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Culinary Dictionary
Cooking Glossary - Food Industry Terminology

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Sabayon: A frothy custard of egg yolk, sugar, and wine that is made by whisking the ingredients over simmering water. Served warm as a dessert or sauce.

Sabayon: Also known as zabaglione. A delicious dessert containing egg yolks, wine, cream, and sugar. Can be eaten by itself or served as a sauce for other desserts.

Sable: A rich short cookie similar to shortbread.

Sablefish: This saltwater fish has a soft:textured flesh and a mild flavor. Its high fat content makes it a good fish for smoking. Called "Alaskan cod," "Black Cod," "Butterfish," and "Skil," although it is neither a cod nor a butterfish.

Sabrosas: [Spanish] tasty.

Saccharin: A product made from coal tar, used as a substitute for sugar. Saccharin has no food value.

Sachertorte: [German] a rich chocolate cake.

Sachet Bag: Cloth bag filled with select herbs used to season soups or stocks.

Sack (food industry term): To bag purchases at the checkout. See bagger.

Saddle blankets: Cowboy name for large pancakes.

Saddle: The undivided loins of an animal, roasted as a unit.

Safety cutter (food industry term): A case cutter used to open cases of product.

Safety stock (food industry term): A back-stock of products kept to replenish shelves.

Saffron: An expensive spice made from the stigmas of the crocus flour. Saffron gives food a yellow color and exotic flavor. The spice can usually be found powdered or as whole threads (stigmas).

Saffron: Fragrant, thread-like, hand-picked stigmas of the autumn Crocus sativus plant, originating in the eastern Mediterranean, now grown as well in Spain, France, and South America. It has a characteristic pungent aroma and flavor and bright yellow color. It is also very expensive and used sparingly. It takes only a few threads to achieve the desired flavor and color. Saffron is indispensable in paella and bouillabaisse. A good substitute for the yellow color is turmeric, though nothing can replace its unique flavor. [Sp.] azafr n.

Sage: An herb (Salvia officinalis) native to the Mediterranean region; has soft, slender, slightly furry, gray-green leaves and a pungent, slightly bitter, musty mint flavor; used for medicinal and culinary purposes; available fresh or dried, used chopped, whole or rubbed.

Sage: A relative of the mint, it is the predominant spice in American turkey stuffing.

Sago Pearls: Made from the starch of the sago palm, they can be used as a thickener in desserts.

Saguaro: Tall cactus found in Arizona; its fruit is made into jams and jellies.

Saignant: [French] referring too meat preparation - undone.

Sake: The traditional Japanese wine made from white rice and malt. Sake has a relatively low alcohol content of 12 percent to 16 percent and can be used in sauces and marinades.

Sake: Japanese rice wine. Necessary to good Japanese cooking. The term "Ginjo" on the label means "superior." The term "Dai-ginjo" on the label means "superior premium." These indicate the highest grades of both pure rice (from which all sake is derived) and fortified sake. "Futsu-shu" is the lowest grade sake and is used in Japan most often as cooking wine. "Honjozo-shu" is a slightly better grade and is stronger and fuller; it can be served hot or cold. "Junmai-shu" is made from koji rice, yeast and water, and is usually served at room temp. "Kijo-shu" is sweeter and is generally served as an aperitif. And "Nigori," which is cloudy or "impure" and effervescent, is slightly sweet and therefore served at the end of a meal. Found in Japanese markets, larger supermarkets and liquor stores.

Sal: [Spanish] salt.

Salamander: 1. A tool consisting of a heavy iron disk attached to a long metal shaft with a wooden handle. The disk is heated over a burner and held closely over food to quickly brown the top; also used to quickly caramelize the surface layer of sugar on dishes such as creme brulee so the custard below remains cold. 2. A small overhead broiler unit in a professional oven that quickly browns the tops of foods.

Salami: Any of a family of boldly seasoned sausages similar to "cervelats," except that they tend to contain more garlic and are coarser and drier than cervelats. Salamis are rarely smoked. "Pepperoni" is a popular type of salami.

Salami: A family of uncooked sausages which are safe to eat without heating because they have been cured.

Salami: [Italian] spiced pork sausage, prepared fresh or smoked.

Salchicha: [Spanish] sausage.

Sales (food industry term): The dollar amount of products or services sold.

Sales analysis (food industry term): An analysis of sales by week, month, period or year to project trends, identify problems and measure a retailer's performance.

Sales area (food industry term): An area designated in a retail store to display and merchandise products, provide customer service and check out. It does not include the back room, coolers, (stock area) or maintenance areas.

Sales log (food industry term): A sales record by store and department, which provides sales trends, competitive factors, staffing, weather, holidays, etc.

Sales per associate hour/sales per labor hour (spah/splh) (food industry term): A productivity measure that quantifies the total dollars of sales for every labor hour used.

Sales per square foot (food industry term): A measure of store and department profitability. Calculated by dividing the daily, weekly or monthly sales by the number of square feet of floor or shelf space.

Sales projection (food industry term): A sales forecast based on sales for the same period last year.

Sales representative (food industry term): A marketing person employed by a manufacturer or wholesaler to represent certain product brands within a given sales area.

Sales representative's premium (food industry term): A premium or prize given to a manufacturer's or wholesaler's marketing person for achieving benchmark sales.

Sales service (food industry term): Fee-based services for retailers provided by a manufacturer's or wholesaler's marketing staff on a fee per service basis, e.g., merchandising the store, advertising, management information services (MIS).

Sales service representative (food industry term): A marketing person who provides services for a fee to a retailer, e.g., merchandising, advertising, or layout.

Salisbury steak: A ground beef patty seasoned with onions and seasonings before it is broiled or fried and served with gravy. Named after Dr. J. H. Salisbury who recommended eating a lot of beef for a wide variety of ailments.

Salisbury steak: A restaurant term for quality hamburger, made of chopped sirloin.

Salmagundi: A mixture of many foods cut into pieces: meat, chicken, seafood, cheese, vegetables, combined with or without a sauce, served cold.

Salmis: A fricassee or stew made from game birds.

Salmon: Perhaps the best:known of all fish, pictures of salmon from 12,000 B.C. have been found. Salmon migrate from the seas into freshwater to spawn. Over the years, some varieties have become landlocked in lakes.

Salmon: A succulent fish that lives most of its life in the sea but returns to freshwater to spawn. Salmon is usually available whole, cut into steaks or fillets, or canned. Fresh salmon can be poached, grilled or baked.

Salmon: One of the most popular fin fish, rich, oily (beneficial oil). and highly flavorful. Many markets sell "Norwegian" salmon as if it were a distinct species; but it is actually Atlantic salmon (and Atlantic salmon is now grown in the Pacific Northwest, northern Europe, Chile, and any place else there is cold, protected sea water). There are five species of wild Pacific salmon: king (or Chinook) and sockeye, which are leaner than Atlantic salmon; coho (silver); and chum (keta).

Salpicon: [Spanish] shredded or finely cut; Mexican shredded meat salad; hash. Cooked food cut into tiny pieces, usually as a filling for pastry.

Salsa cruda: [Spanish] uncooked sauce.

Salsa de rojo: [Spanish] red chili sauce.

Salsa: 1. Spanish for sauce. 2. Traditionally, a Mexican cold sauce made from tomatoes flavored with cilantro, chiles and onions. Green salsa, usually made with tomatillos and green chile, is called "salsa verde." 3. Generally, a cold chunky mixture of fresh herbs, spices, fruits and/or vegetables used as a sauce or dip.

Salsa: [Spanish and Italian] sauce. Salsa refers to cooked or fresh combinations of fruits and/or vegetables. The most popular is the Latino mixture of tomatoes, onion and chile peppers.

Salsify: Also called the oyster plant, (See Oyster plant) because it, at least theoretically, tastes like an oyster. Grayish or black (in which case it is called scorzonera) on the outside and pearly white on the inside, this root should be peeled and dropped into acidulated water to prevent discoloration.

Salt cod, dried: Codfish that has been cured with salt, common in Mediterranean and Caribbean cooking. Also known as baccal . Must be soaked in water for at least 18 hours, changing the water several times, before you cook it. Buy in Delicatessens and seafood shops.

Salt hoss: Cowboy term for corned beef.

Salt Pork: Salt-cured pork which is essentially a layer of fat. Salt pork is from the pig's belly or sides. It's used to flavor beans, greens, and other dishes.

Salt substitute mixtures: Usually a blend of granular potassium chloride and sodium chloride, intended for lowering sodium usage; tastes similar to regular table salt. Morton Lite Salt® Mixture is a leading brand.

Salt substitute: Usually potassium chloride in granular form, intended for lowering sodium intake; generally bitter in taste. It is not recommended for baking.

Salt: Salt (Sodium Chloride - NaCl) can be produced three ways - Open-air evaporation of salt brine in shallow ponds. By mining of rock salt deposits. By boiling and evaporation of higher purity brine. Salt contributes to flavor in baked goods, and controls fermentation of yeast in breads. Coarse grades are available for use as toppings on soft pretzels and other specialty breads.

Salt: 1. A substance resulting from the chemical interaction of an acid and a base, usually sodium and chloride. 2. A white granular substance (sodium chloride) used to season foods.

Saltimbocca: An Italian dish comprised of thin slices of veal, rolled around ham and cheese, seasoned with sage and braised in butter until tender.

Saltpeter: Potassium Nitrate. A common kitchen chemical used in preservation of meat or preparing corned beef or pork. May be purchased at drugstores.

Salvage (food industry term): Product containers/shippers (bales, pallets, containers) that must be returned or recycled to defray operational costs.

Salvia: [Spanish] sage.

Sambuca: An anise-flavored Italian liqueur.

Sambuca: An anise-flavored, not-too-sweet Italian liqueur which is usually served with 2 or 3 dark-roasted coffee beans floating on top.

Samosa: An Indian snack of deep-fried (sometimes baked) dumplings stuffed with curried vegetables meat or both. Most common of the fillings is potatoes or cauliflower with peas.

Samovar: [Russian] metal tea urn heated from an inner tube, in which charcoal is burnt.

Sampling (food industry term): A marketing program used to prompt impulse buying. Particularly useful in the Deli and Bakery Departments. The customer is encouraged to sample products from a prepared sample tray.

Sandia: [Spanish] watermelon.

Sangria: [Spanish] drink made from sweet red wine, pieces of fresh fruit (usually orange and lemon), spices (cinnamon, cloves).:

Sangrita: [Spanish] tequila and chile cocktail.

Sanitize (food industry term): The last part of the cleaning procedure of food equipment and surfaces to reduce microbial counts to a safe level within the department.

Sardine: The name describing several varieties of weak:boned fish including the Alewife, French Sardine, Herring, and Sprat. Named after the French island of Sardina. Often salted, smoked, or canned and packed in oil, tomato, or mustard sauce.

Sardine: Small, silvery fish with rich, tasty dark flesh. Enormously popular in Europe as an appetizer. Fresh sardines should be iced immediately after catching and are great broiled.

Sardines: The common name for any of several small, soft-boned, saltwater fish including sprat, young pilchard and herring. The term "sardine" may be derived from Sardinia, one of the first areas to pack pilchards in oil.

Sarton: [Spanish] skillet.

Sasafras: [Spanish] sassafras.

Sashimi: A Japanese specialty, sashimi is raw fish sliced paper-thin, garnished with shredded vegetables and served with soy sauce, grated fresh ginger and wasabi (green horseradish). Because it's served raw, only the freshest and highest-quality fish is used.

Sashimi: A Japanese dish of raw fish, shellfish, and mollusks served with soy sauce, wasabi, and pickled vegetables. Sushi is similar but it is served with vinegared rice, and may also include nori seaweed, vegetables, and strips of cooked eggs similar to omelets. A common accompaniment to this is pickled ginger.

Satay: A dish in which small pieces of meat (chicken, beef or lamb) are barbecued on a skewer and served with a spicy peanut sauce.

Satay: Also spelled sate and sateh. These are pieces of meat or fish threaded onto skewers and grilled over a flame. Several variations of these are seen throughout Southeast Asia. A spicy peanut sauce is served with meat satay in Vietnam and Thailand.

Satellite network (food industry term): A communications system that utilizes satellites to relay data and information. Also known as Satellite Communications.

Satellite stores (food industry term): Retail stores that are serviced by the same distribution center; or outlying stores in a shopping center.

Saturated Fat: This type of fat comes from animal sources and is generally solid at room temperature. The intake of saturated fats should be limited since they are associated with high cholesterol levels and the cause of some forms of cancer.

Saturated fat: Mainly derived from animals, although some vegetables are also highly saturated. A good clue that a fat is saturated is that it is solid at room temperature.

Sauce piquante: A thick, sharp-flavored sauce made with roux and tomatoes, highly seasoned with herbs and peppers, simmered for hours.

Saucisse: [French] a very small sausage.

Saucisson: [French] sausage.

Sauerbraten: A German dish using beef marinated for several days in vinegar, red wine, garlic and various herbs and spices. When the beef has been thoroughly marinated, it is dried and cooked in bacon fat and served with sour cream and a sauce made from the marinade.

Sauerbraten: [German] sweet and sour beef in gravy.

Sauerkraut: [German] sour cabbage; shredded and pickled cabbage.

Saumon: [French] salmon.

Sausage casings: Made from beef or pork products, available by special order from good meat markets or by mail order.

Sausage: Basically, sausage is ground meat with fat, salt, seasonings, preservatives, and sometimes fillers. They may be smoked, fresh, dry or semi:dry, uncooked, partially cooked, or fully cooked. There are thousands of variations of sausage.

Saut?: Cooking or browning food in a small amount of hot oil or fat until softened and the flavors are released.

Saute Transferring heat from a hot pan to the food with a small amount of fat, usually done at very high temperatures; a dry-heat cooking method

Saute: To brown or cook in a small amount of fat. (see Fry.)

Saute: To cook quickly in a pan on top of the stove until the food is browned. Sauteeing is often done in a small, shallow pan called a saute pan. You can saute in oil, wine, broth or even water.

Saute: [French] to prepare food by rapidly friying in shallow, hot fat, and turned until evenly browned.

Savarin: [French] rich yeast cake, which is baked in a ring mold and soaked in liqueur-flavored syrup. Served cold with cream or cream sauce.

Savory: Related to the mint family, savory has a flavor and aroma similar to a cross between mint and thyme. There are two varieties, summer and winter. Winter savory has the stronger flavor.

Scald: (1) To heat milk to just below the boiling poin, when tiny bubbles form at the edge. (2) To dip certain foods in boiling water. (see Blanch.)

Scald: To heat milk or cream to a temperature just below the boiling point.

Scald: To prepare milk or cream by heating it to just below the boiling point; to prepare fruit or vegetables by plunging into boiling water to remove the skins.

Scale (food industry term): A machine used to weigh products.

Scaler (food industry term): A special hand tool with ridged teeth for scaling fish.

Scaling (food industry term): The pricing of merchandise on the basis of weight and retail price.

Scallion: Actually a green onion, a scallion is an immature onion with a white base (not yet a bulb) and long green leaves. Both parts of the scallion are edible.

Scallions: The immature green stalks of a bulb onion.

Scallop: A bivalve mollusk with a ribbed, fan:shaped shell. In U.S. markets, only the adductor muscle, which opens and closes the shell is available. The Bay scallop is smaller, sweeter and a bit more succulent that their deep sea counterparts.

Scallop: To bake food (usually cut in pieces) with a sauce or other liquid. The food and sauce may be mixed together or arranged in alternate layers in a baking dish, with or withour a topping of crumbs.

Scallop: 1) A dish cooked in a thick sauce, such as "scalloped potatoes." 2) To form a decorative edging along the raised rim of pie dough or other food. 3) A mollusk with fan-shaped shells. Bay scallops and the larger sea scallops are the types commonly found in supermarkets.

Scallop: A mollusk with creamy texture and subtle but distinctive flavor. True bay scallops and se scallops are the best. Bake in layers with sauce. If desired top with crumbs.

Scaloppini: An Italian cooking term referring to a thinly sliced, boneless, round cut of meat that is slightly floured (or breaded) and quickly sauteed.

Scaloppini: [Italian] veal slices pounded very thin.

Scampi: The Italian name for the tail portion of any of several varieties of miniature lobsters. In the U.S., the term refers to large shrimp that are split and brushed in a garlic oil or butter, then broiled. "Scampo" is the singular form.

Scampi: Another word for langoustine, or shrimp. This word is used in the U.S. as a description of shrimp broiled with butter, lemon, and garlic.

Scan and bag (food industry term): The system or technique whereby a cashier bags purchases while scanning.

Scan bars (food industry term): The standardized coding system (Universal Product Code) that encrypts individual product pricing and identification information within a series of vertical lines.

Scan down (food industry term): Data obtained from a secondary source, e.g., A.C. Nielsen or Information Resources, Inc.

Scan integrity (food industry term): The quality of the inventory and pricing data that ensures that items have been added, deleted and correctly priced.

Scan ratio (food industry term): An inventory correction calculation to adjust for physical inventory differences based on the percentage of items scanned to the total items sold.

Scan-based trading (food industry term): A new way of doing business between direct store delivery manufacturers and retailers.It incorporates daily point-of-sale data to pay for product, electronic communication technologies to eliminate discrepancies and inefficiencies, and various store-level operating improvements, such as open delivery windows and elimination of check-in, to speed product flow."

Scannable coupons (food industry term): Coupons with a scannable bar code used to identify the promotional program and product and to deduct the correct value from a customer's receipt.

Scanner (food industry term): An electronic register system that automatically records the product description and retail price for an item by reading a UPC code with a laser.

Scanner allowance (food industry term): A manufacturer's performance criteria based on the number of products scanned during a promotion.

Scanning (food industry term): A process of moving items over a laser in order to record a transaction.

Scant: As in "scant teaspoon," not quite full.

Schematic (food industry term): See planogram.

Schnecken: [German] round yeast coffee cakes.

Schnitzel: [German] veal cutlets.

Schwarzbrot: [German] dark whole grained bread.

Schwein: [German] pork.

Scones: [Great Britain] Biscuits; a small, lightly sweetened pastry similar to American biscuits, often flavored with currants.

Score: To make shallow or deep cuts in a decorative pattern with the point or a knife. Food such as a whole fish is often scored so that it will cook evenly.

Score: To cut narrow slits partway through the outer surface of a food to tenderize it or to form a decorative pattern.

Score: To make lengthwise gashes on the surface of food.

Scrapple: A dish made from scraps of cooked pork mixed with cornmeal, broth, and seasonings. The cornmeal mixture is cooked, packed into loaf pans, chilled until firm, then cut and fried.

Scrapple: Meat dish of freshly-butchered pork scraps and cornmeal.

Scratch (food industry term): A product deleted from a retailer's order because the warehouse is out of stock. Also called a short. See cut.

Scratch bakery (food industry term): An in-store bakery that prepares products by using basic ingredients, e.g., flour, sugar, eggs, yeast.

Scratch baking: Baking method that begins with measuring basic ingredients such as flour, sugar, butter and leavening. It requires a recipe rather than convenience products, like mixes.

Scrod: Scrod is the name for young cod (and haddock) that weight less that 2.5 pounds. It is a popular fish from the Pacific and the North Atlantic with a lean, firm, white flesh. "Haddock," "hake," and "pollock" are close relatives of the cod.

Scungille: See "Conch." A shellfish.

Scup: Also know as "porgie" or "sea bream." These fish are generally lean, and coarse:grained. Scup is often grilled, poached, and pan:fried.

Sea (solar) salt: Generally, salt made by outdoor evaporation of salt brine in shallow ponds; level of refinement may vary, as well as coarseness. It may be used for baking, although very coarse salt would not be suitable.

Sea bass: A term used to describe a number of lean to moderately fat marine fish, most of which aren't actually members of the bass family. "Striped bass" and "Black Sea bass" are true bass. The "white sea bass" is a member of the drum family.

Sea bass: This small, firm-fleshed species is one of the best fish to cook whole. The black sea bass of the North Atlantic is the most commonly seen species. Look for clean and sweet-smelling fish.

Sea bream: Also know as "scup." These marine fish are generally lean, and coarse:grained. Sea bream is often grilled, poached, and pan:fried.

Sea devil: This large low:fat, firm:textured salt:water fish has a mild, sweet flavor that compares with lobster. Also called "angler fish" "monkfish," and "goosefish."

Sea perch: This important commercial fish is a member of the rockfish group. Also known as "ocean perch," although it is not a true perch.

Sea plums: Canned oysters.

Sea Salt: Considered by some to be the best salt for both kitchen and table use, sea salt is produced by evaporating sea water.

Sea trout: An anadromous (spawns in fresh water) brown trout that spends part to its life cycle in the sea. Sea trout have meat that is pink to red in color and is very comparable to salmon. May be prepared any way appropriate for salmon.

Sea Urchin: A round spiny creature found off the coasts of Europe and America. The only edible portion is the coral, usually eaten raw with fresh lemon juice.

Sea vegetables: A rich source of iodine and an important food source in many oriental cultures. Sea vegetables such as dulse, hijiki and arame can be soaked briefly in water, squeezed dry, and cut up for salad. Laver (nori) is what you use to make sushi.

Seal program (food industry term): A security procedure for truck deliveries. Each truck is padlocked and sealed with a slim, numbered metal strip. The receiver breaks the seal and records the driver's name and the seal number in a log.

Sear Browning food quickly over very high heat; usually the first step in a combination cooking method

Sear: To brown food, usually meat, quickly over very high heat to seal in juices. Thus, seal is often used interchangeably with sear. Searing can be done under a broiler, in a skillet, or in a very hot oven. Example

Sear: To brown the surface of meat by a short application of intense heat.

Sear: To brown a food quickly on all sides using high heat to seal in the juices.

Sear: To prepare meat by browning it rapidly with fierce heat to seal in the juices and flavor of the meat.

Season: 1. Traditionally, to enhance a food's flavor by adding salt. 2. More commonly, to enhance a food's flavor by adding salt and/or pepper as well as herbs and other spices.

Season: To add flavor to foods in the form of salt, pepper, herbs, spices, vinegar, etc. so that their taste is improved.

Seasonal calendar/planner (food industry term): A seasonal, schedule created to simplify planning around holidays and specific selling periods, i.e., merchandising, display building, ordering, scheduling staff.

Seasonal item (food industry term): Products associated exclusively with a holiday or specific time of the year. Also known as Seasonal Merchandise.

Seasonal promotions (food industry term): A marketing plan of in-and-out promotions for seasonal events, such as Christmas, Back-to-School, Spring Clean-up, Halloween, Valentine's Day.

Seasoned Flour: Flour with added seasoning, which may include salt, pepper, herbs, paprika, spices, or a combination.

Seasoned flour: Flour flavored with salt and pepper and sometimes other seasonings.

Seasoned Salt: a seasoning blend; its primary ingredient is salt with flavorings such as celery, garlic or onion added.

Seaweed sheets, dried: Also known as nori and laver. Find in Oriental markets and larger supermarkets.

Seca (seco): [Spanish] dried.

Secondary display (food industry term): A promotional display of an item in a retail store in addition to a product's regular shelf location.

Secondary packaging (food industry term): A master package that contains several inner packs; which are normally the unit of sale.

Secondary supplier (food industry term): A vendor or wholesaler that supplies a retailer with a small volume of products.

Secos y asados: [Spanish] dried and roasted.

Section (food industry term): An area in a retail store that contains one category of products.

Section reset (food industry term): See reset.

Security deposit (food industry term): A retailer's cash deposit with a wholesaler to secure credit.

See also Escallop:

Segregation (food industry term): Locating general merchandise products (GM) in a well-defined area of a store rather than in aisles next to or across from food products.

Selective discounting (food industry term): Price reductions on fast-moving products to give a low- price image.

Selective merchandising (food industry term): The elimination or minimizing of duplicate brand products.

Selective selling (food industry term): A wholesaler's marketing practice of selling only to retailers who meet various criteria, e.g., sales volume, type of store, location and style of operation. See tonnage items.

Self-facing fixture (food industry term): A rack or shelf that uses either gravity or mechanical means to replace an item when one item is removed by a customer.

Self-insured (food industry term): An insurance policy within a company where revenue is generated for insurance from associates and company contributions rather than paying premiums to an outside insurance company.

Self-liquidating premium (food industry term): A manufacturer's premium in which the product's cost is recovered through a retail sale of the product.

Self-rising cornmeal: One of the first convenience baking mixes. It is a blend of cornmeal, flour, baking powder, and salt. Approximate equivalent = 1½ cups cornmeal, ½ cup all-purpose flour, 1 tablespoon baking powder, and 1 teaspoon salt.

Self-rising flour: One of the first "convenience mixes," self-rising flour is a blend of all-purpose flour, baking powder, and salt. When self-rising flour is used in a standard flour recipe, the baking powder and salt are then omitted. Approximate equivalent = 1 cup all-purpose flour, 1½ teaspoons baking powder, and ½ teaspoon salt.

Self-Rising Flour: An all-purpose flour to which baking powder and salt have been added.

Self-service (food industry term): A retail store with few service employees to assist customers other than at the checkout.

Sell sheet (food industry term): See flash sheet.

Sell-down (food industry term): The amount of time it takes to sell all products on the shelf.

Selle: Saddle (See "Saddle of lamb, veal," etc.)

Semifirm cheese: Cooked and pressed, but not so long-aged, not crumbly (edam, jarlsberg).

Semifreddo: Meaning "half cold", this is gelato with whipped cream folded into it.

Semi-liquidators (food industry term): A customer's premium whose cost is only partially recovered by a manufacturer or retailer.

Semilla: [Spanish] seed.

Semisoft cheese: Either cooked or uncooked, soft, but sliceable (gouda, tilsit, monterey jack).

SEMI-SWEET (higher sugar content) chocolate: Contains 15-35% chocolate liquor.

Semi-sweet chocolate: Baking chocolate that contains between 15 percent and 35 percent chocolate liquor, cocoa butter, sugar, lecithin, and vanilla. It may be used interchangeably in some recipes that call for bittersweet or sweet chocolate, but is not interchangeable with milk chocolate.

Semisweet or bittersweet chocolate: often utilized in cake and cookie recipes. Both terms are often used interchangeably, though bittersweet generally has more chocolate liquor (the paste formed from roasted, ground cocoa beans). Semisweet chocolate contains at least 35% chocolate liquor, while some fine bittersweets contain 50% or more. Either chocolate possess a deep, smooth, intense flavor that comes from the blend of cocoa beans used rather than added dairy products. Sugar, vanilla, and cocoa butter must be added to the liquor to enhance the chocolate flavor.

Semolina flour: Flour produced by further grinding semolina (granules) made from durum wheat. Specialty breads sometimes call for part semolina or semolina flour. Also called pasta flour.

Semolina flour: A delicately flavored, coarse flour made from durum wheat, primarily used in making pasta and bread.

Semolina: Durum wheat which is usually more coarse than regular wheat flours. Semolina is used to make pasta, gnocchi, puddings, and a variety of confections.

Sencillo: [Spanish] simple.

Serenata: [Spanish] codfish salad.

Serrano chiles: Serrano means from the mountains; medium green chile, becoming brilliant red when ripe; extremely hot; usually shorter and thinner than the jalape o; a basic ingredient for salsas, sauces, marinades and escabeches; jalape os may be substituted.

Serrano seco: [Spanish] dried red serrano chile.

Serrano: A fiery hot, but flavorful, green chili, available fresh or canned. Serrano chiles are about 1½ inches long and are slightly pointed.

Server (food industry term): A central computer, which provides processing for several terminals.

Service charge (food industry term): In wholesaling, any charge above a transfer of goods. In retailing, an additional charge for providing service to a customer, e.g., check cashing. See neutralizing charge.

Service department (food industry term): A retail department that fills customer's orders, e.g., service deli; service meat; service seafood; service bakery; in-store pharmacy; video department.

Service label (food industry term): The in-stock position of a warehouse expressed as the percentage of orders placed that can be filled. The opposite of service label is out-of-stocks.

Service merchandiser (food industry term): A vendor/ or wholesaler who specializes in a product category. Also known as a rack jobber.

Service store (food industry term): A retail store with a high level of customer service, e.g., floral department, service deli, service bakery.

Sesame Oil: An oil made from sesame seed. Light sesame oil has a nutty flavor and may be used in a variety of ways. The stronger flavored dark sesame oil is most often used as a flavoring in oriental dishes.

Sesame oil: This oil pressed from the sesame sees has a slightly nutty flavor. Used as a flavoring in Oriental cooking, not a cooking oil. Used for flavoring a dish at the last minute. The health food-store version is not made from toasted sesame seed, so the flavor is very bland. Find in Oriental markets and larger supermarkets.

Sesame seeds, toasted: Often used as garnish in many cuisines. To make: Toast raw sesame seeds in a frying pan over medium heat until golden brown. Shake and stir the seeds over the burner to get even coloring. Ready for use.

Sesame Seeds: Crispy little seeds with a nutty flavor. Sesame seeds may be used in savory dishes or desserts, and are often sprinkled on baked foods.

Sesos: [Spanish] brains.

Set (food industry term): The layout of merchandise in an aisle or store.

Set store (food industry term): The process of properly setting up each department with approved products according to a planogram or lay-out diagram.

Setting up (food industry term): The process of properly setting up a display of product according to a planogram.

Seviche: A Latin American dish of very fresh, raw fish marinated in citrus juice (usually lime), onions, tomatoes and chiles; also spelled ceviche and cebiche.

Seviche: A popular dish in Latin-American cookery, a dish of raw fish, scallops, or shrimp marinated in citrus juices until the flesh becomes "cooked". Onions, peppers, and chiles are then added to finish the dish.

Shad: Small, delicate saltwater fish related to the alewife, herring, and sardine. They are larger than herrings and spawn in fresh water. Some species of shad have been landlocked and live in freshwater lakes.

Shallot: A bulb related to the onion and garlic. Shallots have a mild onion-like flavor.

Shallot: A bulbous herb whose flavor resembles an onion. In some areas the term applies to the green tops as well as the bulb. They are called "scallions" or "green onions" elsewhere.

Shallow Fry: To fry with enough oil to come halfway up the sides of the food.

Share of acv (food industry term): See all commodity volume.

Share of market (food industry term): A product's percent of sales within a category. A retailer's share of total retail sales within a specific trading area.

Shark: A flavorful, low:fat fish that includes varieties such as Leopard, Mako, Spiny Dogfish, Soupfin and Thresher. Shark meat tends to have an ammonia:like smell that can be eliminated by soaking the flesh in milk or acidulated water.

Shaslik: Skewered, broiled marinated lamb.

Sheepshead: A saltwater fish belonging to the wrasse family. Also called "California Sheephead," "Fathead," and "Redhead." Its meat is white, tender, and lean.

Shelf arrangement (food industry term): The assortment and location of products on store shelves.

Shelf capacity (food industry term): The total volume of a shelf; also called holding power or pack-out.

Shelf extender (food industry term): A self-serve display that extends beyond a gondola to increase a shelf's capacity and draw attention to a product.

Shelf label (food industry term): A label that lists order code, description, and pack size of a product on a shelf, as well as its retail price. See shelf tag.

Shelf life (food industry term): The time period a product can be expected to maintain maximum quality and freshness.

Shelf marker (food industry term): A sign on a gondola. Also known as a shelf talker.

Shelf molding (food industry term): The outer edge of a gondola shelf used for signs, UPC codes, retail prices, etc.

Shelf price (food industry term): The retail price stored in an inventory file, shown on a shelf tag, and marked on an item.

Shelf space (food industry term): The amount of shelf space allocated to a product category and to each product within the category.

Shelf stable (food industry term): A processed food product that remains safe to eat without refrigeration.

Shelf strips (food industry term): A shelf sign for a product. Also known as a shelf talker.

Shelf tag (food industry term): A label attached to shelving which is used to identify and describe a specific item.

Shelf talker (food industry term): Merchandise signs, attached to the shelf molding, used to draw customer attention to a product.

Shelf warmers (food industry term): Items that sell slowly. Also known as slow movers or slow-selling items.

Shell steak: The same as Delmonico. (See "Delmonico".)

Shell: To remove the shell from nuts, legumes and shellfish.

Shellfish (food industry term): An aquatic animal, e.g., clams, oysters, mussels, crabs, lobsters, shrimp, squid and octopus which has a shell; crustaceans or mollusks.

Shellfish: Any of many species of aquatic invertebrates with shells or carapaces found in saltwater and freshwater regions worldwide, most are edible; shellfish are categorized as crustaceans and mollusks.

Sherbet: is made from unsweeted fruit juice and water. It is similar to sorbet except that it can contain milk, cream, egg whites or gelatin. Sherbet is lighter than ice cream but richer than an ice or sorbet.

Sherbet: A frozen mixture containing fruit juices, water or milk, to which various thickeners are added before freezing, such as egg whites or gelatin.

Sherry Vinegar: Vinegar which has the rich, subtly nutlike Flavor of the popular fortified wine.

Sherry vinegar: This recent addition to American markets is a good wine vinegar that is better than inexpensive balsamic vinegar. May be used in salads, and also as a marinade for grilled and broiled dishes.

Sherry: a fortified, cask-aged wine, ranges in taste from dry to medium dry to sweet. It is enjoyed as an aperitif and is used as a flavoring in both savory and sweet recipes.

Shiitake Mushroom: Also called Chinese, black or oriental mushroom (in its dried form). Shiitake is a strongly flavored mushroom used in both its fresh and dried form.

Shiitake: The best domesticated mushroom, with a rich, distinctive, smoky flavor. Do not eat the stem, but save it for stocks. Can be found in most Oriental markets dried. Also found fresh or dried in some larger supermarkets.

Ship notice/manifest (food industry term): An EDI transaction in which the shipper notifies a customer of a pending shipment. Generically this is known as an advance ship notice (ASN). The ASN enables the customer to identify short shipments before receipt and plan warehouse receiving more efficiently.

Shipper (food industry term): A company that transports and retains title to a shipment until a recipient accepts a shipment.

Shipper or shipper pack (food industry term): See prepack.

Shipping brackets (food industry term): A manufacturer's or wholesaler's price points used to encourage retailers to order in large quantities in order to receive better discounts.

Shipping container (food industry term): An outer shipping case used to transport products.

Shipping unit (food industry term): The amount, size and style of product in its original case.

Shirataki Noodles: Thin, long, translucent noodles made from very fine strands of a gelatinous substance called konnyaku, which is taken from the "devil's tongue plant" (Japanese yam). Their texture is slightly rubbery and they do not have any flavor. The noodles will pick up the flavor of the broth or other ingredients in the dish in which they are simmered. They are available dried or packaged in water in a plastic casing that gives it a sausage-like shape. They are also found packaged in cans.

Shirr: A method of cooking eggs. Whole eggs, covered with cream or milk and sometimes crumbs are typically baked in ramekins or custard cups.

Shirred eggs: Eggs broken into shallow ramekins containing cream or crumbs, then baked or broiled until set.

Shish Kebab: A Mediterranean dish of marinated meats (usually lamb or beef) and vegetables threaded on a skewer and grilled or broiled; also known as shashlik.

Shish kebab: Cubes of meat cooked on a skewer, often with vegetables.

Shop backs (food industry term): Individual items accumulated at the front end during the course of a day's business that can be put back on shelves for sale.

Shoplifter (food industry term): A person who steals goods from a store, while pretending to shop.

Shopping behavior (food industry term): An observable pattern of consumer behavior, typically in response to sales displays or product price reductions.

Shopping cart display (food industry term): A shopping cart used as a free-standing display.

Shopping center (food industry term): A group of complementary retail stores with a common parking lot.

Shopping service (food industry term): A vendor who performs competitive price comparisons for a retailer within a specified market area.

Short (food industry term): An inadequate amount of products needed to fill a shelf or an order or to meet customer demand.

Short loin: The tenderloin.

Short or short ship (food industry term): See scratch.

Short ribs: The cut off ends of the prime rib, which should be cooked in liquid until quite tender.

Shortage (food industry term): A shortfall of a product's order or weight or of money.

Shortbread: A butter-rich cookie from Scotland, often seasoned with lemon, cinnamon, ginger, almonds and cumin.

Short-broiling: The same as parboiling or poaching.

Shortening: A white, flavorless, solid fat formulated for baking or deep frying; any fat used in baking to tenderize the product by shortening gluten strands.

Shortening: Although good at holding air, shortening has little flavor. It is just a fat solid. Stick with butter for baking.

Short-grain rice: The most common rice in Japanese cooking. It has a short oval shape compared to long-grain rice. Also known as pearl rice.

Short'nin' bread: Sweet, rich quick bread.

Shorts, scratches (food industry term): A note on an invoice to a retailer of insufficient or out-of-stock products at a distribution center.

Shoyu: Japanese for Soy Sauce.

Shred: To cut into many, very fine strips or pieces.

Shred: To cut, slice or tear into thin strips. Also, to pull apart very tender cooked meats.

Shredded: Food that has been processed into long, slender pieces, similar to julienne.

Shrimp powder, dried: Tiny shrimp dried and ground into a fine powder. Found in Oriental markets.

Shrimp, Dried: Used in a broad range of Asian dishes, this ingredient adds flavor to fried rice, soups, stir-fries and other dishes. These small dehydrated shrimp lose any strong fishy odor or flavor during cooking.

Shrimp: American's most valuable and popular shellfish. This ten:legged crustacean got its name from English word "shrimpe," which means "puny person."

Shrimp: America's most popular shellfish, the best shrimp is freshly caught and fairly local. Most shrimp is frozen however.

Shrink allowance (food industry term): An estimate of loss of inventory, due to delivery errors (an incorrect item or the wrong amount), theft, damages or spoilage.

Shrink, shrinkage (food industry term): The amount of missing items due to poor management controls, receiving practices, shortages, spoilage, theft, breakage and other reasons.

Shrink-wrap (food industry term): A process to stabilize a pallet load by wrapping stacked products with clear plastic film.

Shrub: An old-fashioned sweetened fruit drink, sometimes spiked with liquor.

Shuck: To remove the outer shells from food. Examples are clams, oysters, and corn.

Shuck: To peel off or remove the shell of oysters or clams, or the husk from an ear of corn.

Shucking (food industry term): A process of opening shellfish, such as oysters, clams, mussels, etc.

Sichuan Pepper: Native to the Sichuan province of China, this mildly hot spice comes from the prickly ash tree. The berries resemble peppercorns and have a distinctive flavor.

Sidra: [Spanish] cider.

Sieve: To strain liquid from food through the fine mesh or perforated holes of a strainer or sieve.

Sieve: A fine, mesh strainer.

Sift: To shake through a fine sieve, often to combine dry ingredients like flour and sugar.

Sift: To shake a dry, powdered substance through a sieve or sifter to remove any lumps

Sift: To pass flour or sugar through a sieve to remove lumps and add air.

Signage (food industry term): Advertising signs of many sizes used to attract customers to a display or a shelf location.

Signature items (food industry term): Unique items that competitors do not sell, which differentiate a store or company from the competition. The items are advertised and promoted both in-store and through print advertisements.

Sil (food industry term): Standard Interchange language.

Silver dragees: Tiny, ball-shaped, silver-colored candies.

Silver foil (Vark): Edible silver in ultra-thin sheets. Used for fancy garnishing in Indian cooking.

Silver hake: A small gray and white saltwater fish that is also called the "whiting." This low:fat fish, which is related to both the "cod" and the "hake," has a tender white fine:textured flesh and a flaky, delicate flavor.

Silver salmon: This high:fat variety of salmon provides a firm:textured, pink to orange:red flesh. Also called the "coho salmon."

Simmer Cooking food in a hot liquid that is heated to below the boiling point (small bubbles may rise to the surface of the liquid, but the fluid is much calmer than boiling)

Simmer: To cook in a liquid just below the boiling point, at temperatures of 185 to 2100F (85 to 990C). Bubbles form slowly and collapse below the surface.

Simmer: To cook gently just below the boiling point. If the food starts boiling, the heat is too high and should be reduced.

Simmer: To cook food in liquid which is heated to just below boiling point.

Sincronizada: [Spanish] double-decker quesadilla.

Singe: To expose food, usually meat, to direct flame.

Single cream: [Great Britain] Light cream.

Single-serve (food industry term): See portion pack.

Single-unit pricing (food industry term): Each product is individually priced. See multiple pricing.

Sippets: Small pieces of toast, soaked in milk or broth for the sick; bits of biscuit or toast used as a garnish.

Sirloin steak: A juicy, flavorful cut of beef from the portion of the animal between the rump and the tenderloin.

Sirloin: A cut of beef that lies between the Short Loin (very tender) and the Round (much tougher).

Skate wings: This is the edible portion of the skate. The flesh, when cooked, separates into little fingers of meat and has a distinctive rich, gelatinous texture. The taste is similar to that of scallops. Never buy skate with the inedible skin on as it is very difficult to remove.

Skate: This kite:shaped fish features edible fins. The flesh is firm, white, and sweet, similar to the texture and taste of scallop. Also called "Skate."

Skewer: A thin, pointed metal or wooden rod onto which chunks of food are threaded, then broiled or grilled.

Skewers: Long thin metal pins on which food is impaled for grilling or broiling.

Skid (food industry term): A pallet or base used to transport and store products.

Skil: This saltwater fish has a soft:textured flesh and a mild flavor. Its high fat content makes it a good fish for smoking. Also "black cod" and "sablefish," although it is not a cod.

Skim: To remove the surface layer (of impurities, scum, or fat) from liquids such as stocks and jams while cooking. This is usually done with a flat slotted spoon.

Skim: To remove cream from the surface of milk, fat from the tops of gravies and sauces or frothy scum from broths or jam and jellies during cooking.

Skin: To remove the skin of a food, such as poultry or fish, before or after cooking.

Skipjack tuna: Also called the "oceanic bonito," "watermelon," and "Arctic bonito," this small tuna (6 to 8 pounds) has a light:colored meat similar to yellowfin. The Japanese call this fish "katsuo" and the Hawaiians call it "aku."

Skirt Steak: A lean and tough but flavorful cut of beef from the primal short plate (below the ribs); often used for fajitas, but is also delicious grilled or stuffed.

Skirt steak: The diaphragm muscle, a little know but delicious cut of beef, very tender and juicy if broiled quickly and served rare.

Sku (food industry term): Stock-keeping unit.

Skunk egg: Cowboy term for an onion.

Slack-off, slack-out (food industry term): Thaw a frozen product.

Slap bread: Hand-shaped bread, slapped thin, such as tortillas and fry bread.

Sleeper (food industry term): A slow-selling product that is packed by a manufacturer with a higher volume item. Also known as a slow mover.

Slice: To slice is to cut into even slices, usually across the grain.

Slick (food industry term): See ad slick.

Slick allowance (food industry term): A manufacturer's allowance stipulating that a retailer use a specific advertising illustration (slick) in newspaper advertisements.

Slipsheet (food industry term): A thick sheet of cardboard used to ship products in place of a pallet.

Slipsheet unloading allowance (food industry term): A manufacturer's allowance to cover labor costs of off-loading a product by hand off of a slipsheet.

Sliver: To cut a food into thin strips or pieces.

Slot (food industry term): A numbered location within a distribution center that indicates the location of products for storage, retrieval and inventory control. See warehouse slot.

Slotting allowance (food industry term): A manufacturer's incentive to a wholesaler or retailer to stock a new product. Also called conversion allowance or service allowance.

Slug (food industry term): An embossed plate that, when inserted into certain scales, prints a descriptive label.

Smart card (food industry term): A micro-chipped stored-value card that can be used to purchase goods and services and is reloadable.

Smelt: A rich and oily mild:flavored fish. Popular varieties of smelt include "Eulachon" and "Whitebait." The eulachon is called the "candlefish" because Indians sometimes run a wick through their high:fat flesh and use them for candles.

Smitane: Wine sauce with sour cream and onions added.

Smock (food industry term): A garment supplied to employees to be worn during working hours.

Smoke Preserving and flavoring food by exposing it to smoke

Smoke: To expose foods to wood smoke to enhance their flavor and help preserve and/or evenly cook them.

Smoking: Method of curing foods, such as bacon or fish, by exposing it to wood smoke for a considerable period of time.

Smorgasbord: A Swedish buffet of many dishes served as hors d oeuvres or a full meal. Similar buffets are served throughout Scandinavia, as well as the Soviet Union. Common elements of a smorgasbord are pickled herring, marinated vegetables, smoked and cured salmon and sturgeon, and a selection of canapes.

Smorgasbord: A Swedish buffet of many dishes served as hors d oeuvres or a full meal. Similar buffets are served throughout Scandinavia, as well as the Soviet Union. Common elements of a smorgasbord are pickled herring, marinated vegetables, smoked and cured salmon and sturgeon, and a selection of canap s.

Smother: Cook slowly in covered pot or skillet with a little liquid added to saut ed mixture.

Snack food association (food industry term): 1711 King St. Alexandria, VA 22314 (703) 836-4500

Snail: Popular since prehistoric times, the snail was greatly favored by ancient Romans who set aside special vineyards where snails could feed and fatten.

Snapper: There are a few hundred species of this lean, firm:textured saltwater fish, 15 or so which are available in the U.S. The most popular snapper is the "red snapper." Some species of rockfish and tilefish are called snappers, but are not.

Sneeze guard (food industry term): A Plexiglas shield, surrounding three sides of a display case, that protects merchandise from contamination by customer contact either direct (touching) or indirect (sneezing).

Snip: To cut food into small uniform lengths using kitchen shears or a small pair of scissors.

Snip: To cut quickly with scissors into fine pieces.

Snow peas: Edible-pod peas with soft, green pods and tiny peas.

So (food industry term): Standing order.

Soba noodle: Buckwheat noodles, brown, flat, resembling spaghetti, used in Japanese cooking. Usually served in broth.

Sockeye salmon: Prized for canning, the sockeye salmon has a firm, red flesh. Also known as the "redeye salmon."

Soda bread: Irish bread; a baking powder bread, or one made with sour milk and baking soda.

Sofrito: [Spanish] famous seasoning mix which includes cured ham, lard or canola oil, oregano, onion, green pepper, sweet chile peppers, fresh coriander leaves and garlic.

Soft goods (food industry term): Clothing with the exception of suits, dresses, coats or shoes.

Soft grub: Hotel or diner food.

Soft Peaks: A term used to describe beaten egg whites or cream. When the beaters are removed, soft peaks curl over and droop rather than stand straight up.

Soft shell lobsters (food industry term): Lobsters in the process of growing a new hard shell, enabling them to grow larger.

Soft-Ball Stage: A test for sugar syrup describing the soft ball formed when a drop of boiling syrup is immersed in cold water.

Soft-Crack Stage: A test for sugar syrup describing the hard but pliable threads formed when a drop of boiling syrup is immersed in cold water.

Softlines (food industry term): The classification of general merchandise that includes apparel, bedding, hosiery, linens, shoes, etc.

Soft-ripened (bloomy rind) cheese: The surface is exposed to molds, ripening the cheese from the outside in, to form thin, velvety rinds (brie, camembert).

Softshell crab: The "soft:shell crab" is actually the blue crab caught just after molting (discarding its shell). This crab is found along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts. It is sold in both its soft and hard:shell stages.

Sole: A popular flatfish with a delicate flesh with a firm, fine texture. The best:known variety is "Dover sole" (also called "channel sole)." Much of what is sold as "sole" in the U.S. is actually a variety of flounder, which isn't a true sole.

Solution selling (food industry term): The concept of grouping related products together in the supermarket in order to offer consumers a simplified shopping experience.

Sonorenses: [Spanish] Sonora-style.

Sopa seca: [Spanish] dry soup with very little liquid left after cooking.

Sopa: [Spanish] soup, dry or liquid.

Sopaipillas: Puffy, crisp, deep-fried bread. Accompanies many Southwestern meals.

Sopaipillas: [Spanish] sofa pillows; fritters soaked in honey; a puffed, fried bread, served with honey (or a mixture of honey and melted butter) or syrup or slit, then filled with various stuffings.

Sopes: [Spanish] little round antojitos of tortilla dough.

Sor (food industry term): Standard operating reports.

Sorbet: [French] water, sugar, and flavorings, usually fresh fruit, frozen in an ice-cream machine. Best eaten immediately after making.

Sorbetto: (sor-BAY-toh) Sorbetto is a fruit-based gelato that contains no dairy products. You may know it better as sorbet.

Sore-thumb display (food industry term): An intriguing and unusual merchandising display.

Sorghum: A cereal grass with cornlike leaves and clusters of cereal grain at the top on tall stalks. The stalks can be used to make a light type molasses called sorghum syrup or simply sorghum.

Sorrel: Sorrel is an herb that may be used in cream soups, omelets, breads, and other foods. Sorrel has a somewhat sour flavor because of the presence of oxalic acid.

Sorrel: Somewhere between an herb and a green, sorrel has a sour, lemony flavor. It is used to flavor sauces and is great in soups.

Sotanghon: also called bean threads, are made from the starch of green MUNG BEANS or MONGGO. Sold dried, cellophane noodles must be soaked briefly in water before using in most dishes. Presoaking isn't necessary when they're added to soups. They can also be deep-fried. Other names for sotanghon include cellophane noodles, bean thread vermicelli (or noodles), Chinese vermicelli, glass noodles and harusame.

Soubise: [French] with a flavoring of pureed onion.

Souffle: A mixture that is folded together with beaten egg whites and baked in a mold.

Souffle: From the French for "breath," a fluffy, airy dish that can be sweet or savory. Souffles rise as they bake, forming a top hat-like shape and most should be served immediately.

Soup: Liquid, usually water or milk, in which solid foods have been cooked. Soups can be served hot or cold and may be thick, chunky, smooth or thin.

Sour Cream: Pasteurized, homogenized light cream that has been treated with a lactic acid culture, giving it a tangy flavor. Regular commercial sour cream contains a minimum of 18 percent milk fat; light sour cream is made from half-and-half and contains 40 percent less milk fat than regular. Nonfat sour cream, a product thickened with stabilizers, is also available.

Sour cream: Cultured cream that gets its tanginess from lactic acid. Note that there is a big difference between sour cream and spoiled cream.

Sour oranges: Seville oranges; ornamental oranges.

Sourdough: Yeasty fermented bread; the natural starter is kept in a jar or crock.

Souse loaf: Well:cooked pig's head and feet that are chopped into small pieces, marinated in lime juice, chili pepper and salt, then pressed into a loaf.

Souse: To cover food, particularly fish, in wine vinegar and spices and cook slowly. The food is cooled in the same liquid. This gives food a pickled flavor.

Souse: to pickle food in brine or vinegar; such as soused herrings.

Sous-vide (food industry term): A European food-packaging technique where a prepared product is placed in individual pouches, cooked under a vacuum and quickly chilled. Products are frozen or refrigerated until used.

Soy bean: Soybean are round, under one-half inch in diameter, and usually yellowish, although the may be other colors. Soy bens are used to make a host of soy products, including tofu.

Soy flour: A whole-grain, high-protein flour produced from hulled and roasted soybeans. The flour may be de-fatted, low-fat, or full-fat - check the ingredient labels to determine.

Soy milk: the liquid left after beans have been crushed in hot water and strained. Soy milk is a favorite beverage in the East. In Hong Kong, soy milk is as popular as Coca-Cola is in the United States.

Soy sauce, dark: Used in dishes in which you want to color the meat and sweeten the flavor with caramel sugar. Most common soy sauce.

Soy sauce, Japanese: Chinese soy is very different from Japanese. Japanese soys contain much more wheat flour and sugar. Buy in larger quantities in a Japanese market. It is cheaper that way and it will keep well if kept sealed.

Soy sauce, light: To be used when you don't want to color a dish with caramel coloring, which is what dark soy contains. Do not confuse this with "Lite" soy sauce.

Soy sauce, lite: Lower in salt and flavor than other soy sauce.

Soy Sauce: A sauce made from fermented, boiled soybeans and roasted wheat or barley; its color ranges from light to dark brown and its flavor is generally rich and salty (a low-sodium version is available); used extensively in Asian cuisines (especially Chinese and Japanese) as a flavoring, condiment and sometimes a cooking medium.

Soybean: The most nutritious and easily digested of all beans, the soybean is better known for its products than for the bean itself.

Space allocation (food industry term): The method of allocating more space to faster moving items to prevent out-of-stock conditions. See space manager; velocity; planogram.

Space management (food industry term): The allocation of space for products, based on sales volume and product profitability.

Space management system (electronic) (food industry term): Space utilization software that plans and analyzes product categories, determines shelf allocation, and graphs planograms.

Space manager (food industry term): A person who assigns shelf space for a product category, department, or store. See retail representative; space allocation.

Spaetzle: This is a coarse noodle from Alsace and Germany made of flour, eggs, oil, and water. The soft dough is dropped into boiling water (with a spaetzle press) and poached until cooked through. The noodle is then fried in butter or oil and served as a side dish to meat dishes. Spaetzle may also be flavored with cheese, mushrooms, and herbs.

Spaghetti Squash: When cooked, the flesh of this watermelon-shaped squash separates into strands similar to spaghetti; thus, its name. Spaghetti squash has a creamy-yellow color and a slightly nutty flavor.

Spaghetti squash: The flesh of this squash resembles a mass of spaghetti-like strands. It is very bland in comparison to other winter squash. Bake or steam it until done (cook whole, piercing skin a few times). Cut it in half and scrape out the strands, toss with sauce or butter and seasonings, or make into pancakes as you would grated zucchini.

Spaghetti: Italian for a length of cord or string and used to describe long, thin, solid rods of pasta with a circular cross section.

Spaghetti: [Italian] long strands of pasta of various thicknesses and colors.

Spah/splh (food industry term): Sales per associate hour/sales per labor hour.

Spanish onions: Like Bermuda onions, these are large, relatively mild, easy to handle, and keep well for weeks. Good for baking.

Spare ribs: The long cut of meat from the lower breast bone of the hog. Spareribs are best cooked slowly, so that their fat can be rendered and they can become tender.

Spatchcocking: A technique whereby poultry shears or a sharp knife is used to split chicken along backbone, leaving breastbone intact. Spatchcocked chicken is generally served with a vinaigrette sauce

Spatula: A versatile utensil available in a variety of shapes and sizes and generally made from metal, wood or rubber.

Spatzle, Spaetzle: A dish of tiny noodles or dumplings made with flour, eggs, water or milk, salt and sometimes nutmeg. The spaetzle dough can be firm enough to be forced through a sieve or colander with large holes. The dough is then boiled and tossed in butter before being served.

Special (food industry term): See featured special.

Special allowance (food industry term): A wholesaler's discount offered to retailers as an incentive to increase sales of a product. Also called a special purchase.

Special display (food industry term): A display for featured products on a free-standing rack in addition to a regular shelf display.

Special pack (food industry term): A shipping unit of a sales promotion product. Also known as a deal pack. See handling allowance; handling charge.

Specials (food industry term): Products sold at a reduced price or as part of a promotion to attract customers.

Specialty sales representative (food industry term): A manufacturer's or broker's representative that markets to retailers, presents promotional programs, takes product orders and arranges shipment by a retailer's preferred wholesaler.

Specialty store (food industry term): A retail store that offers only particular types of foods, e.g., bakery, produce, meat.

Specialty wholesale grocer (food industry term): A wholesaler that provides retailers with limited products and services. A specialty wholesaler.

Speck: Cured and smoked pork flank.

Speculation (food industry term): See turnover buying.

Spelt: An often neglected wheat berry, overlooked in favor of those better suited to bread making. Spelt has a magnificent wheaty flavor. A very similar grain is the Italian grain farro.

Spice Grinder: A device used to mill spices into granular or powdered form.

Spices: The seeds and skin of plants ( berries, bark, fruits, unopened flowers) used to flavor foods. Unlike herbs, spices are almost always dried.

Spider: A gadget used for adding and retrieving deep-frying foods to or from the hot oil.

Spiedini: An Italian word for skewers of meat or fish grilled over a flame or under a broiler. Known as Spiedies in the Eastern United States.

Spiedino: Fried cheese with anchovy sauce.

Spiff (food industry term): See push money.

Spill-in/spill-out (food industry term): Food retailers serviced by a wholesaler outside a market area.

Spinach: A vegetable with dark green, spear-shaped leaves that can be curled or smooth and are attached to thin stems; the leaves have a slightly bitter flavor and are eaten raw or cooked.

Spinach: The best spinach is, of course, fresh, and should have crisp, robustly green leaves. Always wash well in several changes of water and remove extra-thick stems.

Spinner (food industry term): A free-standing display rack that rotates 360 degrees.

Spit: Sharp metal rod used to hold food for roasting over an open heat source.

Spit: Revolving skewer or metal rod on which meat, poultry or game is roasted over a fire or under a grill. Process creates high heat and forces fat to spit out of meats.

Split case (food industry term): A product that is shipped in half-case quantities or less.

Split palletload, split unitload (food industry term): A shipment of two different kinds of products on a full pallet. Each product makes up approximately half the pallet load. See layer-loaded unitload.

Split peas: Green or yellow, and mealy when cooked. Good soup base.

Split shift (food industry term): A peak sales period of a day, week or holiday season during which the largest number of employees possible are scheduled to work.

Spoilage allowance, breakage allowance (food industry term): A manufacturer's allowance to a wholesaler/retailer for breakage or spoiled products.

Spoils (food industry term): Goods that cannot be sold for which a retailer receives a credit from a supplier. Also called stales.

Sponge: A thick yeast batter that is allowed to ferment and develop into a light, spongy consistency. It is then combined with other ingredients to form a yeast dough. The sponge will give the bread a slightly tangy flavor.

Sponge: The portion of dough in bread-making containing all or part of the yeast, to which are added the remaining ingredients.

Spoon bread: A kind of baked cornmeal pudding.

Spot display (food industry term): A product display in a high traffic area of a retail store.

Spot mop (food industry term): A quick mop of a dirty sales floor or to clean a spill.

Spot: A small fish (approximately 1.5 pounds) belonging to the drum family. In 1925, these fish appeared in New York harbor in such vast numbers that they clogged the condenser pumps of the electric company and caused a blackout.

Spotted pup: Chuckwagon name for raisin pudding; without the raisins, it was just called "pup."

Spread (food industry term): Gross profit. See gross profit; markup.

Spread: a) Distributing a product/ingredient in a thin layer over the surface of another product.
b) A fat sold in stick form or in tubs that is less than 80 percent fat.

Spreads: Products in sticks or tubs that are less than 80 percent fat. They are not recommended for baking due to their water content.

Sprig: Leaves of an herb still attached to the stem often used as a garnish.

Spring roll: Thin sheets of dough which are filled with meat, seafood, or vegetables and rolled into logs. Spring rolls are most often deep fried, though they may also be steamed. Chinese versions use wheat dough, while the Vietnamese and Thai versions use a rice paper wrapper.

Springerle: [German] anise-flavored cookies or pastries.

Springform mold: Baking tin with hinged sides, held together by a metal clamp or pin, which is opened to release the cake or pie which was cooked inside.

Springform Pan: A round cake pan a little deeper than a standard cake pan. Springform pans have a clamp on the side which releases the sides from the bottom, leaving the cake intact. It's commonly used for cheesecake.

Sprinkle: Scattering particles of sugar or toppings over a surface, like frosting, cake or bread.

Spumoni: [Italian] Ice cream made with fruit and nuts.

Squab: A young domesticated pigeon that has never flown and is therefore very tender. Squabs are normally under a pound and about 4 weeks old. May be prepared in any manner suitable for chicken.

Squab: A domesticated pigeon no more than 4 weeks old. Weighing less than a pound when slaughtered, squab has tender meat with little fat and a mild flavor; suitable for broiling, roasting or sauteing.

Squab: A twelve to fourteen ounce pigeon.

Square down (food industry term): To straighten products on a shelf or display.

Square foot (food industry term): A size measurement of floor space occupied by a product or product group, display fixtures and its share of aisle space.

Squash blossoms: Blossoms of winter squashes such as zucchini, yellow squash and pumpkin; commonly used in Southwestern cooking; best when used the day they are picked or bought; may be cooked briefly for use in soups or sauces, or stuffed and fried.

Squash: The edible fleshy fruit of various members of the gourd (Cucurbitaceae) family; generally divided into two categories based on peak season and skin type: summer and winter.

Squaw bread: Indian bread deep-fried in 6-inch circles; fry bread; popovers.

Squawberries: Red-orange berries from thorny desert bushes.

Squid: This ten:armed cephalopod is related to the octopus and the cuttlefish. Squid varies in size from 1 inch to 80 feet in length. The meat is firm and chewy, with a somewhat sweet flavor. Over:cooking can lead to a rubbery texture.

Squid: This cephalopod has become popular in the United States, as long as you call it calamari. Fresh squid should be purple to white- avoid any squid with brown coloring- and smell sweet and clean. Squid freezes well, and loses little flavor during defrosting and refreezing.

Squirrel can: Cowboy term for large can used for after-meal scraps.

Squirrel: An abundant, largely arboreal rodent. Red and gray squirrels are commonly eaten in the U.S. The gray squirrel is fatter and has a flavor considered by many as superior to the red squirrel. Squirrels do not have a strong "gamey" taste.

Sriracha: A hot sauce made from sun-ripened chiles which are ground into a smooth paste along with garlic. It is excellent in soups, sauces, pastas, pizzas, hot dogs, hamburgers, chow mein or on almost anything else to give it a delicious, spicy taste.

Srp (food industry term): Suggested retail price.

Stack (food industry term): A column of products consisting of one or more unit loads placed on the floor with the total height limited to a vertical opening or the compressive strength of the individual unit loads.

Stack card (food industry term): See case card.

Stainless Steel: An alloy of steel. Stainless steel will not react with foods, nor does it rust or corrode. When used in pans, stainless steel often is combined with copper or aluminum since it does not conduct heat well.

Stales (food industry term): See spoils.

Stand (food industry term): A fixture used to display merchandise.

Standard case merchandiser (food industry term): A standard display case for service departments, used in the produce, meat, deli and bakery departments.

Standard grocery shelving (food industry term): Adjustable shelving in a standard frame. Also called a gondola.

Standard interchange language (sil) (food industry term): A computer language standard developed primarily for the exchange of data between independent retailers and wholesalers.

Standard of identity (food industry term): Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standards for food composition.

Standard operating procedures (food industry term): A comprehensive book of a company's policies and procedures. Also called SOP.

Standard operating reports (sor) (food industry term): Profit and loss statements or projections reviewed weekly, by period, quarter or annually.

Standard pack (food industry term): A unit of sale having a fixed number of like consumer units per container.

Standard shipping container (food industry term): A container of a single type of product or of a fixed configuration of multiple products used to ship items.

Standard: In home baking, this refers to recipes, measuring tools, ingredients, methods, and equipment that are used to produce a defined product with consistent results to assist manufacturers or consumers.

Standing order (so) (food industry term): A standard replenishment order placed by a wholesaler that allows a manufacturer to schedule production and shipping.

Staple: The chief item or most important items made, grown or sold in a particular place, region, country, etc.

Staples (food industry term): A necessary or basic food, such as flour or sugar.

Star Anise: A star-shaped dry seed pod with a flavor similar to fennel.

Star anise: Star-shaped pod has a similar but stronger flavor and more fragrance than the botanically-unrelated aniseed; most often cooked whole and strained from sauces and marinade, but sometimes ground for spice rubs and pastes.

Starch: Carbohydrate obtained from cereals and potatoes or other tubers.

Starter gap (food industry term): A merchandising technique in which spaces are left on a shelf to give the impression that demand is great for a product.

Starter: A mixture of flour, water, yeast and sugar that is allowed to ferment in a warm place until foamy. A portion of the starter is used (about 2 cups) in place of a package of yeast in breads, usually after "feeding" the mixture with additional flour and water. Starters are kept in the refrigerator after initial development and "fed" every two weeks.

Start-ship date (food industry term): A kick-off date for a promotional campaign to begin. See final ship date.

Steak Diane: A very thin steak.

Steak tartare: Very lean beef, minced and served raw.

Steam Exposing food directly to steam to cook it, usually by placing it in a basket or rack above a boiling liquid in a covered pan; a moist cooking method

Steam: To cook in steam with or without pressure. The steam may be applied directly to the food, as in a steamer or pressure cooker.

Steam: A method of cooking foods over, not in, hot liquid, usually water. The heat cooks the food while the vapors keep it moist.

Steam: to cook food in the steam created by boiling water.

Steep: To allow a substance to stand in liquid below the boiling point for the purpose of extracting flavor, color, or other qualities.

Steep: To allow a food to stand in water that is just below the boiling point in order to extract flavor or color.

Steep: To soak in liquid until saturated with a soluble ingredient; soak to remove an ingredient, such as to remove salt from smoked ham or salted cod.

Sterilize: To destroy germs by exposing food to heat at specific temperatures.

Stew Blanching small pieces of meat and then serving with a sauce and various garnishes, such as vegetables; a combination cooking method similar to braising

Stew: To simmer food in a small amount of liquid.

Stew: To cook food in liquid for a long time until tender, usually in a covered pot.

Stew: To simmer food slowly in a covered pan or casserole.

Stewing Chicken: A size classification for chicken. A stewing chicken is over 10 months old and weighs from 4 to 6 pounds.

Stiff Peaks: A term describing the consistency of beaten egg whites or cream. When the beaters are removed from the mixture, the points will stand up straight.

Stilton Cheese: A hard blue cheese made from whole cow's milkStilton has a rich texture that is slightly crumbly, and a pale-yellow interior with blue-green. Stilton's flavor has a mellow cheddarlike quality with the tangy pungency of blue cheese.

Stir: To mix food materials with a circular motion for the purpose of blending or securing uniform consistency.

Stir: Using a spoon to mix ingredients with a circular or figure-eight motion.

Stir: To move foods around with a spoon in a circular motion. Stirring is done to move foods when cooking. It is also used to cool foods after cooking. Most importantly, if a recipes calls for stirring to combine foods, such as a batter, before cooking, it usually means to gently mix just until well combined, as opposed to beating, which takes more strokes.

Stir: To mix with a circular movement, using a spoon or fork or other utensil.

Stir-fry Similar to sauteing, but with use of less fat; food is stirred constantly during cooking, usually cooked in a wok

Stir-fry: To cook quickly over high heat with a small amount of oil by constantly stirring. This technique often employs a wok.

Stock (food industry term): To shelve products or to build a display.

Stock capacity (food industry term): The total volume of products that can be placed on a shelf, in a slot or on a rack.

Stock code (food industry term): A unique product identifier used instead of a UPC code, which is assigned at a warehouse or headquarters for ordering purposes.

Stock cubes: [Great Britain] Bouillon cubes.

Stock status report (food industry term): A management report showing the current inventory level in-house or in-transit for a department, section or category.

Stock turns (food industry term): See turnover.

Stock: A rich extract of soluble parts of meat, fish, poultry, etc. A basis for soups or gravies.

Stock: A flavored broth from meats, fish, shellfish, and vegetables. These are the basis of sauce and soup making.

Stocking (food industry term): A process of shelving products in a store.

Stocking allowance (food industry term): A manufacturer's allowance to stock a new product. See distribution allowance.

Stock-keeping unit (sku) (food industry term): A number that identifies each separate brand, size, flavor, color or pack of a product.

Stockout (food industry term): A display that needs replenishment.

Stockpot: A deep pot with straight sides and handles used to cook stocks.

Stock-up (food industry term): A temporary price reduction for items due to a manufacturers' allowance or a volume buy.

Stollen: A German yeast bread traditionally made at Christmas time.

Stone fruits: Stone fruits are simply fruits with a stone, such as peach or plum.

Stone Ground: Grain milled between grindstones to retain more nutrients than other grinding methods.

Stoneground flour or meal: Grain ground into flour between stones. It may be coarse or fine and is usually whole grain.

Stop-off charge (food industry term): An additional shipping charge (rail or truck) for delivery of partial loads to several different locations.

Store audit (food industry term): A review of management procedures and processes, e.g., inventory, cash handling, etc.

Store brand (food industry term): A private-label product carried by a retailer. See private label.

Store bulletin (food industry term): An operations newsletter regarding merchandising contests and promotional programs, new products, etc.

Store coupon (food industry term): A product coupon offered only in-store with fliers or an on-shelf dispenser.

Store dollar net profit (food industry term): The actual profit a store makes after overhead and losses are deducted.

Store format (food industry term): The retail design or store layout based on size, services, prices, sales volume and SKUs, such as a convenience store, superstore or a conventional store.

Store image (food industry term): The customer's impression of a retail store or a department, i.e., products carried, advertising, promotion, decor, service-level.

Store layout (food industry term): The design and lay-out of floor space and the placement of fixtures within a department or retail store.

Store loyalty (food industry term): See customer loyalty.

Store manager (food industry term): A person responsible for daily operations of a retail store who hires and supervises employees, oversees merchandising and customer service and meets sales goals. Also called a store director.

Store perimeter (food industry term): The departments located along the outside walls of a retail store, usually perishable departments.

Store security (food industry term): Methods used to provide a secure workplace and shopping area free of violence, burglary, shoplifting and employee theft.

Store stamp (food industry term): A rubber stamp bearing a store's number and name. The imprint of the store stamp on an invoice or other business paper indicates correctness or approval. Stamps are kept under tight security.

Store supervisor (food industry term): An operations manager responsible for conditions, safety, product levels and cash handling procedures for several retail stores; a district manager.

Store supplies (food industry term): Materials and merchandise needed to conduct daily business by a retailer, i.e., grocery bags, brooms and mops.

Store traffic (food industry term): A customer count recorded by hour, day, week, month or holiday. See traffic.

Store-door delivery (food industry term): See direct store delivery.

Store-door margin (food industry term): A product's gross profit after deducting expenses, e.g., storage costs, delivery cost

Store-specific pallet (food industry term): A combination of different items on a pallet shipped to a store.

Storewide promotion (food industry term): A thematic merchandising and promotional program with all retail departments within a store participating.

Straight load (food industry term): Merchandise delivered to retail stores in trucks carrying only one product group.

Strain: To pour a liquid through a strainer, sieve, or cheesecloth to remove unwanted particles or to separate out solids. Example

Strain: To pass a liquid or moist mixture through a colander, sieve or cheese cloth to remove solid particles.

Strain: To separate liquids from solids by passing them through a metal or cloth sieve (such as cheesecloth).

Strainer: A kitchen utensil with a perforated or mesh bottom used to strain liquids or semi-liquids, or to sift dry ingredients such as flour or confectioners' sugar. Strainers, also called sieves, come in a variety of sizes and shapes with various mesh sizes.

Strasbourgeoise: Served with goose livers and truffles.

Straw mushrooms, canned: Small button-like mushrooms indigenous to Asia. Fresh ones are so delicate that they aren't usually shipped.

Straw Mushrooms: Small, tan mushrooms with a mild flavor.

Strawberry: A lush, red berry from a ground-creeping plant that grows wild in large areas of Asia, Europe and North and South America.

Streaker: Usually refers to bean purees or other colorful pastes made from nondairy products and used to decorate plates and finished dishes; may also refer to brightly colored cremas.

Streaky Bacon: [Great Britain] American bacon.

Street money (food industry term): Monies available for specific performance, conditions or purchases. Usually from a supplier or salesperson rather than directly from a manufacturer.

Streusel: A delicious topping of sugar, butter, flour, and other spices that adds flavor and crunch to crumb cakes, coffee cakes and some muffins.

Strip display (food industry term): A horizontal shelf arrangement of like products.

Striped bass: This true bass is found along the Atlantic coast. It features six to eight horizontal stripes and provides a moderately fat, firm flesh with a mild, sweet flavor.

Striped bass: Firm-textured fish with meaty, pinkish flesh. When wild, striped bass are highly flavorful. Can be substituted in recipes that call for cod or other milder fish, and some stronger fish too.

Stroganoff: A dish of thinly sliced beef (usually tenderloin or top loin), onions, and mushrooms sauteed in a combination of butter and sour:cream sauce. Often served with a rice pilaf. Invented by Count Paul Stroganoff in the 19th century.

Strudel: [Austrian] thin leaves of pastry dough, filled with fruit, nuts or savory mixtures, which are rolled and baked and finally iced or frosted. Savory versions of this are similar to the Russian coulibiac.

Stuff: To fill a cavity in food with another food.

Stuffing: A seasoned mixture of food used to fill the cavity of poultry, fish, vegetables or around which a strip of meat, fish or vegetable may be rolled.

Stuffing: A well-seasoned mixture of bread or rice, spices, vegetables, and usually meat that is "stuffed" inside the cavity of poultry or meat.

Sturgeon: A name for various migratory species of fish know for its rich, high:fat flavor, firm texture, and excellent roe. Their average weight is 60 pounds, but one freshwater "Beluga" sturgeon was 26 feet long and weighed 3,221 pounds.

Sub gum: A stew of Chinese vegetables.

Subprimal cuts (food industry term): Untrimmed, boneless cuts of meat, primarily beef.

Suchet: With the flavoring of carrot.

Sucker: A name popularly applied to various types of freshwater fish closely related to carp. Suckers live and feed near the bottoms of streams. They may be cooked in any way appropriate for other fish.

Suckeyes: Cowboy term for pancakes.

Sucre: [French] sugar.

Suero de la leche: [Spanish] buttermilk.

Suet: The hard fat around the kidneys and loins of beef, mutton or pork.

Sugar alcohols: Sugar alcohols like mannitol, sorbitol and xylitol are sweeteners that occur naturally in fruits, and are often added to certain foods. They're called "alcohols" because of their chemical structure, not because they contain the kind of alcohol in drinks like beer, wine and spirits. Because sugar alcohols do not promote tooth decay, they are often used in "sugarless" gum. They are also used to add texture to some foods. Some studies suggest that because sugar alcohols take longer to break down than regular sugar, they may cause a less rapid spike in blood sugar than sugar-sweetened products. But remember that they are not calorie-free, are not likely to help with weight control and, when consumed in excessive amounts, can lead to intestinal gas, cramping or diarrhea.

Sugar Free, Sugar-free: A food containing less than 0.5 grams of sugar per serving.

Sugar Snap Pea: A sweet pea that is a hybrid of the English pea and snow pea; the bright green, crisp pod and the paler green, tender seeds are both edible.

Sugar snaps: Also called snap peas, these flavorful pea-filled pods are newly developed (introduced in 1979). Sugar snaps are crisp, with crunchy pods and sweet peas.

Sugar syrup: Differentiating from natural syrups, this term refers to a solution of sugar and water. Simple syrups are made with equal quantities of water and sugar. Heavy syrup is made with twice as much sugar as water. These types of syrups are used in making sorbets, soft drinks, and for soaking cakes.

Sugar: Sugar or sucrose is a carbohydrate occurring naturally in every fruit and vegetable in the plant kingdom. It is the major product of photosynthesis, the process by which plants transform the sun's energy into food. Sugar for home baking is produced in greatest quantities from sugar cane and sugar beets.
  • Granulated sugar- Fine or extra-fine white sugar crystals. Often referred to as "white sugar" in home baking
  • Brown sugar- Sugar crystals contained in a molasses syrup with natural flavor and color components. Dark and light brown sugars may be substituted according to individual preferences for product color or taste.
  • Confectioners' sugar- Also called powdered sugar. See glossary listing.
  • Raw sugar- About 98 percent sucrose and tan or brown in appearance; it is a coarse, granulated solid obtained on evaporation of clarified sugar cane juice. It is not considered fit for direct use as food or a food ingredient by the USDA.
  • Turbinado sugar- Raw sugar refined to a light tan color by washing in a centrifuge under sanitary conditions. Surface molasses is removed in the washing process and is closer to refined sugar than raw.

Sugar: A sweet, water-soluble, crystalline carbohydrate; used as a sweetener and preservative for foods.

Suggested retail price (food industry term): A manufacturer's recommended price for a product.

Suggestive selling (food industry term): A marketing technique in which retail employees recommend tie-in or complementary products, e.g., cake and coffee, deli ham and cheese.

Sukiyaki: Japanese dish of meat, vegetables and seasonings, usually cooked at the table.

Sulfites: Sulfur-containing agents (the salts of sulfurous acid) used as preservatives for some processed and packaged foods to inhibit spoilage or oxidation.

Sultanas: Golden raisins made from sultana grapes.

Sultanas: A type of large raisins, originally Turkish. [Great Britain] Seedless white raisins.

Sumac: [Middle East] spice that comes from the grated skin of a dark berry that possesses a a slightly acidic, astringent flavor.

Summer Sausage: A style of sausage that is cured and air dried. Summer sausage may or may not be smoked.

Summer Squash: There are many varieties of this gourd including zucchini, yellow straightneck, yellow crookneck and pattypan. All summer squash are similar in taste and texture.

Summer squash: These light, fleshy squashes of the late summer are available in many varieties, most notably zucchini and yellow squash. Choose squash that is very firm.

Sunchokes: Also called Jerusalem artichokes, sunchokes are the knobby roots of a perennial sunflower. They resemble ginger in appearance and have a subtle, delicious flavor. Their high sugar content enables them to brown well when fried or roasted.

Sun-dried tomatoes: When a tomato is dried in the sun (or more likely the oven) the end result is a shriveled, intensely flavored tomato. They are usually packed in olive oil or packaged dried (when dried soak them in hot water to reconstitute).

Sunfish: Any of a number of North American freshwater fish closely related to the perch. Known for their bright, sunny colors and interesting shapes, popular varieties include "Bluegill," "Crappie," and "Calico Bass," commonly called "Sunnies."

Sunflower seeds: Seeds of the sunflower, these can be roasted or dried in or out of their shells. They can be added to many sweet and savory dishes, including salads, baked goods, and granola.

Sunsweet Lighter Bake: a 100% fat- and cholesterol-free baking ingredient that replaces butter, margarine, oil or shortening in scratch recipes and packaged mixes. Made from a blend of dried plums and apples, this new fat "imposter" creates moist, chewy baked goods that are lower in fat. Lighter Bake is located in the cooking oil or baking ingredients section of supermarkets nationwide.

Super combo (food industry term): An upscale grocery store with 80,000 to150,000 square feet, a full line of service departments and weekly sales of approximately $900,000. The store carries a wide variety of items, 60,000 or more, with at least 20 percent of sales attributed to general merchandise and health and beauty care products.

Super warehouse store (food industry term): A warehouse store with a focus on low prices and a wide variety of perishable items, i.e., produce, deli, and bakery departments.

Superfine Sugar: Known as castor (or caster) sugar in Britain, superfine sugar is more finely granulated and dissolves almost instantly, making it perfect for making meringues and sweetening cold liquids. Granulated sugar can be substituted cup for cup for superfine.

Superfine sugar: Also called caster sugar, this finely granulated sugar is good in meringues and cold drinks; it dissolves quickly and easily. It can be made by blenderizing granulated sugar in the blender until it is powdery.

Supermarket (food industry term): A conventional grocery store, but not a warehouse club or mass merchant, with annual sales of two million dollars or more per store.

Supermarket business (food industry term): A monthly periodical for the food store industry published by Fieldmark Media, New York.

Supermarket news (food industry term): A weekly newspaper for the food store industry published by Capital Cities Media, Inc. , New York.

Superstore (food industry term): A large conventional supermarket with expanded service deli, bakery, seafood and non-food sections.

Supervisor (food industry term): A manager designated to supervise a certain area or number of stores.

Suppe: [German] soup.

Supplemental display (food industry term): An extra display in a department in aisles or in spaces where fixed equipment will not fit, which makes merchandise more accessible.

Supplier (food industry term): A generic term for wholesalers who sell to and supply retailers directly and indirectly, e.g., manufacturer, vendor, broker, reseller.

Supply (food industry term): The quantity of merchandise in stock at a store or a warehouse.

Supply center (food industry term): The specific location in each department where supplies are kept.

Supply chain (food industry term): The process of fulfillment and movement of goods from producer or grower to consumer.

Supply depot (food industry term): A warehouse operated by a chain or a wholesale grocer that sponsors a voluntary group.

Support office (food industry term): A corporate office with accounting, accounts payable and receivable and advertising departments and other administrative support staff.

Supreme de volaille: Breast of chicken.

Supreme: A rich heavy cream sauce.

Surimi: Imitation crab meat processed from fish.

Surprise buy (food industry term): Usually 15 to 25 popular items featured at unusually low prices, found throughout the entire store.

Survey letter (food industry term): A notice from a wholesaler's or chain's headquarters to stores soliciting support and orders for an upcoming special promotion, so the buyer has a basis for determining an order for promotional items.

Survey order (food industry term): An order from retail stores, usually for new items or deal items, previously authorized by an account's headquarters. Also, potential orders at retail stores for an item before a manufacturer's salesperson or broker presents it at the headquarters of a chain or wholesaler. See future order.

Sushi: A Japanese dish of thin layers of raw fish wrapped around cakes of cold cooked rice. Sushi can also consist of ingredients wrapped in rice and held by a seaweed wrapper known as nori.

Swamp seed: Rice.

Sweat Cooking a food, usually vegetables, in a small amount of fat, usually covered over low heat without browning the food until it becomes softened and releases moisture; usually used as a preparatory step to other cooking methods to make the finished product more flavorful in a shorter amount of time

Sweat: To cook foods over gentle heat, usually covered or partly covered, until moisture is released.

Swedes: [Great Britain] Turnips.

Swedish meatballs: A combination of ground meat (often a combination of beef, pork, or veal), sauteed onions, milk:soaked breadcrumbs, beaten eggs, and seasonings. The mixture is formed into small balls, then sauteed until brown.

Sweepstakes/contest (food industry term): A promotional contest for consumers, which features a chance to win prizes.

Sweet Chocolate: Very similar in composition to semisweet chocolate, sweet chocolate simply has more sugar added and less chocolate liquor. It's sold on grocery shelves in the baking section. For people with a real sweet tooth, sweet chocolate can be substituted for semisweet in recipes without a significant change in texture.

SWEET chocolate: Unsweetened chocolate with sugar added. It is often used in dessert recipes. The two most common forms are

Sweet Chocolate: Highly like the composition of semisweet chocolate, sweet chocolate has more sugar added and less chocolate liquor.

Sweet Peppers: A term which usually describes a variety of mild peppers of the Capsicum family. Bell peppers, pimientos, and banana peppers are sweet peppers.

Sweet Potato: A variety of sweet potato with a thick, dark orange skin and an orange flesh that remains moist when cooked; sometimes erroneously called a yam.

Sweet potato: Contrary to popular belief, the sweet potato is different from the yam. Sweet potatoes are bright with orange flesh, though some varieties have yellow, white, or even purple flesh.

Sweetbreads: Considered a delicacy, sweetbreads are the two thymus glands (in the throat and near the heart) of veal, young beef, lamb and pork.

Sweetbreads: The culinary term for the thymus gland of an animal. Those of veal and lamb are most commonly eaten. The pancreas is also considered a sweetbread, but its taste and texture is inferior to that of the thymus gland.

Sweetened Condensed Milk: Whole milk mixed with 40 percent to 45 percent sugar. The mixture is heated until 60 percent of the water evaporates leaving a thick, sweet syrup. Also known as condensed milk.

Sweetened condensed milk: Milk that has been evaporated to about half of its volume and has sugar added. Sticky and sweet.

Sweethearting (food industry term): A form of theft, whereby a cashier gives illegal discounts to employees, friends, and/or customers.

Swell allowance (food industry term): A manufacturer's refund or invoice deduction to cover the costs of spoiled, processed foods, products packed in glass or dented cans. See breakage allowance; swells.

Swells (food industry term): Unsalable items with expanded containers or lids signifying faulty food handling, processing or sealing. See swell allowance; bloating.

Swipe reader (food industry term): A credit card or ATM card reader for cash register systems at the checkout counter.

Swiss Cheese: A hard, pale-yellow cheese originally from the Emmental valley of Switzerland, distinguished by large holes in its texture. Made from cow's milk, its flavor is described as nutty, mild and sweet.

Swiss roll tin: Jellyroll pan.

Swiss steak: Round or chuck steak that has been tenderized by pounding, coated with flour, and browned on both sides. The meat is then smothered in chopped tomatoes, onions, carrots, celery, broth, and seasonings, then baked for about two hours.

Swiss Steak: A dish made with a thick cut of steak--usually chuck or round--which is tenderized by pounding, coated with flour and seasoning, and browned. The steak is then topped with tomatoes, onions, and other vegetables, then simmered or baked for about 2 hours.

Swiss steak: A steak (usually bottom round, sometimes lean chuck) into which seasoned flour has been pounded before cooking.

Swordfish: A saltwater food and sport fish with mild:flavored, moderately fat flesh. The flesh is red, dense, and meat:like. Thanks to its firmness, swordfish can be prepared by baking, broiling, grilling, poaching, or sauteing.

Swordfish: A large sport fish found off the coast in temperate waters throughout the world. Swordfish can weigh up to 1,000 pounds and have moderately fatty flesh that is dense and meat-like.

Swordfish: Highly popular fish, wonderful on the grill. When buying, look for bright flesh with tight swirls; should smell good. Skin is inedible.

Syllabub: An English dessert comprised mainly of whipped cream sweetened with sugar and flavored with sherry, brandy, or Cointreau. Lemon zest, fruit preserves or puree may also be swirled into the cream.

Syndicated data (food industry term): Information gathered by a service or company for public release and sold by subscription.

Syrup: Sugar dissolved in liquid, usually water; it is often flavored with spices or citrus zest.

Syrup: Thick, sweet liquid made by boiling sugar with water or fruit juices.

Szechuan Peppercorns: Not, in fact, related to black and white peppercorns, these are tiny dried berries that contain a seed. They have a pungent aroma and mildly spicy flavor and can be purchased whole or in powdered form.

Szechwan Chile Sauce: A sauce or paste made from chiles, oil, salt and garlic and used as a flavoring in Chinese Szechwan cooking; also known as chile paste or chile paste with garlic.