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Culinary Dictionary
Cooking Glossary - Food Industry Terminology

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Faced (food industry term): The pulling forward of product to the edge of the gondola shelf to make the display appear fully stocked. Also known as face-up or facing up.

Face-up (food industry term): A shelf's-edge arrangement of merchandise to make a display shelf look full.

Facings (food industry term): The number of units in width an item occupies on the front row of a store shelf.

Fact sheet (food industry term): A manufacturer's promotional sheet for sales calls.

Factory pack (food industry term): A standard-sized shipping carton.

Faggot: [French] a stalk of celery tied with parsley, bay leaf and thyme. Used in cooking soups, then discarded; Small savory cake made of pork offal, onion and bread, then baked.

Fagioli: The Italian term for beans, most often white kidney beans

Fahrenheit: A temperature scale with 32? as the freezing point of water and 212? as its boiling point..

Failure fee (food industry term): A manufacturer's payment to retailers for merchandise that does not sell as expected and is being dropped from the retailer's inventory.

Faison: [Spanish] pheasant; name given to many game birds.

Fajitas: A Mexican-American dish consisting of strips of beef skirt or chicken breast strips marinated in lime juice, garlic, red pepper and grilled with onions and sweet peppers. The mixture is wrapped in a four tortilla and served with sour cream, and pico de gallo as garnishes.

Fajitas: [Spanish] little belts; marinated and grilled skirt steak; called arracheras in Mexico; refers to the cut of meat, not the way it is served; a lower-fat substitute is flank steak.

Falafel: A Middle Eastern dish consisting of a paste made from ground dried chickpeas and herbs shaped into balls and deep-fried.

Falafel: A Middle Eastern specialty made up of small, deep-fried croquettes or balls made of highly spiced, ground chickpeas (garbanzos). They are generally served inside pita bread, sandwich style, but can also be served as appetizers. A yogurt or tahini-based sauce is often served with falafel.

Fancy foods (food industry term): Gourmet, specialty, or special-occasion foods.

Farce: French for forcemeat or stuffing.

Farce: [French] forcemeat.

Farci: [French] stuffed.

Farfalle: Bow tie shaped pasta. Farfallini is the smaller version.

Farfalle: Bow tie shaped pasta.

Farina: Inner portion of coarsely ground hard wheat, also known as Cream of Wheat.

Farina: [Italian] a fine meal or flour made from wheat, nuts and potatoes. In the United States it is known as cream of wheat.

Farmer Cheese: A form of cottage cheese, pressed to remove most of the liquid. Dry farmer cheese is firm enough to slice or crumble.

Farmer's cheese: Uncreamed cottage cheese; also called baker's or pot cheese; dry-cured cottage cheese may be substituted.

Farmstead cheese: Made by using only the milk from the cheese-maker's own herds.

Fast Rising Yeast: Smaller-grained than conventional active dry yeast; speeds rising as much as 50 percent, which may eliminate the need for a second rising. This form of yeast measures the same as active dry yeast and works best when mixed directly with the dry ingredients before adding liquid.

Fat content (food industry term): The amount of fat in a particular product.

Fat Free, Fat-free: A food containing fewer than 0.5 grams of fat per serving.

Fat Separator: A clear cup (usually made of plastic) with a long spout set very low on the cup; used to make lower-fat gravy. Pan drippings are poured into the cup and the fat rises to the top. The desirable liquid remains below and can be poured off through the spout. Also known as a gravy separator.

Fatback: Fat from the back of a pig, used to make lard or cracklings, as well as for seasoning.

Fathead: A saltwater fish belonging to the wrasse family. Also called "California sheepshead." Its meat is white, tender, and lean.

Fava Bean: A meaty, strong flavored bean that is light brown in color, flat in shape and looks somewhat like a large lima bean. They are available dried or canned. They work well in side dishes, soups, or salads.

Fava Beans: Broad beans. A Mediterranean bean similar to lima beans. It comes in a large pod which, unless very young, is inedible. Fava beans can be purchased dried, cooked in cans and, infrequently, fresh. If you find fresh fava beans, choose those with pods that are not bulging with beans, which indicates age. Fava beans have a very tough skin, which should be removed by blanching before cooking. They are very popular in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern dishes. They can be cooked in a variety of ways and are often used in soups. Also called faba bean, broad bean and horse bean.

Fda (food industry term): Food and Drug Administration.

Fdi (food industry term): Food Distributors International.

Featured special (food industry term): A product featured in advertisements.

Features (food industry term): Products featured in a current advertising promotion to attract customers.

Fedelini: A very fine type of vermicelli pasta.

Feed bag: Ranch eating place; also mess house or nose bag.

Fegato: [Italian] liver

Feif (food industry term): Food Executives International Foundation.

Feijoa, Pineapple Guava: An exotic fruit from New Zealand that tastes somewhat like a mixture of pineapple, banana and strawberry. It has a thin green skin and can be eaten raw or used in preserves and jellies.

Feijoa: Fruit native to Mexico; has a thick green skin, which should always be peeled, and pale yellow flesh; has a subtle flavor, which is as flavorful as pineapple, with a hint of mint; the flesh yields to gentle pressure when ripe and can be used in fruit sauces; pineapple with a touch of lime juice can be substituted. Also a fruit grown in New Zealand with a thin green skin and a flavor reminiscent of strawberry, banana and pineapple.

Feijoada: A Brazilian dish very similar to cassoulet, made with black beans. Sausage, bacon, ham, and various cuts of pork cooked in with the beans. The traditional accompaniments are plain white rice, cooked greens, fresh orange slices, and a very hot sauce, similar to pico de gallo, called molho carioca. Toasted cassava flour is used as a condiment, to be added by each diner.

Fen Berry: Another name for a small variety of cranberry, also known as cram-berry, crawberry, moss-millions, sow-berry, sour-berry, marsh wort, bog-berry and swamp red-berry. It is found in many English recipes.

Fennel seeds: These oval, greenish seeds come from a bulbless variety of fennel. Available whole or ground, they have a slight licorice flavor and aroma.

Fennel: Both the seeds and the stalks from this plant are called fennel. 1. The plant has feathery foliage and white bulbous stalk. Fennel tastes like licorice or anise, and commonly used in Italian dishes. 2. The plant's oval, green-brown seeds have prominent ridges and short, hair-like fibers. Their taste is similar to anise seed, but sweeter and milder. It goes well with fish but Italians add it to sauces, meat balls, and sausages.

Fennel: Fennel is a crisp, aromatic vegetable with a licorice flavor and celery-like texture. the bulb is delicious raw in salads (and great cooked as well), and the feathery fronds can be used as seasoning. The rounder bulbs seem to be more tender than those that are really flat. (Some markets label it anise, which it is not.)

Fenugreek: A very hard seed grown in the Middle East and used as a spice. It adds an earthy flavor to chutneys and curries.

Fenugreek: A very hard seed grown in the Middle East, which is used as a spice. Its dominant flavor and aroma is recognizable in commercial curry powders.

Fermentation (food industry term): A breakdown in organic compounds caused by a leavening agent, such as the effect of yeast on flour.

Fermentation: A process by which a food goes through a chemical change precipitated by enzymes produced from yeast, bacteria, or microorganisms. In baking, it refers to the first stages (rising times) after a bread dough is developed and before it is shaped. This stage helps leaven the dough and develop the bread's flavor.

Fermented Black Beans: Small black soybeans preserved in salt; used in Chinese cuisine. Fermented black beans have a very salty and pungent flavor. Also known as Chinese black beans and salty black beans.

Fermented black beans: This pungent Chinese specialty consists of small black soybeans preserved in salt and sold in covered jars or plastic bags. Available in Asian markets, sometimes under the name "salty black beans." They will keep indefinitely.

Feta cheese: A classic white Greek cheese, usually made with sheep's milk. It's crumbly, and has a tangy flavor.

Feta: 1. A salty, soft Greek cheese made from ewe's milk and pickled in brine It has a white color, crumbly texture and salty, sour, tangy flavor. 2. A soft, white, flaky American feta-style cheese made from cow's milk and stored in brine.

Fettuccine: Long, relatively thick ribbons of pasta. A narrower version is called fettuccelli, while a wider one is called fettucci. Fettucine goes well with cream, cheese, meat and tomato sauces.

Fettuccini: Flat narrow pasta egg noodles less than wide and a bit thicker than tagliatelle.

Ff&d standards (food industry term): Federal Food & Drug Standards are federal rules that address quality standards of foods and drugs for human consumption.

Fiambre: [Spanish] cooked meat and vegetable salad that is usually marinated.

Fica (food industry term): Federal Insurance Contributions Act, a mandatory withholding used for Social Security.

Ficelle: [French] string. This term is used in cooking to describe foods that have been tied to a string and cooked in a broth. This was a practice in villages when a communal pot was used to cook food. The string was used in order to allow the owners to identify and recover their piece of meat. This is generally applied to tough cuts of meat that require long periods of cooking. Yet, some restaurants are using the term to describe a more tender cut of meat that is poached in a rich broth. Beef filet and duck breasts are two good choices for this type of preparation.

Fiddlehead ferns: A barely emerged, tightly coiled (hence the name) shoot of the ostrich fern. Their flavor is reminiscent of asparagus and artichoke-- some say with a touch of green beans. Available only in spring, and locally - they will not ship.

Fideo: [Spanish] vermicelli; nest of thin pasta.

Field broker (food industry term): A fruit and vegetable grower's representative who sells and ships produce.

Field representative (food industry term): A manufacturer's or wholesaler's representative who sells products and services accounts. See supervisor.

Fifo (food industry term): First in, first out.

Fig: A pear-shaped fruit that grows well in warm regions with a thick, soft skin, sweet flavor and many tiny edible seeds. Popular varieties usually have dark purple skin and pink flesh or green skin and pinkish-white flesh.

Figs: Fresh figs have soft flesh with many tiny, edible seeds, and range from purple to green. Also readily available dried.

Filberts: Hazelnuts.

File Powder: An American seasoning made of sassafras leaves and used to flavor and thicken Creole dishes, such as gumbo.

File powder: A powder made of dried sassafras leaves which has a glutinous quality and gives to certain dishes (as gumbos) a delicate flavor and thickening.

Filet mignon: An expensive and very tender cut of beef that is taken from the small end of Tenderloin.

Filet mignon: A thick, boneless and extremely tender cut of beef from the tail side of the tenderloin. (Not however the most flavorful of steaks.)

Filet, (or fillet): A piece of meat, fish or poultry which is boneless or has had all the bones removed.

Filete migon: [Spanish] filet mignon.

Filete: [Spanish] filet.

Fillet (food industry term): A boned, trimmed, lean piece of fish.

Fillet or Filet: To remove bones from a fish, so that only the flesh remains. The process depends on the type of fish. Though similar, it is different for flat fish, like a flounder, or round fish, like a trout. The best way to learn how is to purchase a cookbook with details or watch the cooking shows. If in doubt, your seafood monger will do it for you.

Fill-ins or fill-in order (food industry term): A supplementary order needed to replace product that was either forgotten, not delivered or out-of-stock.

Filo, Phyllo: Layers of paper-thin leaves of dough used in Greek and Middle Eastern cuisine. Frozen phyllo dough can be found in most supermarkets and should be thawed overnight in the refrigerator. Also spelled "phylo," "filo," and "fillo."

Final order date (food industry term): The last date to place an order to receive product allowances.

Final ship date (food industry term): The last date to ship an order to qualify for product allowances.

Financier: A small cake or cookie that is made with ground nuts and whipped egg whites. These are soft like sponge cake, and have a rich flavor of nuts.

Fine dice: A cube:shaped cut 1/8 inch in size; brunoise.

Finely: Especially small, as in finely chopped, but not as small as minced.

Fines Herbes: A mixture of finely chopped herbs made up of equal parts chervil, tarragon, chives, and parsley or equal parts chervil and chives (not always limited to these combinations).

Fines Herbes: A combination of very finely chopped fresh herbs used for seasoning. Traditionally includes chervil, chives, parsley and tarragon. Dried herbs may also be used, but their delicacy is lost.

Finger-tip Test: A method used to test whether risen dough has doubled in size. Two fingers are pressed lightly and quickly ½ inch into the risen dough. If the dents stay, the dough has doubled.

Fingido: [Spanish] false; ersatz.

Finnan haddie: A world:famous smoked haddock from Scotland.

Finnan Haddie: [Scottish] smoked haddock.

Fino Olive Oil: A blend of extra-virgin and virgin olive oils. Fino means "fine" in Italian.

Fiori Di Sambuco: Small star-shaped pasta used in soups.

Firkin: The sourdough container on a chuck wagon; also dough keg.

First in, first out (fifo) (food industry term): An inventory rotation system to sell older products before newer products.

Fiscal year (food industry term): A 12-month period that a company or government uses for bookkeeping purposes.

Fischietti: The smallest tube-shaped pasta.

Fish Cakes, Japanese: Fish paste molded into cakelike shapes and grilled or deep fried. Available frozen in Japanese markets.

Fish Sauce: A strong, salty sauce made from fresh anchovies. Used primarily in Thai cooking.

Fish Sauce: A condiment made from fermented anchovies, salt and water. Common in Cambodian, Vietnamese and Thai cooking. The Cambodian version nam pla, is considered the finest, and has the richest flavor. The Vietnamese variety, nuoc mam, most widely available, is milder. The different varieties are interchangeable. Available in Oriental, Asian and some supermarkets.

Fish steaks (food industry term): A cross-section cut from whole fish in 3/4 to 1-inch thick, skin-on slices.

Fish: Any one of a thousand species of aquatic vertebrates with fins for swimming and gills for breathing, found in saltwater and freshwater worldwide.

Five Spice Powder: A ground Chinese seasoning that contains equal amounts of cinnamon, cloves, ground star anise, fennel, and Szechuan peppercorns.

Five spice powder: A dry spice mix used in Chinese cooking consisting of cinnamon, star anise, Szechuan pepper, clove, and fennel.

Fixed assets (food industry term): See assets, fixed.

Fixed costs (food industry term): See costs, fixed.

Fixed dating or fixed terms (food industry term): An accounting term that sets a payment date.

Fixture (fixturing) (food industry term): Displays, such as grocery shelves, a freezer case, a magazine or card rack, used to exhibit merchandise.

Flageolet: These immature kidney beans harvested before maturity are medium in size (about one-half inch long), kidney shaped, and a pale green. Quick-cooking and very fresh-tasting, the classic treatment features cream and herbs.

Flageolets: A French kidney-shaped bean, generally available in the United States dried or canned; often used as an accompaniment to lamb.

Flagship store (food industry term): The prototype for a retail store chain.

Flake: To gently break up into small pieces, usually with a fork or your fingers.

Flake: Separate cooked fish into individual flaky slivers; grate chocolate or cheese into small slivers.

Flamb: [French] served flaming, accomplished by pouring spirits over food and igniting them.

Flambe: To ignite a sauce or other liquid so that it flames. Liquors such as brandy are essential to flambe, since they ignite easily.

Flambe: Dramatic presentation of food by sprinkling with alcohol (or other flamable substance) and igniting into flames.

Flameado: [Spanish] flamed; flamb ; served flaming.

Flameproof: Cookware that can be used directly on a burner or under a broiler without damage.

Flan ring: A metal pan for baking tarts, with low sides and a detachable side ring.

Flan: 1. A round pastry tart that can have a sweet or savory filling. 2. A Spanish custard coated with caramel.

Flan: This is a term that may be used to describe two different preparations. The first use of this word is describes an open top tart that is filled with pastry cream and topped with fruit. Flan is used in Spanish and Mexican cooking to describe an egg custard that is baked in a large shallow dish, and flavored with caramel. The dish is inverted when served and the excess caramel is used as a sauce for the flan. The flan may be flavored with orange, anise, cinnamon, or liqueur. [Spanish] traditional Mexican and Southwestern baked caramel custard dessert; similar to the French "creme caramel" or "creme brulee."

Flank Steak: A long, thin, fibrous cut of beef from an animal's lower hindquarters, usually tenderized by marinating.

Flank steak: The triangular-shaped muscle from the underside of a flank of beef; when broiled, served rare and sliced thin, as horizontally as possible, this is tender and juicy, and is called London Broil. Flank steak is also served with a stuffing, rolled and baked.

Flanker (food industry term): A manufacturer's product modification for an established product., e.g., blue M&Ms.

Flash sheet (food industry term): A manufacturer's promotional summary to promote selected sale products to retailers. Also known as a sell sheet.

Flatfish: Fish that have a flat body with both eyes located on the upper side. Flatfish swim "sideways" and include "flounder," "halibut," and "sole."

Flatfish: Includes flounders, flukes, sole, dabs, and plaices. Distinguished by their eyes (on top of their head), and swimming style (on their side). Have thin, fine-grained flesh; all can be used interchangeably.

Flat-Iron Steak: Beef shoulder top blade cut.

Flats (food industry term): Platforms used to store products.

Flauta: Corn tortilla wrapped around a meat or poultry filling and fried. Usually served with guacamole and sour cream.

Flautas: [Spanish] flutes; filled, tightly rolled, and deep-fried enchiladas.

Flavor: To add seasoning or other ingredients to a food or beverage to enhance taste.

Fleisch: [German] meat.

Fleur de sel: [French] "flower of the salt." A rare sea salt harvested by hand in Brittany, France and available only in limited quantities. Composed of the natural crystal formations found on the surface of a salt marsh. The crystals are sun-dried only, thereby maintaining many of the nutrients not found in typical prepared salts. Fleur de Sel's unrefined nature lends itself to be served as a condiment, rather than a seasoning, adding both texture and flavor to a meal.

Fleuron: A small crescent shaped pastry made of puff dough that is used to garnish fish dishes and soups.

Flexible allowance (food industry term): Choice given to a retailer to select the payment method

Float (food industry term): The amount of time that a check is in circulation; the period between the time a check is written and when it is cashed.

Floor care (food industry term): A specific program designed to keep floors clean and attractive.

Floor merchandiser (food industry term): A movable, free-standing fixture, such as (Food Industry term):

Floor stock (food industry term): Merchandise stored by a retailer to replenish shelves between deliveries. Also known as back stock.

Floor stock protection (food industry term): An agreement to protect a retailer from a loss if a product's price goes down in a certain time period.

Flor: [Spanish] flower.

Florentine: 1. A cookie that contain butter, cream and often coated with chocolate. 2. Also refers to dishes containing spinach and usually a cream sauce.

Florentine: [French] This is used to describe foods that are cooked in the style of Florence. The word is most commonly associated with dishes containing spinach and sometimes a cream sauce. Steak cooked ala Florentine is a large T-bone steak, rubbed with olive oil and garlic, grilled and served with fresh lemon on the side.

Flores: [Spanish] blossoms.

Florets: The small, closely bunched flowers that make up the whole head or broccoli or cauliflower.

Flounder: A fine:textured flatfish prized for its delicate flavor. Some of the more popular varieties include "Fab," "English Sole," and "Plaice."

Flounder: A large family of flatfish, flounder generally has lean, firm flesh and a delicate flavor. Available whole or in fillets, the fish can be baked, boiled, poached, steamed or sauteed. Flounder is often marketed as sole, which (with the exception of imported European Dover sole) is actually a variety of flounder.

Flour Dredger: A kitchen device similar to a large salt shaker with a handle for sifting a coating, such as flour, cocoa powder or confectioners' sugar, onto foods.

Flour: Flour is a major ingredient in most baked goods. Although wheat flours are the most common and often essential flour to a product's quality, flour may be produced from many kinds of grains, potatoes, legumes, beans, and seeds. Example, Flour from soybeans, corn, oats, spelt, teff, quinoa, amaranth, rye, buckwheat, and more.

Flour: 1. (used as a verb) To lightly sprinkle or coat with flour. 2. A powdery substance made by milling wheat, corn, rye or other grains that are available in various degrees of fineness.

Flour: This is the finely ground grain of wheat, corn, rice, oat, rye, or barley. Unless specified, this term refers to wheat flour. Flour is milled from a variety of wheats containing different amounts of protein. The different levels of protein give each flour unique qualities.

All-purpose flour sometimes called general-purpose or family flour is the most commonly used, especially by the domestic market. This flour is milled from both hard and soft wheats, giving it the strength needed in bread baking, but leaving it tender enough for cakes and pastries.

Bread flour has a higher protein content so that it may withstand the constant expansion of the cell walls during proofing and baking.

Cake flour is milled from soft wheat, thus containing a very low protein content and preventing the development of gluten. Pastry flour is of relatively low protein content, containing just enough to help stabilize the products during leavening.

Other flours which are not as common are buckwheat, corn, potato, rice, rye and soy. These are used for special recipes or for special diets andan be found in health food, specialty stores and some supermarkets.

Whole-wheat flours also called graham flour or entire wheat flour are milled from the whole kernel, thus giving it a higher fiber content and a substantial protein content. Semolina is milled from hard durum wheat, being used mainly for commercial baking and pasta production.

   Wheat Flours

   All-Purpose Flour: Half cake flour, half bread flour. Suitable for all applications.

   Bread Flour: A high gluten flour made from hard wheat. Perfect for yeast breads.

   Cake Flour: A high starch flour made from soft wheat. Ideal for baking.

   Self-Rising: A mixture of all-purpose flour, baking powder and salt.

   Stone Ground: Wheat that is ground between two slowly moving stones. This process creates less heat than the usual high speed steel grinding. Some cooks believe the stone grinding method produces a better product.

   Whole Wheat Flour: A high fiber flour that contains the wheat germ. Usually blended with other flours.

   Semolina: Coarsely ground, hard flour (usually duram). Used for making pasta.

Flow through distribution (food industry term): A form of cross-docking; products are broken down into individual cases which are sorted, transferred and put on pallets to ship to retail stores.

Fluff-duff: Ranch term for fancy foods such as cakes or puddings.

Flute: 1. To press a scolloped pattern into the raised edge of a pie crust. 2. To groove or slit markings in vegetables (like cucumbers) and fruits for decoration. 3. A tall, thin, stemmed champagne glass. 5. A long, thin loaf of bread.

Flute: To make decorative indentations, as on the rim of a pie crust.

Flyer (food industry term): An advertisement that is mailed or inserted into newspapers.

Flying fish: This fish, a delicacy in the West Indies and Japan, gains speed underwater then leaves the water except for the lower lobe of its tail. It then vigorously beats its tail, extends its ventral fins and can fly a 1,000 feet or more.

Fmi (food industry term): Food Marketing Institute.

Focaccia: Italian bakers' snack, from Latin term "focus" or hearth. The focaccia was originally baked on a stone hearth.

Focaccia: An Italian flatbread made with pizza or bread dough. Herbs, cheese and other toppings may be added or it can be served plain.

Focaccia: An Italian flatbread made with pizza or bread dough, that can be baked plain or topped with onions, zucchini, eggplant, cheese, or whatever you choose.

Foie Gras: The term means goose liver, but is used to describe the fattened liver of both duck and geese.

Foie Gras: [French] literally translated, "fat liver"; but the term is used to describe the fattened liver of both duck and geese. The birds are force fed a rich mixture to help expedite this process. The largest production of commercial foie gras is done in France and Israel. The US will only allow this product to be imported in a cooked stage, either canned, vacuum-sealed, or frozen. These are inferior products and will never highlight the true delicacy of foie gras.

Foil, Aluminum Foil: A thin pliable sheet of aluminum; easily molded, conducts heat well, can withstand temperature extremes and is impervious to odors, moisture and air; used to cover foods for cooking and storage.

Fold: To incorporate dry ingredients or batter into whipped eggs, usually an egg:white foam, without deflating the light and airy texture essential to the finished product. This is done with a rubber spatula by reaching reach down through the center of the egg foam to the bottom of the bowl and lifting up some of the batter on top of the foam. As you turn your wrist to deposit the batter on top of the eggs, you turn the bowl a few degrees, repeating the process until there are no traces of egg white left.

Fold: To combine by using two motions, one which cuts vertically throuth the mixture, the other with turns over by sliding the implement across the bottom of the mixing bowl.

Fold: To gently mix two or more ingredients together by softly lifting up and over from the sides to the center.

Fold: To add one ingredient or mixture to another using a large metal spoon or spatula. Gentle process that often keeps mixed air fluffed throughout a mixture, such as in angel food cakes.

Folding: To gently combine two or more ingredients or a delicate mixture into a heavier, thicker one by cutting vertically through the mixture and turning it over by sliding the mixing tool across the bottom of the bowl or pan with each turn. To combine without stirring or deflating a mixture.

Fond: The brown bits which stick to the bottom of a pan. Packed with incredible flavors from the food you have cooked. It is easy to remove by adding a little liquid to the pan and using a wooden spoon to dissolve it. This is called deglazing and can be done with wine, brandy, fortified wines, stock, cider, fruit juices or most typically a combination of two. Be careful if you use wine to remove the pan from the heat so the alcohol doesn't ignite and blow up in your face.

Fondant: A very sweet and thick sugar paste used in candy making and glazing baked goods.

Fondant: An icing made of sugar syrup and glucose, which is cooked to a specific temperature and then kneaded to a smooth, soft paste. This paste can then be colored or flavored and used as an icing for cakes and petit fours.

Fondue: A dipping sauce such as cheese or chocolate which is usually served warm along with the items to be dipped such as bread, meat, fruit, etc.

Fondue: There are several different types of fondue, the most notable of which is cheese fondue. This is a Swiss specialty in which cheese is melted with wine, eggs, and seasonings and served with bread and fresh vegetables.

Fondue Bourguignonne is a pot of hot oil into which the diners will cook strips of meat and dip them into an array of sauces on the table.

A chocolate fondue is a chocolate bath, flavored with liqueur and eaten with bread, cakes and fruit, like fresh berries.

Similar to this is fondue Chinois where the hot oil is replaced by a rich chicken or meat broth. The meat, and fish too, are then cooked in this stock and dipped in sauces.

The Japanese have a dish called shabu shabu, which is similar to this type of fondue. Named for the swishing sound that the meat makes in the broth, this dish is also served with vegetables and noodles in to be eaten along with the meat.

Fonduta: An Italian style fondue made of Fontina cheese and served over toast or polenta. Exceptional with truffles.

Fontina Cheese: A high-fat (about 45 percent) Italian cheese made from cow's milk, with a mild, slightly nutty flavor and creamy texture. Fontina has a dark golden-brown rind and a pale-yellow interior that's dotted with tiny holes.

Food broker (food industry term): An agent who negotiates contracts, buys and sells food and other merchandise to retail food stores.

Food cost (food industry term): A calculation of the price of each ingredient used to prepare foods, such as potato salad.

Food distributors international (fdi) (food industry term): (formerly NAWGA) 201 Park Washington Court Falls Church, VA 22046 (703) 532-9400

Food executives international foundation (feif) (food industry term): P.O. Box 2730 Bethesda, MD 20827 (301) 469-8716

Food guide pyramid (food industry term): A federal government picture of a healthy diet, with the most essential items, cereals and grains, at the bottom, and the least essential, fats and sweets, at the top.

Food marketing institute (fmi) (food industry term): An international trade association of independent grocers, chain stores and wholesalers. FMI's programs include education, research and public affairs. 655 15th St. ., N.W. Washington, DC 20005 (202) 452-8444

Food mass merchandiser (food industry term): A supercenter that offers a wide variety of food and non-food merchandise. These stores average 150,000 square feet and typically devote 40 percent of the space to grocery items and 60 percent to General Merchandise/Health and Beauty Care (GM/HBC) and other non-food items.

Food service (food industry term): The preparation and sale of ready-to-eat food items, snacks and meals.

Food stamps (food industry term): A federal benefits program for low-income families, administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Food stand (food industry term): A disposable, usually cardboard, floor merchandiser.

Food store (food industry term): A retail operation that sells food products.

Food/drug combo (food industry term): A combination superstore-drug store under a single roof that share checkout lanes. General Merchandise/Health and Beauty Care (GM/HBC) represents at least one-third of the selling area and a minimum of 15 percent of store sales.

Fool: Cold dessert consisting of fruit puree and whipped cream.

Footballing (food industry term): A competitive strategy to rapidly increase sales volume by sharply cutting prices.

Footprint (food industry term): The amount of square footage in a store used by a piece of equipment or display unit.

Forced deposit (food industry term): A fee placed on recyclable bottles to promote bottle returns for a refund.

Forced distribution (food industry term): The total allotment of product that a retail chain automatically distributes to its stores without specific orders. Also called a force out.

Forcemeat: Ground up meat(s) combined with seasonings and other ingredients, used for stuffing.

Forcemeat: A rich, highly seasoned paste containing meat or fish, herbs and vegetables finely minced and pounded, used as a stuffing or garnish.

Forecast (food industry term): A projection of sales volume.

Forklift (food industry term): A vehicle with projecting prongs that slide under a pallet to move merchandise in a warehouse or store.

Formaggio: Italian word for cheese.

Formaggio: An Italian cheese.

Fortified: Supplied with more vitamins and minerals than were present in the natural state.

Forward buy (food industry term): A retail practice of holding products until the end of a promotion to increase profits. Also known as a buyout.

Fougasse: A flatbread from France that was once served sweetened with sugar and orange water. It is now more commonly seen as a bread eaten with savory dishes. In this case, the dough is brushed with olive oil and sprinkled with herbs or salt before baking.

Four-way pallet (food industry term): A pallet accessible by equipment from all four sides.

Foyot: This is a variation of a bearnaise sauce with the addition of a well reduced meat glaze.

Fraises: [French] strawberries.

Framboise: [French] a raspberry-flavored liqueur with a high alcohol content.

Frame (food industry term): A module of text on the World Wide Web, which is used to break up text that is hard to read on a computer screen. The unit of information transferred across a data link.

Frame relay network (food industry term): A local-area, wide-area or global network of computers that uses nodes to send digital messages in pieces back and forth until an open line is found for transmission of a packet of information, which is reassembled in the correct order on delivery.

Franchise (food industry term): A contractual agreement on a brand, service, name, operation or procedure.

Franchise store (food industry term): An independently owned store affiliated with a wholesale group and sharing a common name. A license to use a chain's name.

Franchised department (food industry term): See leased department.

Franchised label or franchised brand (food industry term): A label, name, or design that a sectional distributor may use as its private label in an assigned area.

Frangipane: A candy-like pastry cream made of butter, eggs, flour, and finely ground almonds or macaroons. Modern versions will use a combination of cornstarch and flour.

Frankfurter: A smoked and seasoned precooked sausage that is also called the "hot dog," "wiener," and "frank." These sausages, which can be made from beef, pork, chicken, or turkey, are America's most popular sausage.

Frapp: Sweetened fruit juices frozen until semi-hard, then chilled.

Frappe: (from the French frappe) A simple sugar syrup mixed with fruit or other flavorings and frozen, then processed to a slightly slushy consistency. It can be served as a drink or a dessert. In some parts of the United States, a milk shake is sometimes referred to as a frappe.

Free goods promotion (food industry term): A manufacturer's incentive to retailers or wholesalers that offers free product in exchange for the purchase of a specific quantity.

Free standing (food industry term): A store located by itself or in an unplanned shopping area.

Free standing display (food industry term): A display built straight from the floor and not attached to a fixture.

Free standing insert (fsi) (food industry term): A manufacturer's advertisement and coupons put into a separate section of a newspaper.

Free time period (food industry term): The time period allocated to load or unload a truck or rail car without incurring additional charges.

Free trader (food industry term): A retailer with access to capital who buys in high volume from many suppliers on a cash basis.

Free-range chicken or turkey: In theory, these birds are much better than the standard. They're fed differently, given fewer drugs, and have more room to roam. However, the quality is inconsistent and the price often outrageously expensive.

Freeze: To preserved food by placing it in temperatures below 32?F (0?C) so that the moisture solidifies.

Freezer (food industry term): An enclosed, refrigerated storage area that preserves frozen products below 0 degree F.

Freezer burn (food industry term): The loss of moisture that affects frozen food. The white or gray spots caused by improper packing or food handling.

Freezer Burn: A loss of moisture in foods when wrapped inappropriately before freezing. Texture and flavor of food is compromised and is confirmed by dry white or gray patches on the surface of the food.

Freezer life (food industry term): The length of time a product can be stored at 0 degree F and retain good proofing and baking characteristics.

Freezer paper: A plastic-coated Kraft paper used for wrapping foods for freezing and for general household purposes. The plastic coating provides a barrier to air and moisture to protect the quality, flavor and nutrition of foods during freezing; the paper provides strength and durability as well as an easy-to-write-on surface.

Freezing: Process whereby food is solidified or preserved through chilling and storing it at 0C or 32F degrees.

Freight bill (food industry term): A receipt showing the total cost of a shipment. Shippers pay for prepaid freight bills and receivers pay destination freight bills.

Freight paid (food industry term): An expense added to a product's retail price.

Freight rate (food industry term): The transportation costs for shipping products by rail, truck or other means that may be based on a formula of total weight, revenue and mileage.

French chop: A rib lamb chop.

French Fry: To deep-fry food, such as strips of potatoes.

French fry: To cook in hot fat which entirely covers the food, often in a special wire basket.

Frequent shopper program (food industry term): An electronic marketing program designed to reinforce customer loyalty. A scan card used to capture customer shopping patterns and to generate product discounts (clipless coupons). See electronic marketing.

Fresas: [Spanish] strawberries.

Fresco: [Spanish] fresh.

Fresh (food industry term): Just picked, gathered, produced, live or unprocessed, not stale, food. A term associated with perimeter departments, including produce, deli, bakery, or floral. Also unfrozen.

Fresh cheese: Unripened or slightly ripened curds (ricotta, farmer, cottage, mascarpone).

Fresh Frozen: Food that was frozen when it was fresh.

Fresh Masa: A dough used in the making of tamales that consists of ground, dried corn that has been soaked in limewater.

Fresh pack (food industry term): Seasonal food products processed quickly; usually at the growing location.

Fresh: 1. A food that has been recently cooked or baked, such as a fresh bread. 3. A food left in a state as grown or harvested; not canned, dried or processed and containing no preservatives.

Freshness control (food industry term): A program to liquidate short-coded, overstocked merchandise to prevent its accumulation.

Fresine: Straight, narrow noodles similar in length to short spaghetti.

Fresno chile: A fresh chile; similar in size and appearance to a ripe jalape o; bright red and thick-fleshed; great in salsas and ceviches; usually available only in the fall; substitute ripe jalape os if unavailable.

Fricadillee: [French] meat balls, made with minced pork and veal, spices, white bread crumbs, cream and egg, then poached in stock or shallow-fried in a pan.

Fricass e: [French] stew made of chicken or veal cut into pieces and cooked in a gravy. Though chicken is the most common form of this type of stew, fish, vegetables, and other meats are prepared in this manner.

Fricassee: A stew that contains diced meat, lightly cooked in butter, and then simmered in liquid until tender.

Frijol blanco: [Spanish] navy bean.

Frijoles Refritos: Refried beans. Most commonly cooked pinto beans that are mashed, sauteed in oil or fat, and mixed with cheese cheddar.

Frijoles refritos: [Spanish] refried beans; a paste of stewed pinto beans fried in fat with onions and garlic and frequently includes chiles.

Frijoles: Beans, most commonly referring to the pinto bean.

Frijoles: [Spanish] beans; usually refers to stewed pinto beans; varieties are Anasazi, black turtle, bollito, pinto or red (Mexican strawberry).

Frisee: A member of the chicory family with delicately slender, curly leaves that are feathery in appearance and mildly bitter in taste.

Fritada: [Spanish] stew usually made with goat meat, which always contains some animal blood.

Frito: [Spanish] fried.

Frittata: An Italian omelet that has additional ingredients mixed in with the eggs rather than being folded inside like a French omelet. It is sometimes baked or cooked in a skillet over very slow heat then flipped or the top browned under a broiler.

Frittata: An Italian open-faced omelet.

Fritter: Foods coated or dipped in batter, then deep-fried.

Fritter: Food that has been dipped in batter and deep fried or saut ed. These may consist of vegetables, meat, fish, shellfish, or fruit. The food may be dipped in the batter or mixed with the batter and dropped into the hot fat to form little balls. Japanese tempura fried foods are a type of fritter, though this term is not applied to it.

Fritto Misto: An Italian platter filled with a variety of mixed fried foods.

Fritto Misto: An Italian mixed fried platter, similar to the Japanese tempura platter. A mixture of vegetables, meat, and fish are dipped in a light batter and quickly deep fried to prevent a saturation of grease into the food.

Fritto: [Italian] fried

Frituras: [Spanish] fritters.

Frizzle: To fry thin slices of meat or other food until the edges curl

Frogfish: This large low:fat, firm:textured salt:water fish has a mild, sweet flavor that compares with lobster. Also called "angler fish," "monkfish," or "goosefish."

Frog's legs: The tender, faintly sweet white meat from the hind legs of frogs. Because of their delicate flavor, they should be cooked briefly without too many seasonings.

Fromage Blanc: A simple French white cheese. This soft, fresh cream cheese has the consistency of sour cream. Fromage blanc is usually eaten with fruit and sugar as dessert, but it can also be used in cooking.

Fromage: French for cheese.

Fromage: A French cheese.

Front desk (food industry term): A service counter.

Front end (food industry term): The designated area of a retail store for customer checkouts and bagging stands. It may include a Service Center, Counting Room for Monies, MIS Office and Manager's Office.

Fronts (food industry term): The number of shelf facings for a product.

Frost: To apply sugar, frosting, glaze, or icing to fruit, cake, or other food.

Frost: to coat a cake or petit fours with an icing; to dip the rim of a glass in egg white and caster sugar and then chill in a refrigerator until set; to dip the rim of a glass in lemon juice and coat with salt, then chill in the freezer.

Frosting: A cooked or uncooked sugar mixture used to cover and decorate cakes, cookies and other foods.

Frozen assets (food industry term): See assets, frozen.

Frozen food distribution center (food industry term): A refrigerated warehouse for the storage and distribution of frozen foods.

Frozen foods (food industry term): Food preserved by freezing, such as fruits, vegetables, specialty foods, dinners and ice cream.

Fruit paste: A firm, but gelatinous, sweet paste of a fruit such as mango, papaya or guava, eaten for dessert.

Fruit Pectin: A substance found naturally in some fruits such as apples that possess the ability to gel liquids. It is an essential ingredient in making jelly and jam. Pectin can be purchased in powder and liquid form.

Fruit pectin: A substance found naturally in fruits such as apples, quince, and all citrus fruits. Pectin's ability to gel liquids makes it a key ingredient in jelly and jam making. Pectin from citrus fruit is refined and bottled or powdered. You can purchase pectin in powder or liquid form, or use high pectin fruits in the recipe. Do not substitute one for the other.

Fruit Sweetener: If a recipe calls for 1/2 cup fruit sweetener, substitute 1/4 cup concentrated apple juice plus 1/4 cup granulated fructose. Granulated fructose can be found among the dietary foods or sugars in the supermarket.

Fry Cooking food in hot fat-sauteing, stir-frying, pan-frying, and deep-frying; a dry-heat cooking method

Fry Bread: Thin, unleaved fried bread made from flour, water or milk, and salt. Fry bread is traditionally from Southwest Native Americans.

Fry bread: Indian fried bread; flat discs of dough that are deep-fried and topped with honey or refried beans; usually found in Arizona and New Mexico.

Fry: To cook in fat. Applied especially to:
  • (1)cooking in a small amount of fat, also called saute or pan-frying
  • (2) cooking in a deep layer of fat, also called deep-fat frying.

Fry: To cook food in hot cooking oil until it turns a light crispy brown.

Fry: To cook in fat in a skillet. Food must be turned to brown and fry on all sides.

Fryer (food industry term): A term for a whole chicken.

Fryer: A chicken that weights 3 to 4 pounds and is 9 to 12 weeks old.

Fsi (food industry term): Free-standing insert.

Fudge: Candy (usually chocolate) made with sugar, butter, milk or cream, corn syrup, and flavorings that has a soft, creamy, smooth texture.

Fugu: [Japanese] swellfish; globefish; blowfish; ballonfish; puffer. Fugu is caught in winter only, and it is eaten as chiri-nabe (hotpot) or fugu-sashi (raw fugu, sliced paper-thin). Only licensed fugu chefs are allowed to prepare this fish in Japan, since it contains a deadly poison.

Fuji Apple: A cross between the Red Delicious and Virginia Rawls Jennet apples. Rosy in color and striped with green and yellow, these incredibly sweet apples are ideal for cooking and baking, applesauce or eating out of hand.

Ful: An Egyptian dried bean. Available in specialty food shops. The best are the small variety.

Full service (food industry term): Merchandiser arrangements with retailers in which product prices include all services, such as order writing, prepricing, delivery, shelf merchandising and guaranteed sales.

Full truck (food industry term): See truckload order.

Full-line drug (food industry term): A store that sells general merchandise (GM), health and beauty care (HBC), over the counter (OTC) and prescription drugs.

Full-line wholesale grocer (food industry term): A wholesaler who provides a complete selection of products and services to retailers, such as accounting services, retail training modules and services, MIS information and reporting and newspaper ad layouts.

Fumet: [French] an aromatic broth made for use in soups and sauces. The flavor of a fumet is usually concentrated on one item, though multiple ingredients may be used. The stock is then reduced to concentrate this flavor. Fish and vegetable broths are more commonly called fumets, but meat may also be used.

Fundido: [Spanish] fondue.

Fungi: Mushrooms.

Funnel: A conical tool with a short straight tube at the tip used to transfer liquids into a narrow-mouthed vessel. Funnels are available in various materials and some have strainers in the bottom to separate fine particles from the liquid.

Fusilier Col Buco: Long, thin spirals about the same length as short spaghetti.

Fusilli: Literally means "Twisted Spaghetti". Popularly known as cork-screw pasta which is shaped like springs or screws.

Fusilli: [Italian] spiral shaped pasta. Some versions are shaped like a spring. Other versions are shaped like a twisted spiral.

Future order (food industry term): An order for perishable products before the beginning of a season; future orders are often used as collateral for loans by packers/manufacturers. See field broker.


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