcalorie, kcal or Cal., it is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius. Calories are obtained from alcohol, carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Of the four, fats and alcohol have a higher caloric density than proteins and carbohydrates.

Calzone: A stuffed, half-moon-shaped Italian turnover, similar to a pizza folded in half and baked or deep fried. Also the name for a Mexican sugar cookie.

Calzone: A stuffed, half-moon-shaped Italian turnover, similar to a pizza folded in half and baked or deep fried. Also the name for a Mexican sugar cookie.

Calzone: [Italian} "trousers." A half-moon shaped pizza turnover, often served with sauce over the top rather than inside.

Camarones (camaron): [Spanish] shrimps; shrimp.

Camembert Cheese: A soft, surface-ripened French cheese, similar to brie. The cheese is famous for its gray, felt-like rind, slightly bitter flavor and complex aroma. When overripe, camembert will be runny, bitter and rank. When ripe, the cheese should ooze thickly, look plump and feel soft to the touch.

Camote: [Spanish] yam; sweet potato.

Campechana: [Spanish] blend or mixture.

Can code (food industry term): A manufacturer's code that describes the facility, shift, date and time that a product was packaged.

Can manufacturers institute (cmi) (food industry term): 1625 Massachusetts Ave., N.W. Washington DC 20036 (202) 232-4677

Canadian bacon: A lean, smoked meat that is closer to ham than to bacon. It comes from the lean tender eye of the loin, located in the middle of the back. It is called "back bacon" in Canada.

Canadian Bacon: The lean, boneless rib-eye of a pork loin which has been cured and smoked.

Canadian bacon: The large rib-eye muscle of the pork loin, cured and smoked. It is boneless and more lean than streaky bacon, making it a good ham substitute for those watching their fat intake.

Canape: French for an appetizer prepared and served on toast or crackers.

Canape: [French] plain or toasted bread or crackers topped with a savory mixture. Usually served as appetizers, with cocktails, snacks or for lunch. They may be served hot or cold, they are often elaborately garnished.

Canard: Duck

Canard: [French] duck.

Candele Pasta: Pipe-shaped pasta, about ½ inch to ? inch in diameter.

Candied ginger: Found in Asian markets.

Candied: Cooked in sugar or syrup until transparent and well-coated.

Candlefish: A rich and oily mild:flavored fish. This variety of smelt is so named because Indians sometimes run a wick through their high:fat flesh and use them for candles. Also known as the "Eulachon."

Candy (food industry term): A category that includes candies, chewing gum and other confections.

Candy Thermometer: A large glass, mercury kitchen thermometer used for testing the temperature while making candy, jams, and jellies.

Candy thermometer: Cooking tool comprised of a large glass mercury thermometer that measures temperatures from about 40 degrees F to 400 degrees F. A frame or clip allows it to stand or hang in a pan during cooking for accurate temperature measurement.

Cane Syrup: A thick, sweet syrup made from sugarcane.

Cane syrup: A sweet, dark brown, very thick sugar cane syrup, tasting something like dark brown sugar.

Canela: [Spanish] cinnamon; Ceylon cinnamon; lighter in color and more subtle in flavor than cinnamon sold in the United States; dried inner bark of the "Cinnamomum zeylanicum" tree, which was brought to Mexico from Sri Lanka; canela sticks have a rough, torn appearance, and its soft surface grinds easily in spice mills and blenders.

Caneton: [French] duckling.

Canned cowboy: Canned milk, a term from the American West.

Cannellini Beans: A large creamy, white kidney bean used in Italian cooking. They are sometimes referred to as Northern beans.

Cannellini beans: [Italian] large, creamy white bean often included in Italian cooking. Also known as Northern beans, this legume makes an excellent vegetarian substitute for both fish and chicken due to its rich texture.

Cannelloni: Large pasta tubes that are boiled, then stuffed with a meat or cheese filling and baked with a sauce.

Cannelloni: [Italian] large tubular-shaped noodles usually served stuffed. An Italian dish made of sheets or tubes of pasta filled with meat, cheese or fish, sauced and baked au gratin. Variations of this use thin pancakes, called crespelle, which are similar to crepes and are filled and cooked in the same manner as the pasta.

Cannibalization (food industry term): A competitive factor that reduces a product's sales, such as the debut of a competing brand.

Canning & pickling salt: A pure granulated salt, with no additives or free-flowing agents. It may be used the same as table salt in baking recipes. It may cake when exposed to greater than 75 percent relative humidity. Also, see Salt glossary listing.

Canning Funnel: A wide-stemmed funnel (usually made of metal to resist heat) specifically designed to fit the necks of standard home canning jars.

Cannoli: [Italian] a crisp pastry tube filled with sweetened ricotta cheese, chocolate chips, and candied fruit. Cinnamon and vanilla are common flavorings for this cheese mixture.

Canola Oil: A bland oil made from rapeseeds; contains omega-3 fatty acids and less saturated fat than other vegetable oils. It is often blended with other oils to make margarine, and because of its neutral taste it is suitable for salad dressings and cooking. Also known as rapeseed oil. Because it is the most widely used oil in Canada, the Canadian seed-oil industry changed the market name to canola. It is also referred to in Canada as lear oil, for "low erucic acid rapeseed" oil.

Canola oil: This neutral is your best choice for cooking because it is inexpensive, extremely low in saturated fats, has a high burning point, and does not detract from the flavor of food with which it is combined.

Canopy (food industry term): An awning or covering ledge that extends over the top of grocery fixtures. It may have lights or signs to draw attention to the products on display below.

Cantaloupe: A muskmelon with a embossed crisscross gray green rind and light orange flesh with a large seed cavity and numerous seeds. It has a sweet distinctive flavor.

Cantina: [Spanish] bar.

Cao (food industry term): Computer-assisted ordering.

Cap (food industry term): Controlled atmosphere packaging.

Capeado: [Spanish] covered with batter and fried.

Capellini: Ther term in Italian means "fine hair" and describes very fine spaghetti.

Capers: Unopened flower buds from a Mediterranean shrub that are cured in salted white vinegar. They have a sharp salty-sour flavor and are used as a flavoring in salads and sauces.

Capers: Pickled hyssop buds which is used in sauces and as condiments for smoked fish and nicoise salad. Sold packed in vinegar or in salt. Small pickled flower of a shrub though to have originated in the Sahara Desert or in the Orient; Mexican capers are large; Italian capers may be substituted.

Capicolla: Italian sausage prepared with pressed (not chopped) pork shoulder and sweet red peppers, cased, cooked and air-dried.

Capicolla: A coarse Italian pork sausage. Usually highly seasoned, this sausage is served cold, thinly sliced, as for prosciutto.

Capirotada: [Spanish] bread pudding; usually served during Lent and Holy Week (Easter).

Capocollo: An Italian sausage made from pork shoulder and flavored with sweet red peppers. It is pressed (rather than chopped), put into casings, and air dried. It is a specialty of the Parma region of Italy.

Capon: The culinary term for castrated chicken that is fed on a special diet until it is slaughtered at the age of 6 to 9 months. Considered by most to be the best eating chicken available.

Capon: A young castrated rooster.

Capon: A castrated rooster that is savored for its delicate taste and texture. Once castrated, the chicken would become fattened, yielding tender, juicy flesh. This method of raising chickens is not practiced much anymore, since most chickens are butchered at a young age and still very tender.

Caponata: An Italian appetizer made from eggplant, zucchini, tomato, anchovies, vinegar, olives, other vegetables, herbs and spices. It is frequently served as a side dish, relish, or as a spread with toasted bread.

Caponata: [Italian] Best known as a spread or cold salad containing eggplant, celery, tomatoes, raisins, and pine nuts seasoned with vinegar and olive oil. Modern variations will add other vegetables such as zucchini and season it with fresh herbs.

Capons: Castrated cocks, weighing 6 to 7 pounds or more, these birds are especially desirable for roasting when a large bird is in order.

Cappelletti: Italian term for little hats. Cappelletti are small, pointed-hat-shaped dumplings stuffed with ground meat, cheese or vegetables; traditionally served on Christmas day.

Capping: When yeast loaves are under-proofed and the interior pushes up the top crust leaving a rough, sharp edge along the side of the loaf having the appearance of a "cap."

Cappuccino: A beverage made from equal portions of espresso, steamed milk and foamed milk, often sprinkled with sweet cocoa powder or cinnamon

Caprini: Cylindrical Italian cheese composed of a varying mixture of goat, cow, and ewe's milk and having a high fat content. Stored in olive oil and bay leaves, the cheese is served as an antipasto.

Capsaicin: The compound found in the placental ribs of a chili. Responsible for the heat of the chili causing watery eyes, a runny nose, sweating and burning. It has been found not only to stimulate pain receptors in the digestive tract, but to block some as well- allowing people to become accustomed to hotter and hotter dishes.

Capsicum: "Family of peppers such as cherry, banana, bell, Tabasco, jalapeño, habañero, etc., which fall into two categories: chiles and sweet peppers. Common black and white pepper - made from berries from vines of the Piperaceae family - are not botanically related. "

Capsicum: The family name for sweet and hot peppers. Large pepper with a slightly sweet flavor. Also called a pepper, or sweet pepper. Available in green (most common), red and yellow.

Car (food industry term): A transportation term that refers to a railroad car or railcar.

Carambola (star fruit): Originally from Indonesia, this is one of the most recent tropical imports, now grown in Florida and found in most supermarkets. It has yellow, near-translucent skin (which is tough but edible), and slices take the shape of a star. Best eaten raw, but also takes well to grilling.

Carambola: A golden tropical fruit that has a star shape when cut acorss the grain. The flesh is juicy and tastes like a combination of plums, grapes, and apples. Also known as star fruit.

Caramel: 1. A substance produced by cooking sugar until it becomes a thick, dark liquid; its color ranges from golden to dark brown; used for coloring and flavoring desserts, candies; sweet and savory sauces and other foods. 2. A firm, chewy candy made with sugar, butter, corn syrup and milk or cream.

Caramelization: Browning sugar over a flame, with or without the addition of some water to aid the process. The temperature range in which sugar caramelizes is approximately 320? F to 360? F (160? C to 182? C).

Caramelize: To gently brown natural sugars and other compounds in foot over low heat to produce a more intense flavor. Aromatic vegetables, especially carrots and onions, and stew meats are often caramelized in a small amount of fat. Example

Caramelize: To heat sugar or foods containing sugar until brown color and characteristic flavor develop.

Caramelize: The process through which natural sugars in foods become browned and flavorful while cooking. This is usually done over a constant heat of low to medium-low. Caramelization can be quickened with the addition of a little sugar. Either way, be careful not to burn.

Caramelize: To slowly dissolve sugar (granulated or brown) in water, then heat the resulting syrup until it turns caramel-brown in color. Caramelized sugar is sometimes called burnt sugar.

Caraway seed: Curved, anise-like seed popular in German and Austrian cooking. Caraway is a member of the parsley family. Seeds are used as topping on breads and savory pastries, and as accompaniments to cabbage and goulash. Caraway seed is also utilized in preparing some cheeses and liqueurs.

Caraway Seeds: An aromatic spice with a pungent, licorice flavor.

Carbohydrate: An important class of foods derived from organic nutrients. There are three classes of significance: 1. Cellulose: indigestible dietary fiber. 2. Sugars: fructose, sucrose, glucose and more complex sugars. All are readily digested and are high in calories. 3. Starches: complex compounds derived from cereal grains, legumes or vegetables. These have more nutrients than other carbohydrates and take longer to digest.

Carbon: [Spanish] charcoal.

Carbonade: Braised or grilled, or sometimes stewed meat.

Carbonara: A pasta sauce composed of such items as bacon, olive oil, eggs, cream, Parmesan cheese and occasionally white wine, onions, garlic and herbs.

Carbonara: An ultra-rich pasta sauce consisting of pancetta, eggs, and parmesan cheese. Actually less of a sauce than a preparation, hot pasta is tossed with the rendered pancetta fat, the eggs, and then the cheese. Crisp pancetta and black pepper are tossed into the pasta just before serving.

Carbonnade: Braised Steak

Cardamom: This spice, from the ginger family, has a sweet, ginger-like flavor. Available as seeds or ground.

Cardamom: Aromatic seeds used for baking, flavoring coffee and exotic Scandinavian and Indian dishes. Excellent when freshly ground. Botanical name: Elettaria cardamomum.

Cardinal: Fish dishes which have sauces made with lobster fumet and are garnished with lobster meat.

Cardoon: Cardoons are the thick, fleshy stalks of a plant in the thistle family very similar to artichokes. It looks like very large, coarse, matte-gray celery. Popular in Italy, France and South America. Cardoons may be eaten raw or cooked and served like any vegetable.

Caribe chiles: Flaked red chiles.

Caribou: Any of several large North American deer which are related to Old World reindeer. Caribou meat is called "venison." Antelope, elk, deer, moose, and reindeer meat are also classified as venison, the most popular large animal game meat.

Carload order (food industry term): A product that is shipped on a railcar and meets specific standards of weight and volume capacity, among others.

Car-lot seller (food industry term): An agent that sells and ships products by railcar loads. For special promotions, the railcar serves as a storage unit for fast-moving merchandise.

Carmelization: To heat sugar until brown and a characteristic flavor develops; occurs at 3000 F.

Carne Adovada: Pork steak marinated in chile sauce, then roasted or pan fried. Usually served with Spanish rice and refried beans.

Carne adovada: [Spanish] meat cured in red chile sauce; traditional New Mexican dish.

Carne Asada: Beef or pork cut in thin diagonal strips and cooked quickly over very hot coals, as in a brasero or Japanese hibachi.

Carne asada: [Spanish] marinated, broiled meat; in Sonora, Mexico means a picnic or cookout where meat is broiled.

Carne de res: [Spanish] beef.

Carne mechada: [Spanish] pot roast.

Carne seca: [Spanish] dried beef or jerky; was a trail food utilized on the range.

Carne: In Italian and Spanish meaning meat.

Carnitas: [Spanish] little pieces of meat; small chunks of pork which have been seasoned, slow-cooked, and fried crisp in their own fat; it is a traditional taco and enchilada filling.

Carob: The sweet pulp of the long, leathery pods from an evergreen tree native to the Middle East. The pulp can be eaten raw, but is usually dried, roasted and ground into a powder. The powder has a flavor similar to chocolate and is often used as a chocolate substitute to flavor baked goods and candies; available in specialty food and health food stores. Carob is also known as Saint John's bread and locust bean.

Carob: The seed from the carob tree which is dried, ground, and used primarily as a substitute for chocolate.

Carp: This freshwater fish ranges from 2 to 7 pounds and has a lean white flesh. It is the primary ingredient for the Jewish dish called "gefilte fish."

Carpaccio: An Italian dish (usually served as an appetizer), made of paper thin slices of beef dressed with olive oil and parmesan cheese. Slices of raw white truffles are an excellent partner to this dish.

Carrageen; Carragheen: Purple seaweed used after processing as a texturing and thickening agent in jellies, ice cream and desserts; also known as Irish moss or chondrus extract.

Carre: Rack of lamb or veal

Carrelet: Flounder

Carriage/shopping cart (food industry term): Four-wheeled baskets that customers use to transport merchandise to the checkout counters.

Carrier (food industry term): A registered, licensed truck or rail company, which transports merchandise from one point to another. Also called a common carrier.

Carrot: A member of the parsley family (Daucus carota); has lacy green foliage, an edible orange taproot with a milk sweet flavor and crisp texture, a tapering shape and comes in a variety of sizes.

Carry-in charge (food industry term): A service delivery fee that vendors charge retailers to unload and stage products in a store. See curb delivery.

Carrying cost (food industry term): The cost of the capital employed in holding an asset (such as inventory) calculated as an interest rate (internal borrowing rate or opportunity cost of capital) times the amount of capital employed.

Carryout clerk (food industry term): An employee who carries and loads groceries in a customer's vehicle.

Cart corral (food industry term): A three-sided enclosure in a store's parking lot to collect shopping carts.

Cart lock system (food industry term): A system that requires a coin, a quarter, to release a shopping cart.

Cart, shopping (food industry term): A four-wheeled basket used to collect purchase items.

Cartoccio: A method of baking fish in paper or parchment after seasoning it with salt, pepper, olive oil and lemon juice. A similar cooking technique in France is known as "en papillote.

Caruru: Brazilian seafood stew made with dried shrimp, okra, tomatoes, and (dende) palm nut oil.

Carving Board: A hardwood board with a depression in the center and a channel around the edge to catch juices. Also comes as a reversible board that is flat on one side for general carving and has an oval depression on the other side for carving roasted poultry.

Casareccia Pasta: S-shaped lengths of pasta that are slightly twisted.

Cascabel chiles: [Spanish] Little rattler; jingle bells; sleigh bells; small, round, hot chiles that rattle when shaken; measure about 1 1/2 to 2 inches across and have smooth skins; woodsy chile with tones of hazelnut, citrus and tobacco, gives off a wonderful aroma when roasted; great in stews, soups, salsas, salad dressing and vinaigrettes; blend well with apples, pears and other fruits and with spices such as star anise, canela and cinnamon; rbol chiles may be substituted.

Case (food industry term): Computer-aided software engineering.

Case card (food industry term): A sign used to identify products.. Also called a stack card or header card.

Case code (food industry term): A universal product code (U.P.C.). A product 's unique, machine-readable numeral printed on a product, cases and pallet loads.

Case cost (food industry term): The wholesale cost of a case of products.

Case count (food industry term): A receiving procedure that accepts an invoice's total-order case count instead of verifying the contents of each case.

Case cube (food industry term): A standard measurement used to calculate a shipping container's volume.

Case dollar return (food industry term): A retailer's gross profit calculated by subtracting the wholesale cost of a case from the retail price of a case.

Case labels (food industry term): A product's identification and pricing label attached to a product or case when shipped.

Case lot (food industry term): Unopened cases of products sold at a set price.

Case pack (food industry term): The number of units of products packed in a case.

Case ready (food industry term): Packaged, prepared, refrigerated or frozen foods that go from a shipping container to a sales floor.

Case stocking (food industry term): A stocking procedure that removes a case lid and places a product on the shelf in an original container.

Case weight (food industry term): The total weight of a case, a product and its packaging.

Case wrap-arounds (food industry term): A decorative wrap around the base of a merchandising display. Also called base wrap.

Case, refrigerated (food industry term): A refrigerated display unit for perishable products, such as dairy products or ice cream.

Casein: Phosphoprotein rendered from milk, soybeans and other sources, important as the chief component of cheese (after fermentation), and contains all essential amino acids. It is used to solidify food as well as adhesives and paints.

Cases selected (food industry term): Includes only hard cases, that is, no repacks.

Cash discount (food industry term): A percentage allowance deducted from an invoice under certain conditions, such as, two percent off the invoice if a customer pays the bill within ten days of receiving it.

Cash flow (food industry term): The increase or decrease of cash resources, permitting money to be available for working capital, investments, and other expenses.

Cash handling (food industry term): All operations that involve taking in or sending out money. Includes bonding employees; cash controls; coin shortages; making change at the checkout; forms; store deposits for banks. See accounting and controls; checkout operations; pilferage, security (cash protection).

Cash store (food industry term): A retailer who sells goods for cash only.

Cash wholesale grocer (food industry term): A wholesaler that sells to retailers for cash on deliveries or when the wholesaler allows credit on only one bill at a time.

Cash-and-carry (food industry term): A policy that requires a wholesaler or retailer to pay cash upon delivery.

Cash-and-carry wholesale grocer (food industry term): A wholesaler that allows retailers to select, pay cash and transport their own orders.

Cashew Nuts: Sweet, buttery, kidney-shaped nuts that grow from the bottom of the tropical cashew apple. The shells are toxic and always removed before the nuts are marketed. As with most nuts, cashews have a high fat content and should be refrigerated. They are sold blanched, plain or toasted and are eaten out of hand; a popular ingredient in many Chinese dishes.

Cashier (food industry term): See checker.

Cashier's check (food industry term): See check, cashier's.

Casonsei Pasta: Stuffed rings of pasta from Bergamo (a commune in the northern Italian town of Lombardy).

Casserole: This term refers to both a baking dish and the ingredients it contains. Casserole cookery is extremely convenient because the ingredients are cooked and served in the same dish. 1. A "casserole dish" usually refers to a deep, round, ovenproof container with handles and a tight-fitting lid. It can be glass, metal, ceramic or any other heatproof material. 2. A casserole's ingredients can include meat, vegetables, beans, rice and anything else that might seem appropriate. Often a topping such as cheese or bread crumbs is added for texture and flavor.

Casserole: [French] A meat, fish and/or vegetable dish which is cooked and served in the same pot.

Cassis: Blackcurrant

Cassoulet: A classic stew from southwest France consisting of white beans and a variety of meats (such as lamb, pork, sausage, preserved duck or goose). The dish is usually enriched with large amounts of duck fat, covered and slowly cooked to harmonize the flavors. The top is then browned until crispy.

Cassoulet: A dish from southwest France consisting of white beans and an assortment of meats like confit, lamb, pork, and Toulouse sausage. The dish is enriched with large amounts of duck fat and is baked until the top is brown and crispy. Variations of this dish include seafood and lentils. This dish is very substantial and needs nothing else to be served with it but a bitter green salad to cut through the richness.

Cast Iron: One of the oldest materials used for cooking, cast iron provides extremely even heating that is especially useful for long cooking times. Once a cast iron pan is seasoned, a natural nonstick surface is created that can be used to cook anything from delicate items such as eggs to hearty stews.

Caster Sugar: Also called superfine sugar. It is pulverized granulated sugar. It can be purchased or prepared at home by whizzing some granulated sugar in the blender.

Castor/Caster sugar: A very fine granulated sugar. Similar to U.S. superfine sugar.

Catalog (food industry term): A booklet of products, price lists and UPC codes used for electronic ordering. See preprint order form.

Category (food industry term): A group of similar products; such as detergents, paper goods, etc.

Category captain (food industry term): Within a category, the manufacturer's representative responsible for analyzing the product movement, assortment, inventory levels, promotion, buying and profitability for a specific geographic area or an entire chain.

Category development index (cdi) (food industry term): A trend analysis that indicates the pace of sales of a product category in an area.

Category killer (food industry term): A retailer, such as a mass merchandiser or a pet food superstore, able to undercut prices of most competitors because of high-volume sales.

Category manager (cm) (food industry term): A person who analyzes product brands and mix, inventory levels, movement, shelf space allocation, promotions, buying, and profitability of a merchandise category.

Category pricing (food industry term): A pricing policy that is used to determine the retail price for all products in a category.

Catfish: This fish is firm, low in fat, and has a mild flavor. Most catfish are fresh water varieties, but there is a salt water variety that called the "hogfish." The channel catfish is considered the best for eating.

Catfish: A freshwater fish indigenous to Southern and Midwestern lakes and rivers, but also extensively farm raised. So named because of its long whisker-like feelers, catfish has a tough, inedible skin that must be removed before cooking. The white flesh is firm and has a mild, slightly sweet flavor. Traditionally coated with cornmeal and deep-fried, catfish is delicious poached, steamed, baked or grilled, and can be used in soups and stews. The saltwater variety is called hogfish.

Catfish: Popular white-fleshed fish with a medium-firm texture. Farm raised catfish, widely available in supermarkets and fish stores, don't have the muddy taste that distinguish their wild counterparts. Look for fresh catfish with white rather than grayish flesh.

Cats & dogs (food industry term): Slow-moving products with few turns on the shelf.

Catsup: Tomato ketchup.

Caul Fat: The stomach lining of pork which is used in place of back fat for pates and to encase crepinettes.

Cauliflower: A member of the cabbage family (Brassica oleracea); has a head (called a curd) of tightly packed white florets (a purple variety is also available) partially covered with large waxy, pale green leaves on a white-green stalk; some varieties have a purple or greenish tinge.

Caviar: This elegant and expensive appetizer is sieved and lightly salted fish roe (eggs). Sturgeon roe is premium and considered the "true" caviar. The three main types of caviar are beluga, osetra and sevruga.

Caviar: These are the eggs of sturgeon that have been salted and cured. Grading for caviar is determined by the size and color of the roe and the species of the sturgeon. Beluga caviar, which is the most expensive of the three types of caviar, are dark gray in color and are the largest eggs. Ossetra caviar are light to medium brown and are smaller grains than beluga. Sevruga caviar are the smallest grains, the firmest in texture and are also gray in color. Pressed caviar is made of softer, lower quality eggs and have a stronger, fishier flavor. The term malossol is used to describe the amount of salt used in the initial curing process. The roe from other fish such as salmon, lumpfish, and whitefish are not considered caviar, regardless of their label. They should be addressed as roe. Caviar should be served as simply as possible. Traditional accompaniments, inspired by the Russians, are sour cream, blinis, and ice cold vodka. Lemon and minced onion are often served with caviar, but their flavors will only detract from the pure delicate flavor of the caviar.

Cayenne: Cayenne pepper is used to describe almost any hot, finely ground red chile pepper, but it was named after several tropical varieties that originated in Cayenne in French Guiana. A dried chile, they is also known as ginnie peppers; 3 to 8 inches long and slender, measuring about 1/2 inch across; fiery chiles that can be used in soups and stews, but are most commonly ground and used as a seasoning; chiles de arbol are closely related and may be substituted.

Cayenne; Cayenne Pepper: 1. A hot pungent peppery powder blended from various ground dried hot chiles and salt, has a bright orange-red color and fine texture; also known as red pepper. 2. A dried thin, short chile usually with a bright red color, thin flesh and hot, tart acidic flavor; usually used ground.

Cazon: [Spanish] dogfish.

Cazuelas: glazed or unglazed Mexican casserole-style dishes; ideal for long, slow cooking, either in the oven or on top of the stove; can also be used as serving dishes.

Cbt (food industry term): Computer-based training.

Cdi (food industry term): Category development index.

Cd-rom (food industry term): Computer disk, read-only-memory. A disk that stores bits, bytes and multimedia.

Cebada: [Spanish] barley.

Cebolla: [Spanish] onion.

Cebollitas: [Spanish] scallions; green onions.

Cecina: [Spanish] salted, cured or smoked dried meat strips; similar to carne seca.

Ceiling cost (food industry term): A manufacturer's or supplier's limits to price increases on an item.

Celeriac: Also known as celery root. A root vegetable that houses a white fleshed interior beneath its rough skin.

Celeriac: A European celery with a thick stem base, which can be prepared in the same way beets are. it is also called celery root, celery knob and turnip-rooted celery. This knobby, brown vegetable is the root of a special celery cultivated specifically for its root, with a firm texture and a clean, sweet flavor of celery. Celeriac must be peeled before using.

Celery Salt: A seasoning blend of ground celery seeds and salt.

Celery Seeds: The seeds of the herb lovage; they are small and brown and are used in pickling and as a flavoring.

Celery: This vegetable grows in bunches of long stringy curved stalks or ribs surrounding a tender heart. It can be eaten raw, cooked or used as a flavoring.

Cellophane Noodles: Noodles made from the mung bean, the same bean from which bean sprouts grow. Find in oriental markets and some supermarkets. Also called glass noodles, sai fun, bean threads and long rice.

Cellophane/Glass Noodles: Also known as bean thread noodles, these are made from mung bean flour. They are usually softened by soaking in hot water for 10-15 minutes before cooking with other ingredients.

Celtuce: An Asian salad plant resembling a head of lettuce with long, pale stalks, and having a flavor reminiscent of celery. The stalks are very crunchy and can be eaten raw or cooked like Swiss chard. The tough outer leaves can be cooked like spinach.

Cena: [Spanish] supper.

Central billing (food industry term): A headquarters accounting department that processes invoices.

Central buying (food industry term): A company headquarters' purchasing department.

Centralized prepackaging (food industry term): A central facility that processes prepackaged perishables and ships the goods to stores.

Cents-off (food industry term): A manufacturer's practice of printing a cents-off coupon on a product label to boost sales for that product.

Cents-off coupon (food industry term): A certificate that provides for a cash refund or is deducted from the purchase price at the register.

Cepes: A wild mushroom with a meaty texture and woodsy flavor with caps ranging from one to 10 inches in diameter. These mushrooms are usually available dried in the United States, but are difficult to find fresh. Also known as bolete, Steinpilze or porcini.

Cepes: A wild mushroom of the boletus family known for their full flavor and meaty texture.

Cerdo: [Spanish] pork.

Cereal grain: Cereal refers to grain and foods derived from them; the word cereal comes from Ceres, a pre-Roman goddess of agriculture. Also see Grain.

Certification sheet (food industry term): A listing of on-hand inventory amounts signed by a manager and turned in at inventory time.

Certified check (food industry term): See check, certified.

Cerveza: [Spanish] beer.

Ceviche: [Spanish] raw seafood combined with lime juice; the juice "cooks" the seafood by combining with its protein and turning it opaque.

Cfc (food industry term): Chlorofluorocarbon.

Ch charo: [Spanish] pea.

Chafing Dish: A pan (usually metal) containing food, nestled inside a larger pan containing water. The ensemble sits directly over a heat source, which keeps the food warm; used mostly for buffets. Also known as rechaud, which is French for reheat.

Chai: The Indian name for tea, often served with milk and sugar.

Chain (food industry term): A multi-unit retail operation with stores managed by a headquarters staff. Usually refers to a group of supermarkets under common ownership.

Chain store (food industry term): A retail operation of a group of 11 or more stores, which operate under a similar name under one corporate ownership.

Challa: A traditional Jewish yeast bread classically formed into a braid. This tender bread is usually made with butter and honey. Also known as hallah and challa.

Chalotes: [Spanish] shallots.

Chalupa compuesta: [Spanish] adorned little boat; a very popular dish in Arizona.

Chalupas: Meaning "little boats," is a fried corn tortilla topped with shredded chicken or beans, cheese, tomatoes, guacamole, and salsa.

Chalupas: [Spanish] little boats or little canoes; fried corn tortillas in the shape of a boat or basket containing shredded chicken or beans topped with salsa, guacamole or cheese.

Champ: Irish dish made from potatoes, onions and butter. Also called bruisy, cally, goddy, and poundies.

Champ: a classic Irish dish that combines vegetables with hot mashed potatoes. It is made by mixing either peas, chives or sauteed onions or spinach into hot mashed potatoes, then making a depression in the center of each serving and filling with melted butter. To eat it, you dip each forkful into the butter first.

Champignon: [French] mushroom found as the champignon de Paris. Cultivated button-shaped white mushroom.

Champignons: French word for mushrooms, generally of the button variety, used in the names of recipes and restaurant dishes.

Champurrado: [Spanish] a drink, atole (corn gruel) with chocolate.

Change agent (food industry term): Groups or individuals who use their skills and relationships to lead and implement change in an organization.

Channel of distribution (food industry term): The producers and distributors of products from a farm to the table, a path that includes a grower, producer, manufacturer, broker, wholesaler, store and a consumer.

Chanterelle: A wild mushroom with a golden color and a funnel-shaped cap. The whole mushroom is edible and is savored for its exquisite flavor and firm texture when cooked.

Chanterelle: Available both wild and domesticated, this is a good, fleshy mushroom with subtle flavor.

Chantilly Cream: Lightly sweetened whipped cream, sometimes flavored with vanilla or liqueur, used as a dessert topping.

Chantilly: [French] This is a name for sweetened whipped cream flavored with vanilla. The term may also be used to describe sauces that have had whipped cream folded into them. This includes both sweet and savory sauces.

Chapati: A whole wheat Indian flatbread that can be grilled or fried.

Char: 1. To seal in the flavor and juices of a food (such as meat) by blackening its surface in a skillet, over an open flame, or under a broiler. Blackened redfish is an example of a charred food. 2. A troutlike fish in the salmon family, found in very cold water. It has pink flesh with a flavor and texture between that of trout and salmon.

Charcuterie: The French word for the variety of pork preparations that are cured, smoked, or processed. This includes sausages, hams, pates, and rillettes. This term may also imply the shop in which these products are sold and the butchers who produce it.

Chard: Commonly called Swiss chard, this vegetable is essentially a beet grown for its leaves. The leaves are a crinkly, dark green with silvery, celery-like stalks. May be substituted for spinach in most dishes.

Chard: Essentially beets grown for leaves rather than roots, chard has a thick white, pink, or red midrib and leaves that vary from deep green to green with scarlet veins. Chard has a distinctive, acid-sweet flavor.

Chargeback (food industry term): A manufacturer's bill to a retailer if the retailer fails to meet stated performance requirements.

Charlie Taylor: a butter substitute of sorghum and bacon grease.

Charlotte mould: A plain mold for charlottes and other desserts, sometimes used for molded gelatin-based salads.

Charlotte: The name for two different desserts. The first preparation is made of slices of bread which are lined in a mold, filled with fruit, and baked until the bread acquires a golden color and crisp texture. The second version, similar to the first, lines a mold with cake or lady fingers and is filled with a Bavarian cream. These may also be filled with whipped cream or even a fruit mousse. More elaborate versions layer the cake with jam, then slices of this cake is used to line the mold.

Charlottes: A classic French molded dessert; the mold is lined with ladyfingers, sponge cake or bread, then filled with custard, Bavarian cream or whipped cream and/or fruit. It is chilled thoroughly and unmolded before serving. Apple charlottes are baked and served warm.

Charmoula: A sauce and marinade used in Middle Eastern cooking made of stewed onions flavored with vinegar, honey and a spice mixture called "rasel hanout". This is a complex spice mixture containing cinnamon, black pepper, cloves, cumin and sometimes paprika and coriander. This sauce is used on meat and fish and can even be adjusted to make a unique vinaigrette.

Chasseur: [French] a sauce made with wine, mushrooms and shallots.

Chateaubriand Steak: A very fillet of beef, exceedingly tender and juicy, cut laterally from the heart of the tenderloin, grilled or saut ed and simply sauced. Many restaurants claim their chateaubriand to be the head of the tenderloin, cut for two, which is roasted and carved tableside.

Chateaubriand: Double steak cut from the center of the beef fillet

ChaudFroid: Meat or fish that has been poached or roasted, chilled and served cold, masked with a thick sauce and glazed with aspic. The whole preparation was once quite popular and used consistently on elaborate buffets. Modern tastes have moved away from this style of food, opting for cleaner, less adulterated flavors

Chaud-Froid: Meat or fish that has been poached or roasted, chilled and served cold, masked with a thick sauce and glazed with aspic. The whole preparation was once quite popular and used consistently on elaborate buffets. Modern tastes have moved away from this style of food, opting for cleaner, less adulterated flavors.

Chauquehue: [Spanish] blue cornmeal mush.

Chawan Mushi: Savory egg custard. Eggs are gently beaten with fish stock, then poured over small bits of various ingredients (chicken, prawns, gingko nuts, lily root, fishcake) then steamed over boiling water.

Chayote: The pear-shaped fruit of a West Indian annual vine of the gourd family that is widely cultivated as a vegetable. Also called mirliton. It tastes similar to a cross between a potato and cauliflower, yet is slightly sweet.

Chayote: Also called mirliton, vegetable pear and christophine. A pear shaped, pale or apple green squash (it actually is a form of summer squash), with firm flesh of a paler green. The taste is reminiscent of a cucumber. It is a relative of the gourd. If small, they do not require peeling. They are used in Latin American cooking. Chayote may be eaten raw or cooked as you would any summer squash. Also referred to as the cho-cho. Chayotes should be not just firm, but downright hard and dark green for the best flavor. Stored in the vegetable bin they'll keep for weeks.

Check approval (food industry term): A manager's approval for a customer's check.

Check drawer (food industry term): A drawer under a cash register that holds customers' checks.

Check verification (food industry term): A store's electronic system that automatically verifies customers' checks.

Check, cashier's (food industry term): A check drawn on the issuing bank; required when purchasing from a company or store that does not accept personal or company checks.

Check, certified (food industry term): A check which is guaranteed by the bank issuing the check.

Check, post-dated (food industry term): A check dated later than the date on which it was written.

Checker (food industry term): A front end employee who rings up, totals and collects for a customer's order. Also known as a cashier.

Checker accountability (food industry term): A process of verifying a till's accuracy, before and after a checker's shift.

Check-in (food industry term): Receiving, checking and signing for merchandise delivered.

Checking (food industry term): The process of recording customer purchases, taking payment, making change, processing coupons, bagging and all other functions inherent to the front end operation.

Checkout operations (food industry term): Front-end operations, including the selection and training of checkers and baggers; parcel pickup and carryout services; front end scheduling; productivity; checkout equipment, including grocery bags, shopping carts, etc.; the universal product code, scanning and the electronic checkout; mandatory item pricing. See cash handling; electronic data processing; electronic funds transfer; food stamps.

Checkout or checkstand (food industry term): A fixture in a supermarket where customer transactions occur and where the register, scanner, and bags are located. Also known as the front end.

Checkout rack (food industry term): A rack in or near a checkout lane that displays high-impulse-buy merchandise, such as candy, gum, razor blades, cigarettes and magazines.

Cheddar, American: A firm cheese made from whole cow's milk (generally pasteurized) produced principally in Wisconsin, New York and Vermont; ranges from white to orange in color and its flavor from mild to very sharp.

Cheddar: Cheese which is mild in flavor and melts easily, it is a favorite in many Southwestern dishes; Longhorn cheese is a very good substitute, and it is usually a little less expensive.

Cheese (Mexican) - Queso Blanco: This creamy white cheese is made from skimmed cow's milk. When it is heated, it becomes soft and creamy but doesn't melt. It is ideal for stuffing burritos and enchiladas.

Cheese rinds (food industry term): The exterior covering (wax coating, for example) on uncut cheese.

Cheese: Dairy products made from milk curds separated from the whey; numerous varieties are found worldwide.

Cheese: Most cheeses derive from milk (usually cow, sheep or goat), jolted by a "startar" culture, then thickened by the addition of rennet (animal or vegetable) until it separates into curds (semi-solids) and whey (liquid).

Cheesecake: A rich, smooth dessert made by blending cream cheese, cottage cheese or ricotta with sugar, eggs and other flavorings, then baking (usually in a springform pan) The dessert is often topped with sour cream or fruit.

Cheesecloth: Cotton gauze used in the kitchen for straining liquids and wrapping foods to make them easier to remove from vessels after cooking; available in fine or coarse weaves. Sometimes known as butter muslin in Britain.

Chef: (French) A culinary expert. The chief of the kitchen.

Chemical leavening: The reaction of a leavening base (such as baking soda) with a leavening acid (such as sodium aluminum sulfate) in the presence of moisture and heat to produce carbon dioxide gas.

Cherimoya: Also called the custard apple. A Native American fruit, now grown in California, with a creamy white interior and sweet pineapple flavor, with the consistency of banana; tastes like a cross between banana and pineapple; has a hard brown shell, and the flesh is dotted with black seeds that must be removed before ea ting. Ancient Aztec and Peruvian Indians knew of this fruit. Eat with a spoon.

Cherries Jubilee: Flaming dessert of cherries in syrup, vanilla ice cream and brandy, usually prepared in a chafing dish.

Cherry picker (food industry term): A customer who shops at several supermarkets to find low-priced specials and promotions.

Cherry Stoner; Cherry Pitter: A hand-held tool used to remove the pits from cherries. An individual cherry is held securely in the hinged unit and the pit is forced out; can also be used on olives.

Cherry Tomato: A small round tomato with a bright red or yellow skin. The yellow-skinned variety has a less acid and is less flavorful than the red-skinned variety.

Cherry Tomatoes: Miniature sweet tomatoes available in colors of red, orange and yellow. Store cherry tomatoes in the same way as full-size tomatoes, at room temperature for up to 3 days.

Cherry: A small stone fruit from a tree of the Prunus genus, grown in temperate climates worldwide; there are two principal types - sour and sweet; both types are generally available fresh, dried, canned and frozen.

Chervil: A parsleylike herb, with a slight taste of anise. It must be added late in the preparation of a dish to preserve its flavor. Also called cicily and sweet cicily.

Chervil: A mild-flavored member of the parsley family, this aromatic herb has curly, dark green leaves with an elusive anise flavor. Though most chervil is cultivated for its leaves alone, the root is edible and was, in fact, enjoyed by early Greeks and Romans. Today it is available dried but has the best flavor when fresh. Both forms can be found in most supermarkets. It can be used like parsley but its delicate flavor can be diminished when boiled.

Chestnut: The nut of the sweet chestnut tree. It is edible when cooked and has a dark brown outer shell, a bitter inner skin, a high starch content and is used in savory and sweet dishes.

Chestnut: Mealy, but rich with an earthy taste, a delicious nut, almost always imported and usually found in autumn. Traditionally served as a vegetable. Peeling its hard, dark brown shell and bitter inner skin takes some effort but is worth it. Chestnuts can also be roasted.

Chevre Cheese: A French cheese made from goat's milk. Chevre is usually pure white with a tart flavor. Its texture ranges from dry and crumbly to moist and creamy. It comes in various sizes and shapes, sometimes garnished with black ash, leaves, herbs or pepper.

Chevre: [French] goat, generally referring to goat's milk cheeses.

Chiboust: A custard made originally as the filling for the gateaux Saint-Honor, consisting of pastry cream lightened with Italian meringue and stabilized with gelatin.

Chicharron: Fried, crispy pork skin, similar to crackling, found in Mexican dishes. The skin is deep-fried at two different temperatures causing it to balloon into honeycombed puffs.

Chicharron: Crispy fried pigskin used in Mexican cooking for salads, fillings and snacks.

Chicharrones (chicharron): [Spanish] pork cracklings; crisp-fried pork rinds.

Chicken Maryland: In Australia refers to chicken leg with both thigh and drumstick attached. In the US, refers to any parts of chicken, crumbed, browned in hot fat, baked and served with cream gravy.

Chicken steak: A small, very tender and flavorful steak cut from the shoulder blade.

Chicken stock: A chicken soup or stock made from chicken backs and necks, carrots, yellow onions, celery and salt and pepper and allowed to simmer for at least an hour. Then strained.

Chicken, Broiler-fryer: A chicken slaughtered when 13 weeks old; has a soft, smooth-textured skin, relatively lean flesh, flexible breastbone and an average market weight of 3.5 lb. (1.5 kg).

Chicken, broilers: Also called fryers or broiler-fryers, these are young chickens weighing from 1 1/2 to 4 pounds. They can be broiled, saut ed, fried, roasted, and braised.

Chicken, Roaster: A chicken slaughtered when 3-5 months old; has a smooth-textured skin, tender flesh, a less flexible breastbone than that of a broiler and an average market weight of 3.5-5 lb. (1.5-2 kg).

Chicken, roasters: These are somewhat older and larger chickens (3 to 5 pounds), delicious when roasted, poached, or braised.

Chicken, squab: The poussins of France, these are mere babies weighing about a pound and sufficient for one person. They are unusually tender and delicate and are best when roasted whole or split and broiled.

Chicken, stewing: Also called mature, old chickens, or hens, these should be poached or simmered.

Chicken: This bird, taken from the jungles of southeastern Asia around 1400 B.C., has become a popular food fowl throughout the world. Boiler:fryers are 2.5 months old; roasters are 8 months old; stewing chickens are 10 to 18 months old.

Chicken: One of the principal USDA-recognized kinds of poultry; any of several varieties of common domestic fowl used for food as well as egg production; has both light and dark meat and relatively little fat.

Chickpea: A somewhat spherical, irregular-shaped pea-like seed of a plant (Licer arieinum) native to the Mediterranean region; has a buff color, firm texture and nutty flavor; used in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern cuisines in soups, stews and salads, it is also roasted and eaten as a snack; also know as ceci and garbanzo bean.

Chickpeas: Also called garbanzo beans, chickpeas are nutty-tasting, relatively large legumes.

Chicories: These are sharp crunchy greens (closely related to endives) that vary wildly in appearance, but much less so in taste and texture. Tight-headed, bright red radicchio; long, green, leafy radicchio; lettuce-looking escarole; and lacy frilly fris e are all crunchy and feature a stark bitterness tamed by cooking or smoothed by olive oil.

Chicory: The roasted ground roots of a variety of perennial herbs related to the radicchio and curly endive. Caffeine-averse Germans discovered that chicory could be processed into a coffee substitute. In New Orleans, chicory spiked coffee and/or Cafe Au Lait is very popular.

Chicory: the white root of a variety of perennial herbs (related to radicchio and curly endive) that is dried, roasted and ground, then combined with coffee for a distinctive taste. Caffeine-averse Germans discovered that chicory could be processed into a coffee substitute.

Chicos: Dried sweet corn used whole or crushed in a seasoned stew.

Chicos: [Spanish] corn kernels that are roasted, steamed in a horno, then dried; they are not treated with lime; may be cooked for hours to serve as a vegetable, or ground into harinella, which may be used interchangeably with Masa Harina.

Chiffon: Pie filling made light and fluffy with stabilized gelatin and beaten egg whites.

Chiffonade: To slice an herb or leafy vegetable into thin ribbons. This is easy to accomplish by stacking then rolling the leaves and slicing.

Chiffonade: [French] a very fine julienne of vegetables usually associated with leafy herbs, lettuces, or greens.

Chihuahua (queso menonita): Cheese which is white and creamy; was created by Mennonites in Mexico, and they still produce the finest version, queso menonita; has a slightly spongy texture and a buttery flavor; melts easily; Muenster or a mild white Cheddar can be substituted.

Chikuwa: A variety of Japanese fish paste cake.

Chilaca chile: fresh pasilla chiles; long, thin and dark green.

Chilaquiles: [Spanish] broken-up old sombreros, a reference to the appearance of the dish; considered a good way to use up stale tortillas; a family-style casserole of tortilla strips, salsa, meat and/or cheese, most often served for breakfast; it is very difficult to find in restaurants. This is a highly seasoned dish, often served as a brunch or lunch dish with eggs or grilled meats.

Chilaquillas, Chilaquiles: Called tortilla hash or poor man's dish. Includes leftover tortillas fried until crisp and combined with chile, eggs, jack or sharp cheddar cheese, and red chile sauce.

Chile ancho: wide chile pepper; refers to the broad, flat heart-shaped dried pod; in its fresh green form is known as poblano chile.

Chile Caribe: Red chile pods blended with water to a puree and seasoned. Used in such dishes as carne adovada.

Chile Caribe: Red chile pods blended with water to a puree and seasoned. Used in such dishes as carne adovada.

Chile caribe: red chile paste made from crushed or ground red chiles, garlic and water; liquid fire.

Chile Colorado: red chile; usually refers to ancho or New Mexico dried chiles or the stew made with them.

Chile Con Queso: Melted cheese dip seasoned with chile and served with tostados.

Chile con queso: [Spanish] cheese and green chile dip.

Chile en polvo: [Spanish] powdered chile.

Chile pasado: [Spanish] chile of the past; roasted, peeled and sun-dried green chiles.

Chile paste: Sometimes labeled "chili-garlic paste." This hot condiment is made with chiles, salt and garlic. it is available in Asian markets and many supermarkets, and will keep almost indefinitely if refrigerated.

Chile pequin (chilipiquin; chiltepin; chili tepins): small, dried, quite hot red chiles; common names are bird pepper, chile bravo and chile mosquito; the size and shape of a cranberry; range in color from immature green to orange to very ripe brick red; grows wild in southerly regions of the Southwest; cayenne powder or hot red chile powder may be substituted.

Chile Powder: Pure ground dried chiles; depending on the variety used, its flavor can range from sweet and mild to pungent and extremely hot and its color from yellow-orange to red to dark brown; used as a flavoring.

Chile powder: Ground, dried red chiles.

Chile Rellenos: Green chiles stuffed with cheese or meat, dipped in a cornmeal batter, and deep-fat fried.

Chile seco: [Spanish] fried red serrano chile.

Chile, Chile Pepper, Hot Pepper: The fruit of various plants of the capsicum family; a chile can have a mild to fiery hot flavor (caused by the capsaicin in the pepper's placental ribs) with undertones of various fruits or spices. A fresh chile is usually yellow, orange, green or red, and its shape can range from thin, elongated and tapering to conical to nearly spherical; a dried chile, which is sometimes referred to by a different name than its fresh version, is usually more strongly flavored and darker colored.

Chile, hot pepper: The plants or pods of the Capsicum genus.

Chileatole: [Spanish] masa soup.

Chiles ahumados: [Spanish] smoked chiles; now called chipotle.

Chiles de arbol: Treelike; chile de rbol; small, thin, 2 to 3 inch long (including the stems), very hot dried chile; usually ground into a powder for use in chile sauces; go well with tomatoes, tomatillos, citrus, and herbs such as rosemary and oregano; common Mexican names are pico de pajaro (bird's beak) and cola de rata (rat's tail).

Chiles en polvo: [Spanish] powdered chiles.

Chiles rellenos: [Spanish] stuffed chiles which are then battered and deep-fried.

Chiles secos: [Spanish] dried chiles.

Chilhuacle: a chile found almost exclusively in Oaxaca; one of the main ingredients of Oaxaca's renowned mole negro; the chiles are very expensive.

Chili Colorado: [Spanish] red chili.

Chili con carne: [Spanish] "chili with meat," this dish is a mixture of diced or ground beef and chiles or chili powder (or both). It originated in the Lone Star State and Texans, who commonly refer to it as "a bowl of red." They consider it a crime to add beans to the mixture. In many parts of the country, however, beans are used, and the dish is called "chili con carne with beans."

Chili Oil: This spicy, bright red oil, an essential in Chinese cooking, is made from steeping vegetable oil with crushed or small dried chilies. Because of its strong, fiery flavor, it is used more as a seasoning or condiment than as a cooking oil.

Chili Paste/Sauce: A variety of thick seasoning pastes and sauces made from ground chilies, oil, salt and sometimes garlic and vinegar are used throughout Asia.

Chili powder: Mixture of ground, dried red chiles blended with other spices and herbs. Chili powder may be ground-up chiles, or it is a seasoning mixture of garlic, onion, cumin, oregano, coriander, cloves, and/or other spices.

Chili rellenos: A Mexican dish consisting of a batter-fried, cheese stuffed, poblano chili pepper.

Chili sauce: A thick tomato sauce similar to catsup, but spicier; it has bits of whole tomato, onion and other seasonings added. It is used like catsup when a more distinct flavor is desired. Store as you would catsup.

Chili verde: [Spanish] green chili.

Chili: chile sauce with meat; chili con carne.

Chill: Make mixture or cooking bowl cold by placing in refrigerator or in ice.

Chilled: A food that has been refrigerated, usually at temperatures of 30-400F(-1 +40C).

Chilling: Process of cooling prepared or partially prepared food, without freezing it, in a refrigerator.

Chilorio: [Spanish] cooked and shredded meat, fried with a paste of ground chiles and other seasoning.

Chilpachole: [Spanish] crab soup from Veracruz.

Chiltepins (chilipiqu ns): Small, round, wild chile that grows in Arizona; in Texas there is a wild variety called chilipiqu n.

Chimichanga: [Spanish] stuffed burro fried in deep fat, then topped with cheese, guacamole and chile sauce; found almost exclusively in Arizona.

Chimiquito: [Spanish] stuffed and fried flour tortilla; it is rolled like a flauta or taquito rather than being wrapped like a burrito or chimichanga.

Chimpachole (chilpachole): [Spanish] spicy, rich crab stew.

Chinese Broccoli: The broad leaves, tender stalks and delicate white flowers of this vegetable are all edible. They have a mild flavor, similar to Western broccoli, but with a slightly bitter, earthy flavor. Ideal for steaming and stir-frying; often paired with oyster sauce.

Chinese Cabage: Several varieties of cabbage are grown in China, but the two most known to Americans are bok choy (also known as Chinese white cabbage) and pe-tsai (also known as Chinese celery cabbage or Napa cabbage.

Chinese cabbage: These cabbages have oblong heads with thin, juicy, flavorful leaves - as compared to the round-headed common cabbage with thick, mild leaves. The most commonly found Chinese cabbage in the market is Napa cabbage, which is a pale green, romaine-like variety. Mild celery-shaped bok choy is another variety of Chinese cabbage. See Bok choy.

Chinese Chives: Also known as garlic chives, these flat green chives are quite pungent and are used extensively in stir-fries and soups.

Chinese parsley: Also called cilantro and coriander.

Chining: Meat carving process whereby the backbone is separated from the ribs in a join to make carving easier.

Chinois Strainer: A conical metal strainer used for straining stocks and sauces. A spoon or pestle is used to force the food through the extremely fine mesh. Also known as a china cap.

Chinois: [French] Chinese. Also refers to a "China Cap," a very fine mesh, conical strainer.

Chinook salmon: Considered the finest Pacific salmon. This high:fat, soft textured fish can reach up to 120 pounds. Also called the "king salmon."

Chip wagon: A wagon which carried campfire "prairie coal."

Chipotle chiles: Chiles that take their name from the Aztec words for chile and smoke; a term for any smoked chile; normally a smoked, dried jalapeno with a wrinkled appearance, similar to a dried mushroom; some chipotles are pickled and canned in adobo sauce; go well with orange and other citrus flavors, balsamic and sherry vinegars, and herbs such as cilantro and basil; moritas, smoked serranos, may be substituted. These chiles are extremely hot and caution should be taken when using them in cooking.

Chipotle: A dried, smoked jalapeno; this medium-sized chile has a dull tan to dark brown color with a wrinkled skin and a smoky, slightly sweet, relatively milk flavor with undertones of tobacco and chocolate.

Chipped beef: Wafer-thin slices of salted and smoked, dried beef; usually packed in small jars and were once an American staple. Chipped beef is also referred to simply as dried beef.SOSis military slang used for creamed chipped beef served on toast.

Chiquihuite: [Spanish] woven basket for holding tortillas.

Chitterlings: The small intestines of animals, usually pigs. They are cleaned, simmered, then served with a sauce or used as a sausage casing. Chitterlings are also added to soups or battered and fried.

Chitterlings: The boiled, fried or stuffed small intestines of pigs, popular in the southern United States.

Chive: Related to the onion and leek, this fragrant herb has slender, vivid green, hollow stems. Chives have a mild onion flavor and are available fresh year-round. They are a good source of vitamin A and also contain a fair amount of potassium and calcium.

Chives: An herb and member of the onion family (Allium schoenprasum), with long, slender, hollow, green stems and purple flowers; have a mild onion flavor and are generally used fresh, although dried, chopped chives are available; also know as Chinese chives, flowering chives and kucha.

Chlorofluorocarbon (cfc) (food industry term): A refrigerant chemical that the federal government has banned, which must be phased out of use by 2000.

Chocolate sauce: Chocolate syrup to which milk, cream, and/or butter has been added, making it richer and thicker than the syrup.

Chocolate syrup: Sweetened liquid chocolate. use as topping for desserts or as an ingredient in beverages.

Chocolate, Mexican: block Mexican chocolate; frequently contains cinnamon, vanilla, clove and ground almonds; Ibarra is one of the best brands.

Chocolate, White: A confection made of cocoa butter, sugar and flavorings; does not contain cocoa solids.

Chocolate: From the Aztec word xocolatl, meaning "bitter water." The many forms we bake with - unsweetened, bittersweet, semi-sweet, and milk - all have a base of "cocoa liquor" made from roasted, blended, and ground cacao bean nibs (small pieces). See other glossary listings for types of chocolate.

Chocolate: Pale, grayish streaks or blotches on the surface of chocolate indicating the cocoa butter has separated from the chocolate. It indicates the chocolate was stored in too warm an environment, but it can still be used.

Chocolate: Roasted, ground, refined cacao beans used as a flavoring, confection or beverage.

Chocolate: A product of cocoa beans in which the chocolate liquor is mixed with cocoa butter in various proportions to produce the different varieties of chocolate. Unsweetened (bitter) chocolate has no additional ingredients added and comes packaged as squares-eight 1 ounce squares to the package. Other varieties of chocolate have additional cocoa butter added, along with sugar, milk, and vanilla. Semisweet chocolate comes in bars or packages of squares, or in bags of pieces. Milk Chocolate is smooth, light and sweet, it primarily an eating chocolate. Chocolate may be stored for about 1 year if wrapped tightly and kept in a cool dry place. If the storage place is too warm or moist a grayish film may develop on the chocolate. This is the fat in the chocolate, which melts and rises to the surface. The film does not harm the flavor but it affects the color and sometimes the texture. Chocolate may also be refrigerated up to 3 months if wrapped tightly, but will become brittle and should be used in melted form.

Cholesterol Free: A food containing fewer than 2 milligrams of cholesterol and 2 grams or fewer of saturated fat.

Cholesterol: A fatty alcohol necessary for human metabolism. Less than 225 milligrams per 100 cubic centimeters of blood is a low level, 226 milligrams to 259 milligrams is in the middle range, and a high level is 260 milligrams or greater. There is well-established belief that high levels of serum cholesterol can lead to an increased incidence of heart and vascular disease. A high intake of saturated fats will raise the serum level. Polyunsaturated fats do not increase the serum level.

Chongos: [Spanish] a dessert of cooked milk curds.

Chop: To divide into small pieces with a knife or other sharp tool.

Chop: To cut into pieces with a knife or other sharp tool.

Chop: Cutting food into small bits.

Chop: To cut into irregular pieces. Recipes usually specify finely or coursely.

Chopping Board, Cutting Board: A flat surface made of wood or acrylic used for cutting, chopping or slicing foods.

Chorizo: A spicy, highly seasoned, coarsely ground pork sausage flavored with garlic, chili, and other spices. Widely used in Mexican and Spanish cooking.

Chorizo: A highly spiced, coarsely ground pork sausage, widely used in Spanish and Mexican cooking.

Chorizo: A spicy pork sausage from all Hispanic countries, ranging in seasoning from mild and sweet to fiercely hot. Hotter versions come from areas of Spain and Portugal. Mexican versions contain a large variety of chiles and have a mealier texture and more complex flavor. Some of them even use fresh herbs giving it a green color. Portugal makes a cousin to this sausage called the linguisa, that is smoked and much hotter. Spicy sausage made with pork, garlic and red chile powder, available both in bulks and in links; Mexican chorizo is sold fresh and is often cooked to add to fillings and egg dishes.

Choron: A variation of Bearnaise sauce with tomato puree or concasse added.

Choucroute: [French] an Alsatian specialty consisting of sauerkraut that is simmered with assorted fresh and smoked meats and sausages. This is a grand dish served on huge platters so that diners may witness all of the components displayed at one time. The kraut is first washed, then seasoned with garlic, caraway seeds, and white wine. The meats are layered in the casserole with the kraut and cooked until all the meat is tender and the flavors have blended together. Pork sausages, smoked pork shanks and shoulders, and fresh pork loin are all used. A variation of this, though not actually called a choucroute, is a whole pheasant cooked in sauerkraut with champagne. There are other recipes that consist of solely fish in with the sauerkraut. This can be quite delicious if properly prepared.

Choux pastry: Also called choux paste or cream puff pastry. Flour, butter and water are cooked on the stove top before the pastry is shaped, baked until fluffy, then filled.

Chow Mein Noodles: Yellow noodles made from wheat flour and possibly with egg, packed in cakes or bundles. Traditionally served with the Chinese-American dish of poultry, shrimp and/or meat, vegetables and other ingredients. Chow mein is Chinese for fried noodles.

Chow: Chinese term for sauteing; also known as stir-fry.

Chow-chow: A mustard-flavored mixed vegetable and pickle relish. The term was originally used to describe a condiment in Chinese cuisine made of orange peel and ginger in heavy syrup

Chowder: A milk based soup, usually containing seafood.

Chowder: A thick soup or a stew made of shellfish, fish or vegetables. The term ΥchowderΦ comes from the French chaudi re, meaning Υboiler.Φ Fishermen cooked their food fresh from the sea in these large kettles.

Chub: One of the most prized whitefish found in the Great Lakes and in Canada. May be prepared in any manner suitable for salmon. Also called "?Lake Herring" and "Cisco."

Chuck wagon chicken: bacon; also called Kansas City fish.

Chuck wagon: kitchen on wheels used on the range.

Chuck: The cut of beef taken from between the neck and shoulder blades. Usually inexpensive, chuck is a popular choice for steaks and roasts where stewing and braising improve tenderness.

Chuck: A cut of beef from the region of the shoulder, neck, and upper back, slightly tough. Thus best used for braising and stewing, or for grinding into hamburger. Cowboy's word for any food.

Chuleta: [Spanish] chop or cutlet, lamb, pork or veal.

Chum salmon: This, the smallest and most delicate flavored of the salmons, has the lightest color and the lowest fat content of the various salmon varieties. Also called the "dog salmon."

Chunks: Usually bite-size pieces, about 1-inch or larger.

Chupati: Flat bread from northern India, made with wheat and resembling a Mexican tortilla.

Churros: [Spanish] deep-fried cakes named for the shaggy, long-haired Mexican sheep they resemble.

Chutney: From the Hindi chatni, it is a condiment made from fruit, vinegar, sugar and spices; its texture can range from smooth to chunky and its flavor from mild to hot.

Chutney: The name for a large range of sauces, jams or relishes used in East Indian cooking. Fresh chutneys have a bright, clean flavor and are usually thin, smooth sauces. Cilantro, mint, and tamarind are common in fresh chutney. Cooked chutneys have a deeper, broader flavor. Chutney ranges from chunky to smooth and mild to hot.

Cider: A drink almost always made from pressed apples. To many people, but not all, it is alcoholic. In the US usage is typically that "cider" is not alcoholic and "hard cider" is.

Cilantro: The dark green lacy leaves of the cilantro plant; used as an herb, they have a sharp, tangy fresh flavor and aroma and are used fresh in Mexican, South American and Asian cuisines; also known as Chinese parsley.

Cilantro: A green herb, similar in appearance to parsley. Also sold dry as seeds, leaves and ground. An essential ingredient to Asian and Mexican dishes. It can be found in Asian as well as Mexican markets and most large supermarkets. Also known as fresh coriander, Mexican parsley and Chinese parsley. It resembles flat-leaf parsley, but the flavor is strong and fresh; the seeds are known as coriander; cilantro is commonly used in salsas and soups; was first introduced to the Mexican Indians by the Spanish.

Cinnamon: A spice that is the inner bark of the branches of a small evergreen tree (Cinnamonum zeylanicum) native to Sri Lanka and India; has an orange-brown color and a sweet, distinctive flavor and aroma; usually sold in rolled-up sticks (quills) or ground and is used for sweet and savory dishes and as a garnish; also known as Ceylon cinnamon.

Cinnamon: Known in spanish as canela; the inner back from shoots of a tree called "Cinnamomum zeylanicum"; used in Mexican dishes that are sweet and savory; available in tightly rolled dry quills (sticks) or ground.

Cioppino: A rich fish stew from San Francisco made with shrimp, clams, mussels, crabs, and any available fish. The broth is flavored with tomato, white wine, garlic, and chile flakes. This stew needs no other courses served but a simple green salad and a lot of sourdough bread.

Circular (food industry term): An advertisement that looks like a newspaper ad distributed to homes. Also called a handbill or a flier.

Ciruelas: [Spanish] plums.

Cisco: One of the most prized whitefish found in the Great Lakes and in Canada. May be prepared in any manner suitable for salmon. Also called "lake herring" and "chub."

Citric Acid: also known as "sour salt." A white powder extracted from the juice of citrus and other acidic fruits (such as lemons, limes, pineapples and gooseberries). It's also produced by the fermentation of glucose. Citric acid has a strong, tart taste and is used as a flavoring agent.

Citron: An oval-shaped fruit similar to a lemon (citron is the French term for lemon) but much larger and less acidic. As the pulp is extremely sour, citron is grown for its thick peel, which is candied and used in baking

Citrus Juicer: An electrical or manual device with a ridged cone used to extract the juice from citrus and other fruits. The fruit is cut in half through the middle and one-half is placed on the cone. Pressure is applied and the juice is extracted.

Citrus Zester: A hand tool with a stainless-steel cutting edge having five tiny cutting holes. The zester is pulled across the surface of a citrus fruit, such as a lemon or orange, shaving thin theadlike strips of colored peel (the zest), but leaving the bitter pith.

Civet: A French stew usually containing game, though duck and goose are used. The meat is marinated in red wine for long periods of time, then stewed with pearl onions and bacon. The sauce was once thickened with blood, but that is a method not used much anymore.

Clabber: Milk which has soured to the point where it is thick and curdy but not separated.

Clafouti: A dessert of fruit, originally cherries, covered with a thick batter and baked until puffy. The dessert can be served hot or cold.

Clam: These bivalve mollusks come in two varieties. Hard:shell clams include littleneck, cherrystone, and chowder clams. The soft:shelled clams, such as steamer, razor, and geoduck clams, have thin brittle shells that can't completely close.

Clarified butter: The upper portion, clear, liquefied and oil-like, of butter when it has been allowed to melt slowly and stand without heat until the solids have precipitated. In India, it is called ghee.

Clarify (Clarified Butter): Remove impurities from butter or stock by heating the liquid, then straining or skimming it.

Clarify: To make a substance clear or pure.

Clarify: To clear fats by heating and filtering; to clear consommes and jellies with beaten egg white.

Class of trade (food industry term): A retail organization classed according to its method of doing business, such as a convenience store, supermarket, superstore, or a warehouse membership club.

Classifications (food industry term): The family groups of products that a retail food store displays and sells.

Clava de especia: [Spanish] clove.

Claveteado: [Spanish] spiked or studded with cloves.

Clavitos: [Spanish] little nails; tiny wild mushrooms.

Clavo: [Spanish] clove.

Clearinghouse (food industry term): A company that redeems consumer coupons from retailers and sends them to manufacturers for reimbursement.

Cleaver: A heavy, versatile knife with a large rectangular blade; used for cutting through bone, chopping and trimming. The flat edge can be used to crush herbs and garlic. Also known as a butcher's or Chinese cleaver.

Client/server environment (food industry term): A network of computers; client refers to the desktop terminal; the server to the central processing unit (CPU).

Clipstrip (food industry term): A display piece suspended from a gondola shelf, used to cross-merchandise small items.

Close of business (cob) (food industry term): The last hour of a business day, or the last day of a week, month or year that business is conducted.

Closed coded (food industry term): An expiration date on a product that a consumer cannot read.

Clotted Cream: Rich cream made by heating unpasteurized milk until a semisolid layer of cream forms on the surface. Once cooled, the thickened cream is removed. It can be spread on bread or spooned atop fresh fruit or desserts. Also known as Devonshire cream and occasionally called Devonshire cheese.

Clotted Cream: This specialty of Devonshire, England (which is why it is also known as Devon cream) is made by gently heating rich, unpasteurized milk until a semisolid layer of cream forms on the surface. After cooling the thickened cream is removed. It can be spread on bread or spooned atop fresh fruit or desserts. The traditional English "cream tea" consists of clotted cream and jam served with scones and tea. Clotted cream can be refrigerated, tightly covered, for up to four days.

Cloud Ear/Tree Ear: Thin, brownish-black mushrooms with a subtle, woodsy taste; A good addition to stir-fries. Available in dried form in Asian markets and may supermarkets. They become ear-shaped and five times as big when soaked in warm water. Tree ears are the larger variety; an albino type is called silver ears. May be sold under the name "wood ear mushrooms."

Clove: 1. A spice that is the dried, unopened flower bud of a tropical evergreen tree (Eugenia aromatica); has a reddish-brown color, a nail shape and an extremely pungent, sweet, astringent flavor; available whole or powdered. 2. A segment of a bulb, such as garlic.

Cloverleaf roll: Dinner rolls shaped by placing three small equal-sized balls of dough in a greased muffin cup and proofing until light before baking.

Cloves: Brown, hard dried flower buds of an aromatic Southeast Asian evergreen. Cloves are useful in both whole and ground forms. Ground cloves are used in the preparation of many cakes and soups. Whole cloves add wonderful flavor to mulled wines and ciders, and the spice of choice for baking ham. Cloves also have natural preservative qualities in pickling solutions and oils.

Club Steak: A rib steak from the top portion of the short loin. The higher the rib, the larger the steak. Size depends on thickness of cut also, and may serve one or two; very tender and juicy.

Club store (food industry term): A large retail store, (100,000 square feet or more), that sells only to members who pay an annual membership fee. Also referred to as a membership club store, warehouse club store or wholesale club.

Cluster marketing (food industry term): A strategy to market products in stores with similar demographics.

Cm (food industry term): Category manager.

Cma (food industry term): Calendar marketing agreement.

Cmi (food industry term): Can Manufacturers Institute.

Co2: Carbon dioxide; the gas released from leavening reactions and fermentation that creates bubbles and space in a batter or dough.

Coarse salt: Large crystals of salt, such as Kosher, rock salt, some sea salts, pretzel salt.

Coarse: Refers to the crumb structure of some baked goods.

Coarsely Chop: To cut food into small pieces, about 3/16 inches (1/2 cm) square.

Coat: To thoroughly cover a food with a liquid or dry mixture.

Coat: To evenly cover food with flour, crumbs, or a batter.

Cob (food industry term): Close of business.

Cobb Salad: Classic American salad, created in 1936 by Robert Cobb at the Brown Derby restaurant in Hollywood, made with layers of various greens, chopped egg, chicken, tomatoes, bacon, blue cheese and watercress.

Cobbler: A baked dish consisting of fruit covered with a sweet biscuit or piecrust dough.

Co-branded credit cards (food industry term): A credit card issued by a retailer and a credit card company.

Cocada: [Spanish] coconut dessert.

Cochineal: [Spanish] small red bug crushed to make red food coloring.

Cochinita: [Spanish] small pig.

Cocido: [Spanish] cooked; boiled; meaty beef and vegetable soup.

Cocina: [koh-SEE-nah] [Spanish] kitchen.

Cock-a-Leekie: A thick Scottish soup made with chicken, leeks, and barley. Modern versions have lightened up this soup by using a chicken broth garnished with leeks and barley.

Cockles: [Great Britain] Clams or donax. Any of various bivalve mollusks having a shell closed by two muscles at opposite ends.

Coco: [Spanish] coconut.

Cocoa butter: The portion of fat in the cacao bean.

Cocoa powder: Unsweetened powder made from cacao beans that are fermented, dried, roasted, and cracked. The nibs (small pieces) are ground to extract about 75 percent of the cocoa butter - a thick paste which is called chocolate liquor. This is dried and ground to powder. Dutch cocoa has been further treated with an alkali to neutralize cocoa's natural acidity.

Cocoa Powder: A brown, unsweetened powder produced by crushing cocoa nibs and extracting most of the fat (cocoa butter); it is used as a flavoring; also known as unsweetened cocoa.

Cocoa powder: The dried powder formed from chocolate liquor after the cocoa butter has been removed. This mixture is then dried and ground into a fine powder. Dutch process cocoa has been treated with alkali to give a darker appearance and less bitter taste. Instant cocoa has sugar, milk solids, and other flavorings and emulsifiers added to it which aides it to dissolve more readily.

Cocoa: see also Cocoa powder.

Coconut Milk: Coconut milk is made by combining equal parts water and shredded fresh or desiccated coconut meat and simmering until foamy. The mixture is then strained , squeezing as much of the liquid as possible from the coconut meat. The coconut meat can be combined with water again for a second, diluted batch of coconut milk. Coconut milk comes canned and may sometimes be found frozen in Asian markets and some supermarkets.

Coconut milk: Canned or frozen. Do not confuse with cream of coconut. This is not the liquid that is found in the center of coconuts, but a thick liquid made by steeping fresh grated coconut in hot water. The hot water helps to extract the fat from the coconut meat, which carries so much of this flavor. Found in Oriental or fancy supermarkets. Known as narialka ka dooth in India, santen in Indonesia and Malaysia. Best made from fresh coconuts: Grate the flesh of 1 coconut into a bowl, pour on 600 ml/1 pint/2-1/2 cups boiling water, then leave to stand for about 30 minutes. Squeeze the flesh, then strain before using. This quantity will make a thick coconut milk, add more or less water as required. Desiccated (shredded) coconut can be used instead of fresh coconut: Use 350g/12 ounces/4 cups to 600 ml/1 pint/2 1/2 cups boiling water. Use freshly made coconut milk within 24 hours. Canned coconut milk is also available.

Coconut, Dried: The shredded or flaked flesh of the coconut; often sweetened; also known as copra.

Coconut: The fruit of the coconut palm has several layers. A deep tan husk encases a hard, dark brown, hairy shell. Beneath the shell is a thin, brown skin, under which lies a layer of creamy coconut meat that surrounds a milky, sweet, opaque juice. Coconut meat is available sweetened or unsweetened, shredded or flaked, moist or frozen. Introduced to Latin America centuries ago.

Cocotte: An ovenproof dish used to bake egg dishes.

Cocotte: [French] A small, straight sided metal, earthenware or porcelain baking dish with a cover, used for cooking eggs (in a pan of hot water) in the oven.

Cod (food industry term): Cash on delivery.

Cod: A popular lean, firm, white meat fish from the Pacific and the North Atlantic. "Scrod" is the name for young cod (and haddock) that weight less that 2.5 pounds. "Haddock," "Hake," and "Pollock" are close relatives of the cod.

Cod: A large family of saltwater fish, including Atlantic cod, Pacific cod, pollock, haddock, whiting and hake; generally, they have a milk, delicate flavor, lean, white flesh and a firm texture and are available fresh, sun-dried, salted or smoked.

Cod: Most commonly sold as skinless fillets, a mild-tasting, snow-white fish has lean flesh with a big flake. Some substitutes include haddock, hake, and pollock. Note that scrod is a market term for cod, not a separate species.

Coddle: A cooking method in which foods (such as eggs) are put in separate containers and placed in a pan of simmering water for slow, gentle cooking.

Coddled eggs: Eggs which have been placed in rapidly boiling water and at once allowed to stand undisturbed for 10 to 15 minutes, in the cooling water; results in the whites and the yolks having the same degree of jellied firmness.

Coddling: [French] cooking process whereby food is slowly simmered in water.

Code date or dating (food industry term): A date and source code printed on an item to indicate its shelf life. Date codes simplify rotation and help prevent the sale of off-quality or spoiled products. See pull date.

Code number (food industry term): An item number printed on a case or package by the manufacturer to indicate confidential information for pack identification or checking purposes. Accounts may use different code numbers to describe the same item.

Codorniz: [Spanish] quail.

Coeur a la Crème - Coeur e la Crème: Meaning "the heart of the cream", this is a soft cheese dessert where the mixture is drained in a mold to help it set. The cheese is then turned out onto a platter and served with fruit and bread. Alternate versions use mixtures of ricotta and cream cheese and flavored with liquor and citrus juice. This is then molded and served with a berry coulis.

Cofc (food industry term): Container on a flat car.

Coffin case or coffin freezer (food industry term): A waist-high fixture used to display frozen food, with a transparent door or no door for easy access. See upright freezer.

Cognac: The finest of all brandies. Cognac is double-distilled immediately after fermentation. It then begins its minimum 3-year aging in Limousin oak.

Cognac: A fine brandy produced in and around the town of Cognac in western France.

Cogs (food industry term): Cost of goods sold.

Coho salmon: This high:fat variety of salmon provides a firm:textured, pink to orange:red flesh. Also called the "silver salmon."

Cointreau: a clear, mildly bitter, brandy based liqueur, flavored with the peel of sour and sweet oranges from Curacao and Spain. It is considered to be a high quality Triple Sec.

Cojack: American cheese that blends Colby Cheddar and Monterey Jack.

Colache: [Spanish] stew made of squash and other vegetables.

Colados: [Spanish] strained; sieved.

Colander: Used for draining liquid from solids, the colander is a perforated, bowl-shaped container. It can be metal, plastic or ceramic.

Colander: Cooking utensil comprised of perforated metal or plastic and shaped as a basket. Primarily used for draining away spent or reserved liquids.

Colby Cheese: A mild cheese made from whole milk; similar to cheddar cheese, but it has a higher moisture content (making it more perishable than other cheddars) and a softer texture.

Cold Pressing: A chemical-free process for obtaining olive oil that uses only pressure. Cold-pressing produces a higher quality olive oil that is naturally lower in acidity.

Cold spot (food industry term): An in-store bakery department that features baked goods furnished by an outside supplier or the supermarket's central bakery plant. No baking is done in the store. A cold spot department may have service or self-service cases and typically sells both unpackaged and prepackaged products.

Cold storage (food industry term): A facility that stores frozen foods and perishable items that need refrigeration or special handling.

Coleslaw: A salad made from shredded cabbage and sometimes onions, sweet peppers, pickles and/or bacon bound with a mayonnaise, vinaigrette or other dressing and sometimes flavored with herbs.

Collard Greens: A leafy, dark green vegetable with paddle-like leaves that grow on tall tough stalks; the leaves have a flavor reminiscent of cabbage and kale.

Collard greens: One of a variety of "greens" with a firm leaf and sharp flavor somewhere between cabbage or kale and turnip greens, fellow members of the mustard family. Depending on their age, they can be mild and sweet or mustardy. Collards do not form a head but grow on stalks that are too tough to eat.

Collateral (food industry term): An asset used to secure a loan.

Collateral material (food industry term): Point-of-purchase and merchandising materials that support special sales efforts, such as seasonal or holiday promotions or a new product introduction.

Collection (food industry term): A process of collecting monies owed.

Collection letter (food industry term): A business letter requesting that a customer pay an overdue bill for products or services received.

Collop: A piece of meat tenderized by beating or slicing thinly.

Colombo: A West Indian stew seasoned with a spice mixture of the same name. This is similar to curry powder, containing coriander, chiles, cinnamon, nutmeg, saffron, and garlic. The stew may contain pork, chicken, or fish. Vegetables are cooked in the stew and rice and beans are served on the side.

Color break (food industry term): The use of contrasting colors of products to create an eye-catching display.

Column inch (food industry term): A newspaper measurement unit, one inch long and one column wide. Ad prices are multiplied by column inches.

Comal: [Spanish] flat iron griddle for cooking tortillas.

Co-marketing (food industry term): A joint effort between a retailer and a manufacturer to promote products.

Combination deal (food industry term): A trade deal including at least two manufacturer's allowances, such as an advertising allowance and a purchasing allowance.

Combination feature (food industry term): Multiple products offered together at a single unit price.

Combination rate (food industry term): A media term for a special rate offered to companies that advertise in two or more publications, radio or television stations owned by the same company.

Combination salesperson (food industry term): An employee of a broker or a manufacturer who has both wholesale and retail sales responsibilities.

Combination store (food industry term): A food store and drugstore under one roof.

Combine: Mixing together.

Combine: To blend two or more ingredients into a single mixture.

Combo store (food industry term): A complete, full-line self-service market at least 30,000 square feet or larger with annual sales of at least 10 million dollars, 40 percent of which is non foods.

Comida: [Spanish] food; main meal of the day.

Comino: Ground cumin seeds.

Comino: [Spanish] cumin; powerful spice used in traditional Southwest cooking; seeds from pods of the indigenous and plentiful Southwestern cumin plant; can be purchased whole or ground; the predominant flavor in dishes such as chili con carne.

Commissary (food industry term): A U.S. government-subsidized, nonprofit food store, operating on a military base. Operates on a non-profit basis and sells products at cost plus a small markup. Also, a centralized food preparation facility which distributes prepared product to stores within an area, ready for sale in in-store bakeries, delis and food service operations.

Commission (food industry term): Compensation paid to a person or company for selling goods or services.

Commission merchant (receiver) (food industry term): A warehouse operator that sells goods, primarily fresh fruits and vegetables and job-lots of groceries, on consignment for the owner. See consignment selling.

Commissioned representative (food industry term): A salesperson who represents a grower, manufacturer or packer and sells goods on commission and does not warehouse, deliver or bill for products sold. See broker.

Commodities (food industry term): Staple agricultural products. Basic raw materials used to make processed foods.

Commodity number (food industry term): See code number.

Common carrier (food industry term): A transportation company, such as a rail line or trucking firm. See carrier.

Community or regional shopping center (food industry term): A center anchored by one or more large department or discount stores.

Compactor, trash (food industry term): A device used to crush dry or wet garbage. Often found in many stores in two separate units-one compactor for paper and cardboard and one for all other materials.

Compare and save signs/store signs (food industry term): Store signs that compare that store's price of an item with a competitor's price.

Comparison shopper (food industry term): A person who compares several stores' prices of the same items and brands. Often done by a professional employed by a retailer or wholesaler.

Competitive price (food industry term): The price that the same branded product is offered for sale by a competitive distributor. Also, the wholesale or retail price at which a product is sold when conforming to margins within the trade.

Complete-line wholesaler (food industry term): See full-service wholesaler.

Compote: Combination of fresh or cooked fruits. May be served hot or chilled.

Compote: [French] Dried and fresh fruit cooked with sugar to a jam like consistency, brief enough to allow the fruit to retain their individual identity. A deep bowl, often stemmed, from which such desserts and other foods are served.

Compound butter: Butter creamed with herbs, spices, garlic, wine, or whatever you wish. Perfect for finishing sauces or jazzing up just about any grilled or broiled foods.

Compressed Yeast: Fresh yeast compressed into a tiny cake (1/6-ounce), equal to one scant tablespoon of dry yeast. Compressed yeast is moist and extremely perishable and must be refrigerated and used within a week or two.

Compressors (food industry term): Equipment fueled with compressed gas that runs a refrigerator.

Computer assisted ordering (cao) (food industry term): A computer software program that keeps track of inventory and orders items as needed. Also called Computer-Aided Ordering.

Computer-based training (cbt) (food industry term): An self-paced, interactive, computerized tutorial or training process.

Computerized management system (food industry term): An electronically controlled system that uses sensors to monitor and control a store's energy use.

Comte Cheese: A firm unpasteurized cheese made from cow's milk; smooth slightly fruity in flavor; also called Gruyere de comte.

Con: [Spanish] with.

Concasse: [French] term for chopping a vegetable coarsely. This is used most often when referring to chopped tomatoes or other soft foods.

Concealed loss or damage (food industry term): Shortages or damaged products discovered after delivery.. See unconcealed loss or damage.

Conch: These "univalve" mollusks (their shells do not open and close) can be as large as a foot long. Also called whelk. The only preparation before cooking is cutting off the operculum, the shell-like covering that protects the meat.

Conchas: Mexican sweet-topped buns; named for the seashell design drawn in the topping.

Conchiglie: Pasta shaped like small conch shells.

Conchiglie: Large shell shaped pasta noodles. These are often stuffed and baked au gratin. Small shells are called conchigliette.

Conde: [French] dessert made with rice; pastry biscuits topped with icing and glazed in the oven.

Condensed Milk: A preserved milk in which the water content of the milk is evaporated and a lot of sugar is added. It was very popular in wartime England because of how well it preserved. These days it is used mainly in sweets and confectionery making.

Condensed milk: Preserved milk in which much of the water content is evaporated and sugar is added. It is primarily utilized in sweets and confectionery making. Condensed milk is also used in iced drinks because its high sugar content will not readily freeze in the beverage.

Condiment (food industry term): A spice used to season foods.

Condiment(s): Pickled or spicy food seasonings, often pungent, used to bring out the flavor of foods. Sauces, relishes, etc., to add to food at the table.

Condiment: 1. Seasoning or flavoring mixture used to accompany foods. 2. The French term for chutney.

Conditioned raisins: Moistened raisins before mixing into a batter or dough to prevent the raisin from grabbing moisture from the mixture or baked product, making the baked product crumbly. How to condition raisins - Cover raisins in tap water (80? F.) for 5 to 10 minutes; drain off water. Measure raisins needed; place remainder in sealable food container or bag. Store refrigerated.

Conditioning (food industry term): A procedure that prepares produce for display and sale through proper handling techniques (such as trimming excess leaves on greens). Conditioning maintains the appearance and eating quality of perishables.

Conduction: In cooking, the method of heat transfer in which heat is transmitted to food from a pot or pan, oven walls or racks.

Confectioners' or powdered sugar: A granulated sugar that has been crushed into a fine powder. A small amount (about 3 percent) of cornstarch is added to prevent clumping.

Confectioners' Sugar: Refined sugar ground into a fine, white, easily dissolved powder; also known as powdered sugar and 10X sugar.

Confectioners' sugar: This powdered sugar is best in recipes that will not be cooked at all, such as frostings, because it dissolves better than regular granulated sugar; it is also good sprinkled on top of baked goods. It is also known as 10X sugar. Known in Great Britain as "icing sugar."

Confit: To slowly cook pieces of meat in their own gently rendered fat.

Confit: This is a preparation for meat to preserve it for long periods of time when fresh meat would be scarce. The meat is first salted to remove moisture. It is then cooked at the lowest of simmers, submerged in fat, until the meat is buttery tender. After the meat is cooled, it is stored in crocks and covered with the fat to prevent exposure to air. The whole crock is stored to help age the meat. During this aging period the meat develops a new flavor, completely different from its original state. When ready to eat, the meat is fried in a skillet or grilled until the skin is crisp and the meat is warmed through. Duck confit was once served with potatoes fried in the same duck fat as the confit. This practice is less popular now, but good companions to the confit are lentils or bitter green salads to balance the richness of the meat. Fatty meats such as duck, goose, and pork work best in confit. Confit is an indispensable component in cassoulet.

Congeal: To turn liquid into solid by chilling.

Conserva: [Spanish] conserve; preserves made from fruit and usually includes nuts.

Conserve: Combination of fruits, cooked with sugar. Nuts and raisins are frequently added.

Conserve: [French] whole fruit preserved by boiling with sugar and used like jam.

Consignee (food industry term): The recipient of a shipment of goods.

Consignment (food industry term): Items offered for sale on a cash or short-term credit basis. See commission merchant; guaranteed sale.

Consignment selling (food industry term): A sales technique used for specialty or seasonal merchandise. The distributor pays for the merchandise when sold, or when the unsold product is returned after a predetermined period of time. The title for the merchandise for resale is held by the shipper until the merchandise is sold by the distributor.

Consignor (food industry term): An individual or business that distributes goods for sale or assigns custody to another party.

Consomme: A clarified broth used as a base for sauces and soups.

Consomme: A very rich meat or chicken stock (bouillon) which has been clarified, usually with egg white; also a clear bouillon which will jell when cold.

Consumer (food industry term): An end user of any product or service. A shopper or customer. The final link in the chain of product distribution (Food Industry term): manufacturing, selling, wholesaling, retailing, consuming.

Consumer advertising (food industry term): Advertising to motivate people to buy things or to shop at a store.

Consumer cooperative (food industry term): A group, called a co-op, that forms to buy in bulk to save money or to buy particular foods. The co-op operates food markets as a nonprofit corporation to sell product to member-families or the general public.

Consumer cooperative wholesale grocer (food industry term): A wholesaler that purchases, stores and distributes products to co-ops.

Consumer direct (food industry term): Distribution of product direct from the manufacturer to the consumer, bypassing typical retail channels of trade.

Consumer franchise (food industry term): See brand franchise.

Consumer goods (food industry term): Merchandise destined for ultimate use by persons or households without further commercial processing.

Consumer mix (food industry term): A demographic profile of customers that buy a product. For a product, the sales attributed to various types of consumers expressed as a percent of the product's total sales.

Consumer panel (food industry term): A representative sampling of shoppers who, through discussion, enable managers to assess customer needs in a particular store or group of stores. Discussion often involves shopping convenience, store sanitation, and other factors that contribute to customer satisfaction.

Consumer services (food industry term): Store services unrelated to actual sales, such as home delivery, carry-out and check-cashing,

Consumer: A person who buys goods or services for his or her own needs and not for resale.

Consumerism (food industry term): Pattern of consumer behavior where products and services are evaluated for performance and quality.

Container (food industry term): A train, truck, airplane or ship's cargo van used to transport goods. May be refrigerated or controlled-atmosphere unit. Standard sizes 10-, 20-, 24-, 35- and 40-foot units. Also referred to as a Cargo, Intermodal or Van Container.

Container on a flat car (cofc) (food industry term): A container transported by railroad flat car.

Continental-style case merchandiser (european-style case merchandiser) (food industry term): A long, sleek, fixed display case with a curved glass canopy and wood, tile, or metal accents.

Continuity (food industry term): The exposure of consumers consistently, over time, to advertising intended to sell a product or service.

Continuity program or promotion (food industry term): A long-term store promotion using items such as china, encyclopedias or cutlery to attract customers to a store.

Continuous replenishment (crp) (food industry term): An ordering process based on the exchange of electronic data between a store and a distributor that indicates when a store is running low on a product and needs a new shipment of the item. CRP programs reduce inventory levels and operating costs by having products delivered on a frequent, as-needed basis. With CRP, consumer demands--based on scan data, warehouse movement, and sales forecasts-- drive warehouse replenishment orders and shipping. In the most common form--vendor managed continuous replenishment-- the distributor's warehouse transmits data daily to the vendor on inventory levels and store orders; the vendor is responsible for creating the orders necessary to ensure that the warehouse can meet the retailer's product needs.

Contract features (food industry term): A list of products scheduled for a wholesale or retail sales promotion. The distributor of the products receives either money or an allowance for a successful sales event. See proof of performance.

Contract store (food industry term): A non-affliated food store supplied by a wholesaler on a cost-plus basis or by special arrangement. See cost-plus.

Control book (food industry term): A sales record that logs trends by product and season.

Control coupon (food industry term): An advertising coupon that limits the number of items bought on sale.

Control label (food industry term): An exclusive company label used in a certain geographic area.

Controllable expense (food industry term): Expense items, such as payroll and shrink, that can be reduced by managers.

Controlled atmosphere packaging (cap) (food industry term): A product packaged in a low-oxygen, nitrogen-rich wrap that preserves freshness.

Controlled brand (food industry term): A merchandise brand distributed by wholesalers, retailers or groups of stores that do not compete with each other. See franchised label; private label.

Controlled interviews (food industry term): A practice that sets buying days in a published schedule. Interviews are often limited to a certain length of time, and special interviews by appointment only.

Convection cooking: A method of cooking in which a fan continuously circulates heated air in the oven cavity while foods are cooking. Advantages are that some foods cook faster and larger quantities of food can be cooked at one time. The user has the flexibility of using multiple racks at the same time. Frequently, it is recommended to reduce the recipe temperature when using convection.

Convection Cooking: Convection ovens use a small fan in the rear of the oven to circulate air all around the food to cook it quickly and more evenly. Cooking times are generally reduced by 25%. Most manufacturers suggest that you reduce the cooking temperature given in the recipe by 25 degrees and bake it for the time specified.

Convection oven (food industry term): An oven with circulating air that cooks more uniformly and at lower temperatures than does a conventional oven.

Convection oven: A gas or electric oven equipped with a fan that continually circulates the hot oven air around the product. Circulating hot air allows products to bake on several racks at one time. Oven temperature can usually be reduced by 250F and preheating may be unnecessary.

Convenience food (food industry term): Prepared products, such as frozen or microwavable foods, that are quick and easy to fix.

Convenience products (food industry term): Easy-to-use necessities which people usually buy frequently and/or can use immediately

Convenience store (food industry term): A small, easy-access food store with a limited assortment. Many convenience stores also sell fast food and gasoline.

Conventional supermarket (food industry term): A large, self-service, retail food store (up to 30,000 square feet), with moderate pricing and selection, and annual sales in the $2 to $8 million range. Usually includes a meat, produce, dairy, and grocery department.

Conventional wholesaler (food industry term): A wholesaler that sells goods to retailers at a price which includes an unrevealed margin, not at cost-plus.

Conversion allowance (food industry term): Money that a manufacturer pays to cover a wholesaler's costs for a change in a product's package size or design. See slotting allowance.

Converted Rice: Rice that is pressure-steamed and dried before milling to remove surface starch and help retain nutrients; has a pale beige color and the same flavor as white rice; also known as parboiled rice.

Conveyance (food industry term): A legal term referring to a property transfer from one party to another.

Cook-chill (food industry term): A cooking and food preservation process for food-service products. Food is cooked, packed, sealed and quick-chilled in a plastic pouch and stored at a temperature below 40 degrees F.

Cooked, pressed: Curd cooked before pressing (parmigiano reggiano, gouda, gruyere).

Cookie pan: A flat, rectangular baking pan made of steel or aluminum that is rigid. All four sides feature a 5/8- to ?-inch side to prevent cookies from sliding off the edge, as well as to make removal of the pan from the oven easier. In home baking, jelly roll pans also are sometimes called, or used as, cookie pans.

Cookie sheet: A flat, rectangular baking pan made of steel or aluminum that is rigid. Sizes range from 10 x 8 inches to 20 x 15 inches. A cookie sheet is designed with two, non-edged sides so cookies can slide off either side for easier removal.

Cookie Sheet: A flat, firm sheet of metal, usually aluminum, with open sides on which cookies, biscuits and other items are baked.

Cookie: A flour-based, sweet, hand-held small cake (from the Dutch word "koekje," meaning "little cake").

Cookies: Small, sweet, flat pastries, usually classified by preparation or makeup techniques as drop, icebox, bar, cutout, pressed and wafer.

Cool: When hot foods reduce in temperature until neither very hot or cold.

Cool: To allow a food to sit until it is no longer warm to the touch.

Cooler (food industry term): A refrigerated holding unit in a warehouse or store for perishables.

Cooling rack: A rectangular grid of thick wire with "feet" that raise it above the countertop. They are used to cool cakes, cookies, and other baked goods when they come out of the oven. Products are cooled while in their pan for a short time and after the product is removed from the pan prior to storing or freezing. Yeast breads are removed from the pans and onto the rack as soon as they come out of the oven to prevent a soggy crust.

Cooling Rack: A flat grid of closely spaced metal wires resting on small feet; used for cooling baked goods by allowing air to circulate around the food.

Cooperative (co-op) store (food industry term): A consumer cooperative owned food store operated by corporate management. Multi-store and single store owners band together to achieve the advantage of chain-like distribution patterns.

Cooperative advertising (food industry term): A manufacturers' ad paid for in whole or in part by the manufacturer, with a retailer's name, logo and location inserted in the ad slick. For magazines (Food Industry term): the participation of two or more distributors or dealers sharing with the manufacturer the cost of an ad, usually in return for a listing in the ad. See advertising allowance. advertisers in a single ad which includes each manufacturer's products. In national media (Food Industry term):

Cooperative allowance (food industry term): A manufacturer's deal for a distributor or retailer to perform certain duties.

Cooperative group or co-op (food industry term): A group of independent retailers that own and operate a warehouse to buy in bulk to save money..

Cooperative marketing (food industry term): A group of independent producers that sells together.

Co-packer (food industry term): A packing company for several different manufacturers that uses manufacturer-supplied products and packaging and charges manufacturers per-unit.

Coppa: The loin or shoulder of pork that is cured, cooked and dried. It is served thinly sliced for antipasto or on sandwiches or pizza.

Copy (food industry term): The written or spoken part of an advertising message.

Coq Au Vin: A French dish of chicken, mushrooms, onions, and bacon or salt pork cooked in red wine.

Coq au Vin: [French] a chicken stew flavored with red wine, bacon, mushrooms, and pearl onions.

Coquille: [French] scallop; shell-shaped oven proof dish used to serve fish, shellfish or poultry.

Coquilles St. Jacques: [French] scallops.

Coquito: tropical eggnog.

Coralli: The Italian word for coral is used to describe these tiny smooth or ribbed tubes of pasta, most often used in soups.

Cordero: [Spanish] lamb.

Cordial: A synonym for liqueur. In Great Britain, New Zealand and Australia, a thick syrup (which may or may not contain real fruit) which is diluted to give a non-alcoholic fruit drink.:

Cordon Bleu: A dish consisting of thin boneless chicken breasts or veal scallops separated by a thin slice of prosciutto or other ham and Emmenthal-style cheese, breaded and sauteed.

Cordon Bleu: [French] highly qualified cook. According to legend, King Louis XV of France once awarded a blue ribbon to a female chef who had prepared an outstanding meal; (United States) chicken stuffed with ham and white sauce.

Core: Remove the seeded, inner portion of a fruit.

Core: To remove the inedible center of fruits such as pineapples.

Coriander: The tiny yellow-tan ridged seeds of the cilantro plant (Coriandrum sativum); used as a spice, they have a flavor reminiscent of lemon, sage and caraway, are available whole or ground and are used in Middle Eastern, Indian and Asian cuisines and pickling spice blends. See cilantro.

Coriander: The small, tan, nutty-tasting seeds (actually the dried, ripe fruit) of the herb cilantro, or Chinese parsley. May be purchased as whole dried seeds or ground; fragrant and aromatic, with hints of caraway, lemon and sage; seeds have been found in Egyptian toms and date back to at least 960 B.C.; commonly used whole in pickling spices or toasted and ground for use in dry rubs, salsas and soups; often paired with ground cumin to create a blend of flavors that adds a distinctive character to AmeriMex recipes.

Corkscrew: A small tool used to withdraw corks from bottles. There are many varieties, but a typical corkscrew has a pointed metal spiral with a handle at the opposite end.

Corn bread: Quick bread in which half or more of the flour used is cornmeal. It may be thin and crisp or thick and light. Popular types are hushpuppies, Johnnycakes and spoon bread.

Corn dog: A frankfurter or other sausage that has been dipped into a heavy cornbread batter, impaled onto a smooth round stick, then deep:fried and often served with mustard. Created in 1942 by Neil Fletcher for the Texas State Fair.

Corn flour: Flour milled from whole corn, it has the flavor of corn and is excellent in cornbread, muffins, waffles, and blended with cornmeal.

Corn Flour: Finely ground cornmeal; has a white or yellow color and is used as a breading or in combination with other flours.

Corn husks: Dried corn husks, softened by soaking, and used to wrap food before it is cooked (such as tamales); will keep indefinitely, but should be used within a day or two of being rehydrated.

Corn Oil: A pale yellow oil obtained from corn endosperms; odorless, almost flavorless, high in polyunsaturated fats with a high smoke point; a good medium for frying, also used in baking, dressings and to make margarine.

Corn starch: The fine, powdery flour obtained from the endosperm of corn used as a thickener for pie fillings and puddings; in combination with wheat flour in cakes, cookies, pastries, it produces a fine-textured product. Cornstarch may be referred to as cornflour in some recipes. More at www.argostarch.com.

Corn syrup: Corn syrup is a mildly sweet, concentrated solution of dextrose and other sugars derived from corn starch. It is naturally sweet and is not the same as High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS). Corn syrup contains between 15% to 20% dextrose (glucose) and a mixture of various other types of sugar Corn syrup has 60 calories per tablespoon, 20 calories per teaspoon. Light corn Syrup (clear and colorless) – a mixture of corn syrup flavored with salt and pure vanilla. Lite Karo clear corn syrup is also available with 33% fewer calories and no high fructose corn syrup. Dark corn syrup A mixture of corn syrup and a small amount of refiners' syrup (a cane sugar product with a molasses-like flavor). Caramel flavor, sodium benzoate (a preservative), salt, and caramel color are added. Dark corn syrup has a rich brown color and distinctive flavor.

Corn Syrup: A thick, sweet syrup derived from cornstarch, composed of dextrose and glucose; available as clear (light) or brown (dark), which has caramel flavor and color added.

Corn syrup: Dextrose, maltose, or glucose obtained by converting starch with acids. This syrup is used in baking, primarily to prevent the crystallization of sugar. Light corn syrup is clear, colorless and mild in flavor. Dark corn syrup is dark and distinctively flavorful.

Corn: A tall, annual plant native to the western hemisphere producing white, yellow, blue or multicolored grains arranged on a cob; consumed as a vegetable when young and available fresh, canned or frozen, or dried and ground into cornmeal; also known as maize.

Corned beef: Beef brisket (or round) cured in a seasoned brine. Old:fashioned corned beef is grayish:pink and is very salty; the newer style is bright reddish and less salty. Most corned beef today is free of nitrites (alleged carcinogens).

Corned Beef: Beef, usually a cut from the brisket or round, cured in a seasoned brine; has a grayish-pink to rosy red color and a salty flavor; also known as salt beef.

Corned beef: Brined beef, usually from the brisket; if you have a choice, buy the flank cut rather than the point cut.

Corned: Meat that has been cured in a brine solution.

Cornflour: [Great Britain] Cornstarch.

Cornichon: A very small sour, pickled gherkin cucumber traditionally used as an accompaniment to meat pate.

Cornichon: Crisp little pickles, intensely sour.

Cornish game hen: Also called "Rock Cornish game hen." This is a hybrid of Cornish and White Rock chickens. These miniature chickens are about 4 to 6 weeks old and weigh about 2.5 pounds... usually enough for one serving.

Cornmeal or corn meal: Comes white, yellow or blue, either coarsely or finely ground; Usually enriched with thiamine, niacin, riboflavin and iron. never to be used as a replacement for Masa Harina. Also known as maize.

Cornmeal: Dry degerminated or whole grain corn kernels (yellow, white or blue varieties are grown) that have been ground into fine, medium or coarse meal.

Cornmeal: Dried, ground corn kernels (typically of a variety known as dent); has a white, yellow or blue color, gritty texture, slightly sweet, starchy flavor and available in three grinds (fine, medium and coarse); used in baking, as a coating for fried foods or cooked as polenta.

Cornstarch: A dense, very fine powdery flour made from ground corn endosperm and used as a thickening agent.

Cornstarch: A white, powdery, thickening agent for sauces, puddings and gravies. One tablespoon is the equivalent of 2 tablespoons of flour in thickening power and makes a clearer sauce.

Corporation (food industry term): A group created by a legal charter that may buy or sell or enter into contracts.

Corunda: [Spanish] small cushion-shaped tamal wrapped in a corn husk.

Co-sponsoring (food industry term): Two or more advertisers that share the costs of advertising on a television program.

Cost (food industry term): The dollar amount paid for any goods or services. Retail price equals cost price plus profit.

Cost and freight (food industry term): A shipping term where the seller is responsible for paying freight, but not insurance charges to a destination.

Cost of goods sold (cogs) (food industry term): The cost paid by a company (including freight) for the goods it sells to its customers. COGS is computed by adding the cost of the inventory at the beginning of the period to the cost of goods received by the store (or warehouse) during the period, then subtracting the cost of the inventory at the end of the period.

Cost per thousand (cpm) (food industry term): An advertising sales term used to calculate how much it costs an advertiser to reach a thousand people.

Cost, distribution (food industry term): A term that refers to freight, storage and advertising costs of delivering a product to a wholesaler/retailer.

Cost, fixed (food industry term): An expense that does not change regardless of sales or productivity, such as insurance and rent.

Cost, unit (food industry term): The price of one unit of a product. It includes any related variable costs and any applicable fixed cost allocations that may apply.

Cost-plus (food industry term): A method of pricing where merchandise is billed at cost, with a percentage mark-up, or dollar charge, added for services rendered.

Cote: [French] chop or rib.

Cotechino: A fresh pork sausage with a very fine consistency and delicate flavor. It contains a small amount of ground pork rind, coteca in Italian, thus giving it the name. It is a large sausage, about 3 x 9 inches, used in stews and Pasta e Fagioli.

Cotija (a ejo): Aged cheese with dry, crumbly texture; has a salty, sharp flavor; does not melt, so it is used mainly for toppings for tacos, beans and enchiladas; is added to the dish just before serving; feta cheese may be substituted, but drain and blot with paper towels before you crumble it.

Cottage Cheese: A moist, fresh cheese made from whole, part-skimmed or skimmed cow's milk, containing large white curds. Cottage cheese comes in three forms: small-curd, medium-curd and large-curd, which is sometimes referred to as popcorn cottage cheese.

Cotto Salami: A large air-cured salami made from pork and beef and highly seasoned with garlic, black peppercorns and other spices.

Coulibiac: A Russian pie made with alternating layers of salmon, hard cooked eggs, rice, mushroom duxelle, and vesiga. Vesiga is the spinal marrow of sturgeon and has all but disappeared from commercial markets. The dough used to wrap the pie can be pate brisee, puff pastry, or brioche dough. Crepes are often layered in the bottom of the pie.

Coulis: [French] a puree of fruit or vegetables, used as a sauce or flavoring agent to other sauces or soups. As sauces, they are thinned down just enough to reach the proper consistency, but not so much as to alter the intense flavor of the puree.

Count (food industry term): The number of units or items in a case or package.

Coupe: [French] a dish of ice cream.

Coupon (food industry term): A discount certificate redeemed at the cash register. Coupons are distributed in manufacturer's newspaper ads, freestanding inserts, affixed to a product package, by direct mail, electronically in store or via the internet.

Coupon chargeback (food industry term): Manufacturer notice to a retailer and/or a coupon clearinghouse that payment for coupons submitted has been refused and that they are billing the retailer and/or clearinghouse for the face value of the coupon plus handling.

Coupon drawer (food industry term): A checkstand drawer to store coupons.

Coupon drop (food industry term): A manufacturer's coupon distributed by various means at a particular time.

Coupon redemption (food industry term): The act of exchanging a discount certificate for a credit at a cash register. Retailers are later reimbursed for the face value of the coupons plus handling charges.

Coupon redemption report (food industry term): A report that lists the number redeemed and value of all coupons.

Coupon scanning (food industry term): The practice of ringing up coupons at the register.

Coupon stuffing (food industry term): An illegal practice of ringing coupons outside of an order and taking the money.

Courgette: The French word for zucchini.

Courgette: [French] zucchini.

Court Bouillon: A savory bouillon made from fish stock. Court bouillon is used for poaching fish and as a base for fish sauces.

Court Bouillon: A well-seasoned cooking liquor, sometimes made with broth, used to poach fish and shellfish. Court-bouillons mainly consist of wine, water, herbs, and onion. Vinegar is sometimes added to the bouillon to help set the fish and enhance its white color. Truite au bleu is a perfect example of this technique. Court bouillon is also a thick fish stew or soup served over rice in Cajun/Creole cuisine.

Courtesy clerks (food industry term): Store employees responsible for bagging orders and carrying them to the car for the customers. Also referred to as carry-out clerks.

Courtesy counter (customer service) (food industry term): An area in a store dedicated to customer services, such as check-cashing, product returns, money orders, lottery tickets, bottle refunds, fax service, Western Union, etc. Usually located at the front of a store and is always staffed. Also called Service Desk.

Couscous: Small, spherical bits of semolina dough that are rolled, dampened and coated with a finer wheat flour; a staple of the North African diet.

Couscous: [North African] a fine-grained semolina pasta used primarily in Moroccan cuisine. Made from semolina (which itself is a flour made from Durum wheat). The name couscous also refers to the famous Maghreb dish in which semolina or cracked wheat is steamed in the perforated top part of a special pot called a couscoussiere, while chunks of meat (usually chicken or lamb), various vegetables, chickpeas and raisins simmer in the bottom part. The cooked semolina is heaped onto a large platter, with the meats and vegetables placed on top. Diners use chunks of bread to scoop the couscous from the platter.

Couverture: Extremely glossy semisweet chocolate used for coating and decoration. It forms a much thinner shell than ordinary confectionery coating because of its high cocoa butter content; usually only found in specialty candymaking shops.

Cow grease: Cowboy term for real butter.

Cpm (food industry term): Cost per thousand.

Cr pe: A very thin delicate French pancake used for sweet and savory fillings.

Cr pes Suzette: [French] pancakes cooked in orange sauce and flamed in liqueur.

Crab Boil: A mixture of herbs and spices, used to flavor the water for seafood.

Crab: Any of a large variety of 10:legged crustaceans (shelled animals). There are freshwater and salt water varieties. It is the second most popular shellfish. (Shrimp is the most popular.)

Crab: A marine crustacean that is highly prized throughout the world; its flavor and texture are considered by some to be the equal of lobster. There are several varieties including blue crab, Dungeness, Alaska King, and rock. Soft-shell crabs are actually blue crabs that have just shed their hard shells. They should always be purchased alive.

Cracked Wheat: The whole-wheat berry broken into coarse, medium or fine angular fragments. It can be substituted for rice or other grains in most recipes. Refrigerate to extend shelf-life.

Cracklings (Cracklins): The crispy residue of skin, usually of pork, remaining after the fat is rendered. Or the rind left when most of the fat of a roast has been melted off. Commonly made from pork, duck, and goose it is used in salads, stuffing, and seasonings.

Cracklings: Crispy cooked pieces of fatty meat, such as salt pork. Sometimes added to Southern cornbread.

Cranberries: Shiny red berries that are grown in bogs on low, trailing vines. Cranberries grow wild in northern Europe and in North America where they are also cultivated- particularly in Massachusetts, Wisconsin, Washington and Oregon. Berries are available in late summer and fall and have a characteristically tart flavor. Fresh cranberries have a very high vitamin C content.

Cranberry Bean: A kidney-shaped bean with a pale-red streaked skin and a nutty flavor.

Cranberry bean: Known in Italy as borlotti, these cream-colored beans with red streaks turn pinkish brown when cooked. They have a nutty flavor and can be substituted for red or white beans in many recipes.

Cranberry: There are several species of cranberry, but we're most accustomed to the large, tart ones that are native to North America. Too hard and tart to eat out of hand, cranberries must be cooked or chopped to make a relish. Fresh they may be stored refrigerated for weeks; or frozen they may be stored for months.

Crappie: One of a large number of North American freshwater fish closely related to the perch. Known for their bright, sunny colors, crappie are also known as "sunfish."

Cravatte: Bow-tie-shaped pasta similar to farfalle.

Crawfish (Crayfish): A small fresh water crustacean related to the lobster.

Crayfish: Also called "Crawfish" and "crawdads." Crayfish are freshwater crustaceans that look like tiny lobsters. Crayfish can be prepared in any manner appropriate to a lobster.

Crc (food industry term): Count and recount.

Cream Cheese: A fresh, soft, mild, white cheese made from cow's cream or a mixture of cow's cream and milk (some goat's milk cream cheese are available); used for baking, dips, dressings, confections and spreading on bread products; must contain 33% milkfat and not more than 55% moisture and is available, sometimes flavored, in various-sized blocks or whipped.

Cream cheese: This tangy, smooth, spreadable cheese is as delicious in dips, frostings, and all kind of desserts as it is spread on bagels. Lower fat versions are available, but the texture is usually more gummy than creamy.

Cream of coconut: thick sweetened "milk" extracted from coconut flesh and used in desserts and drinks such as pi a colada; Coco Lopez is the most widely available brand.

Cream of tartar: An acidic salt-potassium hydrogen tartrate (also referred to as tartaric acid); stabilizes beaten egg whites and leavens some baked goods.

Cream of Tartar: A fine white powder (potassium acid tartarate) obtained from a crystalline acid deposited on the inside of wine barrels; a component of single-acting baking powder, and also added to candy and frosting mixtures for a creamier texture. Cream of tartar is also helpful when added to egg whites before beating, as it improves stability and volume

Cream of tartar: The common name for potassium hydrogen tartrate, an acid salt that has a number of uses in cooking. Its form is a fine white powder.

Cream of tartar is obtained when tartaric acid is half neutralized with potassium hydroxide, transforming it into a salt. Grapes are the only significant natural source of tartaric acid, and cream of tartar is a obtained from sediment produced in the process of making wine.

Cream of tartar is best known in our kitchens for helping stabilize and give more volume to beaten egg whites. It is the acidic ingredient in some brands of baking powder. It is also used to produce a creamier texture in sugary desserts such as candy and frosting. It is used commercially in some soft drinks, candies, bakery products, gelatin desserts, and photography products. Cream of tartar can also be used to clean brass and copper cookware.

Normally, when cream of tartar is used in a cookie, it is used together with baking soda. The two of them combined work like double-acting baking powder. When substituting for cream of tartar, you must also substitute for the baking soda. If your recipe calls for baking soda and cream of tartar, just use baking powder.

If you are beating eggs whites and don't have cream of tartar, you can substitute white vinegar (in the same ratio as cream of tartar, generally 1/8 teaspoon per egg white).

If cream of tartar is used along with baking soda in a cake or cookie, omit both and use baking powder instead. If it calls for baking soda and cream of tartar, just use baking powder.

One teaspoon baking powder is equivalent to 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 5/8 teaspoon cream of tartar. If there is additional baking soda that does not fit into the equation, simply add it to the batter.

Cream: To work shortening (the general term for any fat used to make a soft dough), sometimes with sugar, against the side of a bowl until smooth. When making baked goods, creaming forces tiny air bubbles into the mixture, resulting in a fluffy end product.

Cream: To soften a solid fat such as shortening or butter with a fork or other utensil, either before or while mixing with another food, usually sugar.

Cream: Using beaters, a mixer or a large spoon to mix fats (butter, margarine or shortening) and sugars together until creamy in appearance.

Cream: 1. To beat an ingredient or ingredients with a spoon or beaters until light and fluffy or of a "creamy" consistency. Most often used in reference to butter or shortening, with or without sugar, in baking recipes. 2. A component of milk with a milkfat content of at least 18%; has a slight yellow to ivory color, is more viscous and richer tasting than milk and can be whipped to a foam; rises to the top of raw milk; as a commercial product it may be pasteurized or ultrapasteurized and may be homogenized.

Cream: The fat portion of milk that rises to the top when milk has not been homogenized. Cream is defined by its varying amounts of butterfat content. Half and half cream is a mixture of milk and cream, resulting in a butterfat content of 10 to 12%. Sour cream and light cream have a butterfat content of 18-40%. Heavy cream will have no less than 30% butterfat, averages around 36%, and will go as high as 40%.

Credit memo (food industry term): A voucher for credit for goods or services.

Credits (food industry term): Outdated, damaged, or unsalable merchandise where a refund can be obtained from another source.

Crema: [Spanish] cream; thickened and soured cream, the equivalent of cr me fr iche; usually a combination of whipping cream and buttermilk; used as a garnish, and it melts easily; sour cream may be substituted, but it is not as rich and is more acidic.

Creme Anglaise: This is a custard made of milk and eggs. It is used both as a sauce for desserts and as a base for mousses.

Creme Brulee: [French] cream custard with caramelized topping.

Creme Caramel: Like the Spanish flan, this is a baked custard that is flavored with caramel. When the dish is inverted, the caramel creates a sauce for the dessert.

Creme Fraiche: A naturally thickened fresh cream that has a sharp, tangy flavor and rich texture. This is an expensive item to buy, but a good substitute can be made by mixing heavy cream with uncultured buttermilk and allowed to stand, well covered, in a tepid place until thickened.

Creme Patisserie: This is a thick pastry cream made of milk, eggs, and flour. Other versions of this use all or a portion of cornstarch.

Creme: [French] Applied to fresh cream, butter and custard creams, and thick creamy soups.

Cremini: This domesticated brown mushroom has much better flavor than button mushrooms, but is usually more expensive as a result.

Creole: Cuisine originating in 18th-century New Orleans, in which classical European cooking was combined with New World herbs and spices and African and Native American culinary traditions. The emphasis on dairy-based ingredients and tomatoes differs from the amount of spices and pork fat used in Cajun cooking. Both cuisines, however, use the "holy trinity" base of chopped green peppers, onions and celery.

Creole: Designating a type of New Orleans cookery; dishes a la Creole are often cooked with tomatoes and okra.

Creosote: desert bush used as medicine and for tea.

Crepas: [Spanish] crepes.

Crepaze: A cake made of crepes layered with vegetables, cheese, or ham. The cake is then baked to blend the flavors and help set it so that it may be cut into wedges.

Crepe: (KRAYP) The French word for pancake; paper-thin, flexible egg-rich pancakes used to wrap or fold around sweet or savory ingredients as a first or main course.

Crepe: The French term for pancake; thin and light, crepes are usually served with a variety of fillings. The egg and flour batter can be sweetened if a dessert crepe is desired, and filled with a jam or fruit mixture. Crepes can also be served as a first or main course, filled with a meat, cheese or vegetable mixture and topped with a complimentary sauce.

Crepinette: A small sausage patty wrapped in caul fat. They are filled with ground pork, veal, or poultry and fried or grilled. Some are shaped into balls. You may also use cooked meat or vegetables to flavor a forcemeat in the crepinette.

Crescent roll: Also called a Butterhorn roll; a thin, triangular wedge rich yeast dough rolled from wide end to point.

Crespelle: An Italian pancake, similar to a crepe, used in place of pasta in preparations of dishes like manicotti and cannelloni.

Cress: From the mustard family, cress is available in several varieties. Watercress, peppergrass, and broadleaf cress name but a few. Cress can be used in sandwiches, salads, soups, or as garnish, and can be identified by its peppery tang.

Crevettes: [French] shrimps.

Crimini Mushrooms: Italian term for various common store mushrooms that range in color from light tan to rich brown; the flavor is more earthy and full-bodied than that of the agaricus (common white) mushroom.

Crimp: To create a decorative edge on a piecrust. On a double piecrust, this also seals the edges together.

Crimping: Process of making a decorative border on pie crusts; gashing fresh skate, then soaking it in cold water and vinegar before cooking, in order to firm the flesh.

Crisp: To restore the crunch to foods; vegetables such as celery and carrots can be crisped with an ice water bath, and foods such as stale crackers can be heated in a medium oven.

Crisping (food industry term): Soaking leafy produce in water to restore freshness.

Critical period (food industry term): A period of time between restocking during which the sales volume of a store is at its highest level.

Croaker: Any of a variety of fish named for the peculiar drumming or deep croaking noise they make. These fish are firm and low in fat. The croaker family includes the black croaker, black drum, hardhead, kingfish, and redfish.

Croaker: A member of the drum family, this dark speckled fish is found in temperate coastal waters. The croaker weighs about one pound and has lean flesh and a mild flavor.

Croissant: A rich crescent-shaped flaky roll whose dough includes some puff paste.

Crookneck Cquash: A summer squash with a long slender neck and bulbous body, pale to deep yellow skin with a smooth to bumpy texture, creamy yellow flesh and mild, delicate flavor; also known as yellow squash.

Croquembouche: Means "crunch in the mouth." A grand dessert made up of cream puffs that are dipped in caramel and assembled into a large pyramid shape. The whole dessert is then brushed with more caramel and elaborately decorated. Nougat cut into decorative shapes adorns the croquembourhe. Guests pluck off the puffs with their fingers.

Croque-Monsieur: The French version of a grilled ham and cheese sandwich with Gruyere cheese.

Croquette: A mixture of chopped or minced food, shaped as a cone or ball, coated with egg and crumbs and deep-fried. Vegetables, fish, or meat may be used in croquettes.

Croquettes: Ground or minced cooked food, such as chicken or salmon, bound with a thick sauce, formed into patties or balls, then fried.

Cross contamination (food industry term): A transfer of bacteria from one product to another by either direct or indirect contact.

Cross docking (food industry term): A process that takes place at a distribution center where arriving product is immediately broken down and reassembled into palletized store orders or moved to a temporary staging area. Product is then loaded onto waiting trucks for store delivery without ever going into storage.

Cross-merchandising (cross-selling) (food industry term): A display of related product, such as cereal and bananas, charcoal briquettes and starter fluid, pasta and tomato sauces.

Crostini: Toasted bread slices which are brushed with olive oil and served with tomatoes, pumate, cheese, chicken liver mousse, bean puree, or tapenade. These are the Italian version of canapes.

Croustade: Meat or chicken served in pastry shells.

Croustade: A light pastry shell.

Croutes: [French] pastry covering meat, fish and vegetables; slices of bread or brioche, spread with butter or sauce, and baked until crisp.

Crouton: Bread that is cut into smaller pieces and toasted or fried until crisp. Most often used in soups, salads and hors d'oeuvres.

Croutons: Cubed pieces of bread fried in butter.

Crown end display (food industry term): A massive display at the end of a grocery or frozen food aisle.

Crown roast: A ring of rib chops, usually lamb or pork, which is roasted in one piece, the center filled with a mixture of chopped meat and vegetables.

Crp (food industry term): Continuous replenishment.

Crudites: Hors d'oeuvres consisting of raw vegetables served with a dipping sauce.

Crudites: A selection of raw vegetables served with a dip.

Crudo: [Spanish] raw.

Crullers: Pastry strips or twists, fried in deep fat.

Crumb: The interior of baked goods-not the crust; interior texture formed by air cell pockets trapped inside a webbing of starch and protein gelatinized by baking.

Crumble: To break food into smaller pieces, usually by hand.

Crumpet: Small British yeast breads, baked on top of the stove. The unsweetened batter is poured into ring molds (crumpet rings) which have been arranged on a griddle, and cooked until brown on the bottom and riddled with small holes on top that are perfect reservoirs for butter and jam.

Crumpets: Disk-shaped yeast muffins, usually served toasted.

Crush: To pulverize, as with herbs and spices used in baking.

Crush: To condense a food to its smallest particles, usually using a mortar and pestle or a rolling pin.

Crust: The caramelized crisp or chewy outer layer of a baked product that covers the crumb or more tender inside.

Cryovac (food industry term): A proprietary term for vacuum packaging material, which has entered the language to mean all vacuum packaging, like "Xerox," "Kleenex" or "BandAid."

Crystallize: To form sugar- or honey-based syrups into crystals. The term also describes the coating.

Crystallized Ginger: Gingerroot that has been cooked in a sugar syrup and coated with coarse sugar; used most often as a confection or added to desserts and available in Asian markets and many supermarkets. Also known as candied ginger.

Crystallized ginger: Crystallized ginger is candied ginger; it has been cooked in a sugar syrup and coated with a coarse sugar. Available in Asian markets and specialty food shops.

Cuaresmeno: [Spanish] Lenten; another name for chile jalapeno.

Cuarto: [Spanish] quart.

Cubanelle chile pepper: A fresh mild and slightly sweet light green to yellow chile, measuring 4 to 5 inches long. Very close in flavor to a real Hungarian pepper. Found in good supermarkets or in Caribbean markets. May substitute with fresh green Anaheim pepper, but these are a bit hotter. Good for roasting and cutting into rajas, dicing and using raw in colorful salsas and pickling for escabeches; Anaheims may be substituted if unavailable.

Cube (food industry term): The cubic measurement (volume) of a quantity of product, calculated by multiplying its height by width by depth. Cube measurement is associated with the capacity of trucks, warehouse, backroom or shelf space.

Cube out (food industry term): The act of reaching the capacity of product that can be shipped in a truck or other transportation vehicle. See weigh out.

Cube steak: A beef cut, usually top round or top sirloin, which is tenderized by a "cubing" process involving a pounding with a special mallet or being run through a "cubing" machine.

Cube utilization (food industry term): Loading a truck or other transportation vehicle with merchandise in order to fill as much of the horizontal and vertical space as possible.

Cube: To cut food into smaller pieces, roughly the size of dice. This is somewhat ironic because dicing food produces smaller pieces.

Cube: Cut into squares, size of which is determined by the recipe, generally between 1/2 to 2-inches.

Cubic capacity (food industry term): The capacity of a vehicle, stated in cubic feet.

Cubing (food industry term): The process of ordering products to fill a vehicle.

Cuchara: [Spanish] spoon.

Cucharada: [Spanish] tablespoon.

Cucharadita: [Spanish] teaspoon.

Cuchillo: [Spanish] knife.

Cucumber: The edible fleshy fruit of several varieties of a creeping plant (Cucumis sativus); most have a dark green skin and creamy white to pale green flesh; generally divided into two categories: pickling and slicing.

Cucumbers: These quenching vegetables - about 96% water - are cucurbitas, part of a huge family that includes squashes.

Cuisse: [French] thigh or leg.

Cuisson: 1. The French term for cooking; used to explain culinary processes and details, especially cooking times. 2. Poaching liquid (such as stock, fumet, court bouillon or other liquid) that can be reduced and used as a base for the poached item's sauce.

Culatello: The heart of the prosciutto.

Cull (food industry term): Checking displayed products in cases to remove off-condition or unsalable products.

Cultivation: Growing plants or crops.

Cumberland Sauce: An English sauce used for ham and game. The sauce is made of currant jelly mixed with lemon and orange juice and port wine.

Cumin: A spice that is the dried fruit (seed) of a plant in the parsley family (Cuminum cyminum), native to the Middle East and North Africa; the small crescent-shaped seeds have a powerful, earthy, nutty flavor and aroma and are available whole or ground in three colors (amber, white and black); used in Indian, Middle Eastern and Mexican cuisines.

Cumin: Often labeled under its Spanish name, comino; introduced to the Americas by settlers of Portuguese and Spanish origin; from a plant that is a member of the carrot family; seeds are crescent shaped and resemble fuzzy caraway seeds; cumin pairs wonderfully with dried chiles and the slow-cooked flavors of the Southwest; best used toasted and ground as needed; some recipes call for the whole seeds.

Cup: A unit of measure in the U.S. system equal to 8 fl. oz.

Cupcake: A small individual-sized cake baked in a mold such as a muffin pan, usually frosted and decorated.

Curb delivery (food industry term): The practice of delivering an order in bulk to the pavement in front of a retail store; or from the tailgate of a truck to an adjacent platform. See carry-in charge.

Curd: Custard-like pie or tart filling flavored with juice and zest of citrus fruit, usually lemon, although lime and orange may also be used.

Curd: Semi-solid part of milk, produced by souring process.

Curdle: To cause semisolid pieces of coagulated protein to develop in food, usually as a result of the addition of an acid substance, or the overheating of milk or egg-based sauces.

Curdle: Process which causes fresh milk or a sauce to separate into solids and liquids by overheating or by adding acid; common cooking error whereby the addition of creamed butter and sugar in a cake recipe is separated due to adding eggs too quickly.

Cure: To treat food by a variety of methods in order to preserve it over long periods of time from bacteria, mold, etc. Pickling soaks food in an acid:based brine (usually vinegar). Corning soaks food in a salt:based brine with other seasonings. Example

Cure: To preserve or add flavor with an ingredient, usually salt and/or sugar.

Cure: Process of preserving fish or meat by drying, salting or smoking.

Curing salt: A salt that has nitrates added and is used as a preservative in sausage making. Available in some supermarkets and specialty markets.

Currant: Tiny, tart, grape-like berries are red, black, or white when fresh. More frequently recipes call for dried currants, which are not currants at all, but the dried, seedless zante grape. In cooking, dried currants are most often used in baked goods. May substitute with raisins in a pinch.

Currants: 1. Dried, seedless, black Zante grapes that are native to the area around Corinth in Greece; they resemble very small dark raisins and most often are used in baking. 2. Small, tart, translucent berries which grow in grapelike clusters in red, black and white varieties.

Current assets (food industry term): See assets, current.

Current liabilities (food industry term): Includes all debts and expenses due within one year (such as, accounts payable, accrued liabilities, current portions of long-term debt). See liabilities, current.

Curry Powder: An American or European blend of spices associated with Indian cuisines, the flavor and color vary depending on the exact blend; typical ingredients include black pepper, cinnamon, cloves, coriander, cumin, ginger, mace and turmeric, with cardamom, tamarind, fennel seeds fenugreek and /or chile powder sometimes added.

Curry powder: This is a mix of spices that we have come to know of by the Indian variety found in stores. Yet this is a mixture that is unique to everyone's kitchen. They may be mild with spices like cumin, fennel, and coriander; or heated up a bit with chilies and pepper; or fragrant with cinnamon and saffron. All of these are considered curry powders and all of them have distinctly different applications.

Curtidas: [Spanish] marinated.

Cusk: A large saltwater fish related to the cod. It has a firm, lean flesh. Also called "tusk" or "torsk."

Custard: A mixture of beaten egg, milk, and possibly other ingredients such as sweet or savory flavorings, which is cooked with gentle heat, often in a water bath or double boiler. As pie filling, the custard is frequently cooked and chilled before being layered into a prebaked crust.

Custard: Like pudding, custard is a thick, creamy mixture of milk, sugar, and flavorings. Custard is thickened with eggs, puddings with cornstarch or flour.

Customer count (food industry term): The number of customer checkout transactions for a day or week.

Customer loyalty (food industry term): The degree to which a customer repeatedly shops a store for a majority of their purchases.

Customer mix (food industry term): For a store the number of customers of various types expressed as a percentage of the store's total number of customers. For a product the sales attributed to various types of customers expressed as a percentage of the product's total sales.

Customer pickup (food industry term): See backhaul.

Customer take-a-check (food industry term): Numbered tags for customers used in areas where lines form to ensure fairness of service.

Customer transaction (food industry term): Payment for merchandise received.

Customer unit loads (food industry term): Unit loads consisting of one or more SKUs, possibly from several product categories, assembled by the seller according to terms of sale offered to the buyer. Also known as rainbow or mixed pallets.

Cut (food industry term): Items that are ordered, but not delivered because the warehouse is out of stock. These items should be re-ordered. Also called a product cut. See scratch.

Cut in: To distribute solid fat in dry ingredients by chopping with knives or pastry blender until finely divided.

Cut In: To work a solid fat, such as butter or shortening into dry ingredients. This is commonly done by using a pastry blender.

Cut: To divide food materials with a knife or scissors.

Cut: To divide a food into smaller portions, usually with a knife or scissors.

Cut-case (food industry term): A less-than-case-lot that a wholesaler sells to a retailer.

Cut-case display (food industry term): A method of merchandising and stocking products that uses the original packing case, with the top and/or sides removed, to display products.

Cut-in (food industry term): To make space on a shelf for new or promotional items.

Cutlet: A small piece of meat cut from the leg or rib of veal or pork, or a croquette mixture made into the shape of a cutlet.

Cutlet: A tender, thin, boneless cut of meat; it could be part of a chicken or turkey breast, or veal, lamb, or pork, usually taken from the leg. Also used for minced meats shaped like chops.

Cutthroat (food industry term): Slashing prices well below the market average.

Cutting (food industry term): Opening or sampling a product to evaluate its appearance, flavor, quality and/or consistency.

Cutting in: To blend together cold shortening or butter (fat) and flour or sugar without creaming (mixing air into) the two. Two knives or a pastry blender may be used to create a mixture that is crumbly or grainy in appearance.

Cuttlefish: A relative of the squid and octopus, the cuttlefish has ten arms that can reach up to 16 inches in length. "Sarume," which is available in ethnic stores, is cuttlefish that has been seasoned and roasted.

Cuttlefish: A rounder, thicker and chewier relative of the squid. This lean and nutritious seafood can be found in ethnic markets.

Cuttlefish: A cousin to the squid, that is also prized for its ink sac as well as its flesh. It is rounder, thicker and chewier.

Cycle cleaning (food industry term): Cleaning cases, shelves, bins and storage areas on a regular schedule to ensure cleanliness and sanitation.

Cycle count (food industry term): An inventory verification procedure performed at regular intervals at certain store aisles or sections.

Cylindrical cheese (food industry term): Uncut cheese similar in shape to a tube or large water pipe.


- Please bookmark this page (add it to your favorites).
- If you wish to link to this page, you can do so by referring to the URL address below this line.

https://theodora.com/food/culinary_dictionary_food_glossary_c.html

Copyright © 1995-2011 ITA all rights reserved.