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Culinary Dictionary
Cooking Glossary - Food Industry Terminology

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P&l sheet (food industry term): Profit and Loss Statement.

Pacanas: [Spanish] pecan nuts.

Pachola: [Spanish] thin, half circle-shaped piece of ground meat.

Pack (food industry term): A standard number of items in a case.

Pack box/repack (food industry term): A large case of merchandise broken down and combined with other products into smaller case packs for distribution to retail stores.

Pack date (food industry term): The date on which a product was made or packaged for sale.

Pack out (food industry term): Placing merchandise on shelves from cases or containers to maximize shelf capacity. Total capacity of a shelf in units when fully stocked.

Packed: Pressed or mashed together tightly, filling the measuring utensil with as much of the ingredient as possible.

Packer (food industry term): A company that processes foods for consumption by customers, e.g., meat, poultry, fruits, vegetables.

Packer's label (food industry term): A label that lists a product's content, quality and the processor.

Packing slip (food industry term): A handling slip that tracks shipping and loading of merchandise.

Packing supplies (food industry term): Various paper and plastic bags for bagging customer purchases at a check stand.

Paella: A Spanish dish consisting of rice, saffron, a variety of meat and shellfish, garlic, onions, peas, tomatoes, and other vegetables. It's named for the wide, shallow pan it's cooked in.

Paella: A Spanish rice dish originating in the town of Valencia. There are hundreds of recipes for paella, all claiming to be authentic. The only ingredients that are necessary for paella are rice, tomatoes, and saffron. Other ingredients are chicken, chorizo, mussels, squid, peppers, and beans. More elaborate preparations include shrimp, lobster, and duck.

Paid outs (food industry term): Money paid out for goods or services, usually in cash at a store.

Paillard: A piece of meat or fish that has been pounded very thinly and grilled or sauteed.

Pain Perdu: "Lost bread." French toast.

Pain: [French] bread.

Palatability (food industry term): The sensation of taste on the palate of the mouth from pleasant-tasting or acceptable food.

Palillo: [Spanish] toothpick.

Pallet (food industry term): A standard-sized base for assembling, sorting, stacking, handling and transporting goods as a unit. The industry standard is GPC-spec-4-way entry, 48" x 40" hardwood pallets.

Pallet display (food industry term): A manufacturer's display unit that is shipped to a retailer on a pallet, which when placed on a sales floor serves as a free-standing, advertising display that saves time and labor.

Pallet factor (food industry term): The number of cases on a pallet.

Pallet jack (food industry term): A hand- or battery-powered device used to move pallets or products.

Pallet shipper (food industry term): A combination of different products stacked together and shrink-wrapped on a pallet for shipment to a retailer.

Palletized shipment (food industry term): See unitized shipment.

Palletizing (food industry term): Storing and/or shipping of products on standard sized pallets.

Palm Hearts: Hearts of young palm trees.

Palm Sugar: Known as gula jawa (Indonesian), gula Malacca (Malaysian), nahm tahn beep (Thai). Ivory to light caramel colored sugar cakes. Its flavor is extracted from coconut flower or palm. It is similar to brown sugar. In fact, if you can't find it, you can substitute maple sugar or brown sugar blended with a little maple syrup (to moisten) for palm sugar.

Palmier: A cookie made of sheets of puff pastry that are rolled in sugar and folded to resemble palm leaves. These cookies are baked until the sugar becomes caramelized.

Pampano: [Spanish] pompano.

Pan dulce: [Spanish] sweet bread.

Pan Fry: To brown and cook foods in fat in a shallow pan, where the fat does not completely cover the food.

Pan: [Spanish] bread.

Panache: [French] mixed.

Panada: A thick paste used as a binding agent for forcemeats. Flour panadas are made in a style similar to choux paste. Other types use bread crumbs or potato puree.

Panaderia: [Spanish] bakery.

Pan-bagnat: A sandwich from southern France, consisting of small round loaves of bread which have been hollowed out and filled with onions, anchovies, black olives, and tuna, then drenched in extra virgin olive oil.

Panbroil: To cook a food in a skillet without added fat, removing any fat as it accumulates.

Pan-broil: To cook uncovered on a hot surface, usually in a fry pan. Fat is poured off as it accumulates.

Pan-broil: To cook quickly in a hot skillet with very little fat or a sprinkling of salt.

Pancetta: An Italian cured meat made from the belly (pancia) of the big (the same cut used for bacon). It is salted but lightly spiced, but not smoked.

Pancetta: Cured pork belly that is rolled and tied. Unlike American bacon, this is not smoked.

Pancita: [Spanish] stuffed sheep's stomach.

Pane: [Italian] bread.

Panela: [Spanish] white cheese made with rennet; slightly salty; it holds its shape when melted; normally sold in blocks or rounds; often sliced thick and broiled or baked; Monterey Jack can be substituted.

Panetone: An Italian cake made with a dough rich in egg yolks, traditionally served around Christmas time. The dough is studded with raisins, candied fruits and occasionally pistachios.

Panforte: A dense, flat Italian cake filled with hazelnuts, almonds, honey, candied citron and citrus peel, cocoa and spices.

Panforte: A rich dense torte made of candied fruit and nuts.

Pan-fry Cooking food in a shallow pan that is filled with hot fat; a dry-heat cooking method

Panfry: Panfry and saute both mean to cook quickly in a small amount of hot oil, butter, or other fat. Strictly speaking, panfrying means to cook larger pieces, like meat, in a hot pan, turning only once or twice. Sauteing means to toss foods over high heat.

Pan-fry: To cook in a small amount of fat. (See Fry and Saute.)

Panino: [talian] sandwich.

Panko: Also known as Japanese breadcrumbs; coarse dry white breadcrumbs used for breading rellenos and other fried foods; similar to untoasted coconut in appearance; provides a nuttier, crispier crust than regular breadcrumbs; found in Asian markets and many grocery stores; ordinary breadcrumbs may be substituted if necessary.

Panna: [Italian] cream.

Panning (panning out) (food industry term): A bakery term for putting raw dough on a cooking sheet.

Panning: Method of cocoking vegetables in their own juices in a tightly covered pan. Small amount of fat is used to moisten the pan before juices escape.

Panocha: Mexican brown sugar.

Panques: [Spanish] pancakes.

Pansit: Wild rice noodles used in Filipino cooking. Soak in warm water for 15 minutes until supple, and drain before using.

Pansotti: A stuffed, triangular pasta popular in the Italian region of Liguria.

Pantry audit (food industry term): A survey of consumers about grocery brands, products, and quantities in their homes.

Pantryload (food industry term): A stock-piling of sale products by customers to take advantage of low prices, e.g., carbonated beverages.

Panzanella: A salad consisting of toasted cubes of bread tossed with vegetables and vinaigrette. The salad is then marinated for at least one hour. The bread should be very firm so that it will endure the soaking of dressing. Vegetables can include tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, and onions. Lots of garlic, capers, black olives, and anchovies are added to the salad.

Papadum: Flat lentil wafers that puff up when deep-fried. Used in Indian cuisine.

Papas: [Spanish] potatoes.

Papaya: Native to North America, the papaya is a large fruit which is golden yellow when ripe. Ripe papaya has an exotic sweet-tart flavor. The fruit is sometimes called pawpaw.

Papaya: Almost oval melon-like fruit with creamy golden yellow skin, orange yellow flesh and many shiny black seeds right in the center; when slightly under-ripe, the flesh is firm, and at this point it is good for making relishes; it is soft and very juicy when ripe; the skin contains a natural enzyme that tenderizes meat and is frequently included in marinades for that reason. Some weigh up to ten pounds, but most are about the size of a mango. Papaya will ripen at room temperature, so you can buy them firm; but eat when soft.

Papel: [Spanish] paper.

Papillote, En: A food (ex. fish with a vegetable garnish) enclosed in parchment paper or greased paper wrapper and baked; the paper envelope is usually slit open tableside so that the diner can enjoy the escaping aroma.

Papilotte, en: Baked in an oiled paper bag.

Pappardelle: Plain pasta, usually homemade, shaped in broad ribbons with fluted edges, cut into short pieces (?-inch wide by 12 inches long).

Pappardelle: Wide flat pasta noodles served with rich, hearty sauces.

Paprika: A blend of dried red-skinned chiles; the flavor can range from slightly sweet and mild to pungent and moderately hot and the color can range from bright red-orange to deep blood red; used in Central European and Spanish cuisines as a spice and garnish; also known as Hungarian pepper.

Paprika: [Hungarian] translated to sweet red pepper. A spicy seasoning ground from a sweet variety of red pepper. It is used to season ragouts, stuffings, and sauces, and as a garnish.

Paraffin: A waxy substance used for coating items such as cheese and the tops of jars of jams and jellies to keep air out, thus preventing spoilage.

Parathas: [Indian] triangular shaped, fried flaky breads. Like chapatis, they are made out of whole wheat flour, but they are prepared using a slightly different method. The dough for parathas is oiled, rolled, and folded several times, giving this bread its distinctive flaky texture. The result is a bread crispy on the outside, soft on the inside.

Parboil: To cook partially in boiling water.

Parboil: To boil until partially cooked. Usually cooking is completed by another method.

Parboil: To boil a food briefly, until partially done. A food might be parboiled before adding it to faster-cooking ingredients to insure all ingredients are evenly cooked.

Parboil: Boil for a short time to partially cook.

Parcel pickup (food industry term): A driving lane in front of a store where customers pick up their purchases.

Parch: To dry; to cook in dry heat until almost scorched.

Parchment Paper: A heavy moisture and grease-resistant paper used to line baking pans and wrap foods to be baked.

Parchment paper: A silicon based paper that can withstand high heat. Often used to prepare sugar and chocolate confections because they do not stick to the paper at all. Parchment paper may be reused several times.

Parcook: To partially cook an item before storing or finishing by any number of other cooking methods.

Pare: To cut off the outside covering. Pare is applied to potatoes, apples, etc.

Pare: To cut off the outside covering.

Pare: To remove skins and peels from fruits or vegetables with a small knife or peeler.

Pareve: A Jewish term which describes food made without dairy or animal ingredients. According to Jewish dietary laws, animal food can't be eaten at the same meal with dairy food, but pareve food may be eaten with either.

Parfait: A dessert consisting of ice cream, layered with a dessert sauce, fruit, or liquer.

Parfait: [French] A dessert made of layers of fruit, syrup, ice cream and whipped cream, frozen and served in tall slender glasses.

Parfum: [French] flavor.

Parisienne: A white sauce with egg yolks.

Parity pricing (food industry term): Pricing products at the same margin as competitors in an area.

Parmagiano-Reggiano: Cheese developed in northern Italy in the Parma and Reggio Emilia regions, the original Parmagiano-Reggiano reflects 800 years of tradition and is considered one of the great cheeses of the world. This hard cheese, aged 12 to 24 months or longer, is produced by artisans from the raw milk of cattle fed fresh fodder in their spring and summer pasture. Its uniform color ranges from a pale straw yellow to a deep yellow shade, and it is dotted throughout with barely visible holes. It has an exceptionally fine flavor, full but not pungent. Whole Parmesan cheeses are large and drum-shaped and may weigh 40 to 55 pounds (18 to 25 kg). Methods of production vary from one region to another, with different aging times and temperatures.

Parmentier: [French] any dish prepared with potatoes. The term is derived from Antoine Parmentier who introduced the potato to France.

Parmesan Cheese: A cow's milk cheese whose taste ranges from sweet to sharp. It is a hard cheese, most suitable for grating. Most often served with Italian food.

Parmesan: [Italian] made from cow's milk, this nutty-sweet dry cheese is the best for grating. There is only one true Parmesan and that is Parmigiano-Reggiano.

Parmigiana: Prepared with Parmesan cheese.

Parrilla: [Spanish] broiler or grill.

Parrillada: [Spanish] grilled items.

Parrot fish: Any of various chiefly tropical marine fish, especially those of the family Scaridae. These fish are called parrot fish because of the brilliant coloring and the shape of their jaws. "Also called "Pollyfish."

Parsley: An herb (Petroselium crispum) with long, slender stalks, small, curly dark green leaves and a slightly peppery, tangy fresh flavor (the flavor is stronger in the stalks, which are used in a bouquet garni); generally used fresh as a flavoring or garnish; also known as curly parsley.

Parsley: Whether curly or flat leafed and indispensable herb in cooking and garnishing. Flat leafed parsley has slightly better flavor.

Parsnip: A long, white root vegetable with feathery green leaves. Its look and taste is similar to a carrot and it can be cooked in much the same way.

Parsnip: Root vegetable that looks like a white carrot. Great in soups and stews, or pureed.

Partially Set: Term for the state of a gelatin mixture that has thickened to the consistency of unbeaten egg whites.

Party platters (food industry term): Large, circular flats of selected deli items.

Pasa: [Spanish] raisin.

Pasilla chiles: Called a chilaca in its fresh form. The mature chilaca turns from dark green to dark brown. After drying (when it becomes a pasilla) it changes to a blackish-brown. It has a rich hot flavor and is generally ground and used for sauces. Pasilla means little raisin; in some places the Ancho chile is called pasilla chile; long, thin and dry with a dusky flavor; they are hot; thin fleshed, with flavors of dried fruit and licorice; anchoes may be substituted.

Pasilla Chili Peppers: Medium-hot chili peppers that are generally 6 inches to 8 inches long and 1 inch to 2 inches in diameter. These rich-flavored peppers are blackish-brown in color and sometimes referred to as chile negro.

Pasilla: (pah-SEE-yah) Long and narrow; dried, it is nearly black and wrinkled; soak then puree for complex, medium-hot red sauce; used in chili powder and mole; fresh, it is used like poblanos.

Passion Fruit: This purple fruit has a smooth skin that wrinkles as it ages and highly fragrant orange pulp filled with many tiny edible seeds. The flavor is tangy but sweet. It can be chilled and eaten as is, added to fruit salads or used as a flavoring for baked goods, preserves and beverages.

Passion fruit: Purplish-brown on the outside, filled with (edible) pits and orange flesh inside. Unadulterated, it is tart and hard to take. Passionfruit get its name from its flowers, which Spanish missionaries thought resembled symbols of Christ's Passion, such as the crown of thorns.

Pasta e Fagioli: A rich bean soup with pasta, in which a large sausage (such as cotechino) has been cooked. The soup is eaten first, followed by the sausage served with mustard and bread.

Pasta: Pasta may refer to any of a wide variety of noodles from a variety of countries. Italian pasta is usually made with a dough of durum or semolina wheat flour, liquid, and sometimes egg. Pasta made with semolina flour is generally superior, since it doesn't absorb too much water and stays somewhat firm when cooked al dente.

Pasta: " All macaroni products. Any form of spaghetti or noodles.

Angel Hair: In Italian, capelli d'angelo,this fine spaghetti is called capelli d'angelo. Goes best with light, delicate sauces. Cooks in six minutes.

Campanelle: This fancy-looking pasta with a cone shape and wavy edges traps and holds chunky sauces with meat and vegetables. Cooks in 13 minutes.

Castellane: The ridges and conch-shell shape of this pasta help trap hearty sauces. Cooks in 13 minutes.

Elbows: Short, curved tubes of pasta are available in different sizes. Most often associated with macaroni and cheese, elbows also can be used with other creamy sauces or with meat sauce. Cooks in seven minutes.

Farfalle: Also called bow-ties or butterflies. They come in small, medium and large. Their large, flat surface makes them best for tomato, ,meat and vegetable sauces. Cooks in 11 minutes.

Fettuccine: Translates to ""little ribbons."" This pasta is usually 1/4 inch thick and available straight or in coils. Its thickness makes it perfect for heavier sauces, such as alfredo. Cooks in 12 minutes.

Fiori: In Italian, fiori means flower. This pasta has rounded petals that provide extra surface area for chunky tomato-based sauces. Has lots of kid appeal. Cooks in seven minutes. ""

Penne: Quill-shaped pasta tubes with smooth sides. Those with ridges are called penne rigati. These are also called mostaciolli. Large quill-shaped tubes are called manicotti.

Rigatoni: Ridged tubes about 2 inches long and 1/2 inch wide. This hearty pasta should be served with hearty, chunky sauces. Cooks in 13 minutes.

Rotini: Short, 2-inch-long, corkscrew-shaped pasta that's good with chunky sauces. Cooks in eight minutes."

Pastel: [Spanish] cake; pie.

Pasteles: [Spanish] envelopes of dough made of plantains filled with tasty ingredients.

Pastelon: [Spanish] pie.

Pasteurize: To kill bacteria by heating liquids to moderately high temperatures only briefly. French scientist Louis Pasteur discovered the solution while he was researching the cause of beer and wine spoilage.

Pasteurize: [French] to sterilize milk by heating it to 60 to 82C or 140 to 180F degrees to destroy harmful bacteria. The term is derived from Louis Pasteur, who developed the method.

Pasticceria: [Italian] pastry.

Pasticcio: [Italian] pie.

Pastilla (Bistella): A Moroccan pie made with chicken wrapped in phyllo dough. When finished cooking, the pastilla is dusted with sugar and cinnamon.

Pastina: A small pasta, of any shape but frequently round; used in soups.

Pastina: Tiny bits of noodles.

Pastrami: A highly seasoned preserved meat made from beef dry:cured with salt or saltpeter. The seasonings include garlic, ground pepper, cinnamon, red peppers, cloves, allspice and coriander seeds. Commonly served as a sandwich on rye bread.

Pastrami: Highly, spiced smoked beef, usually prepared from the shoulder cuts.

Pastry Bag: A cone-shaped bag with openings at both ends. Food is placed into the large opening then squeezed out the small opening which may be fitted with a decorator tip. It has a variety of uses, including decorating cakes and cookies, forming pastries, or piping decorative edgings. Bags may be made of cloth, plastic, or other materials.

Pastry Blender: A kitchen utensil with several u-shaped wires attached to a handle. It's used to cut solid fat (like shortening or butter) into flour and other dry ingredients in order to evenly distribute the fat particles.

Pastry Brush: A brush used to apply glaze or egg wash to breads and other baked goods either before or after baking.

Pastry cream: A cooked custard thickened with flour. Some versions may use cornstarch or a mixture of the two starches.

Pastry flour: A fine-textured, soft wheat flour with low-gluten and high-starch content. It may be bleached, unbleached, or whole wheat. Soft red or white wheat may be used to produce this flour.

Pastry Wheel: A utensil with a cutting wheel attached to a handle. It's used to mark and cut rolled-out dough, and may have a plain or decorative edge.

Pastry wheel: Small, serrated wooden or metal wheel-like utensil for cutting and fluting pastry.

Pastry: Dough made with flour, butter and water and baked or deep-fried until crisp.

Pasty: Small pastry pie with a savory filling of meat, potatoes and onion.

Pat: To take the underside of the hand and gently press a food. The purpose might be to pat dry ingredients onto the surface so they will adhere during cooking, or to pat with a towel to remove excess moisture.

Patatas: [Spanish] potatoes.

Patate: [Spanish] sweet potato.

Pate a Choux: Cream puff paste. It is a mixture of boiled water, fat, and flour, beat in whole eggs.

Pate a Foncer: A shortcrust pastry dough made with butter and strengthened with water. Used as a lining for meat or fish pies.

Pate Brisee: A short crust pastry dough made with butter and eggs.

Pate Choux: A paste used to make cream puffs, eclairs, and other more elaborate pastries. It is made by adding flour to boiling water or milk, which has been enriched with butter. Eggs are then added into the paste to leaven it. Savory pastries such as gougere may also be made with this paste.

Pate de foi gras: A paste made of finely ground goose livers.

Pate Feuilletae: A dough comprised of many alternating layers of butter and pastry. This is an extremely versatile dough though preparation of it is labor intensive and very difficult.

Pate Sable: Another type of sweet, short crust dough.

Pate Sucree: A sweet, short crust dough for tarts and tartlets.

Pate: A well:seasoned French preparation using a meat or fish paste filling. Sometimes a fruit or vegetable mixture is used. Can be smooth or coarsely textured. Pates may be served hot or cold, usually as a first course or appetizer.

Pate: An appetizer, pate usually consists of seasoned, finely ground or strained meat, poultry, or fish. Pate is usually cooked in a crust or mold (may be called terrine) and is often served with crackers or toast.

Pate: [French] a term referring to many different preparations of meat, fish and vegetable pies. The definitions of which have been altered through the years. Originally pat‚ referred to a filled pastry much like American or English pies. Now the term pate en croute is used to describe these preparations. Pate en terrine has been shortened to either pate or terrine. A terrine is generally a finer forcemeat than that used for pate, and is always served cold. Pates are coarser forcemeats and, as stated before, are often prepared in a pastry crust. We now use these terms interchangeably and inclusive of all styles of forcemeat. Look for definitions under ballottine and galantine.

Pates: [French] pasta.

Patisserie: [French] pastry.

Pato: [Spanish] duck.

Patronage dividend or rebate (food industry term): A wholesaler's refund to a member retailer to distribute profits. Determined by totaling purchases for a given time period or of specified items.

Patty cups: Paper cupcake holders.

Patty shell: A shell made from puff paste to hold creamed mixtures or fruit.

Patty: A thin, round piece of food, such as a hamburger patty or a peppermint patty.

Patty: Small, flat, round or oval shaped cake of food, such as potato cake or fish cake, which is served hot; small, flat, individual pie, such as a chicken patty, which is served hot or cold; small, round form for meats such as hamburger.

Paupiette: [French] a thin slice of meat, like a scallopine, which is stuffed and rolled. These may also be made of fish or vegetables.

Paupiettes: Thinly sliced meats wrapped around fillings.

Pave: [French] cold savory mousse mixture set in a square mold coated with aspic jelly; square sponge cake, filled with butter cream and coated with icing.

Pavo (guajolote): [Spanish] turkey.

Pay directs (food industry term): Coupons refunded directly to a retailer.

Pay for performance (food industry term): A manufacturer's requirement that a retailer must prove performance for a promotion before reimbursement.

Payable (food industry term): See accounts payable.

Payback, payoff (food industry term): A profit made by a retailer on a special program.

Payload (food industry term): A trucking practice; after delivery of a shipment, a trucker picks up another shipment before returning to a warehouse. Also known as backhaul.

Paysanne: French name avariety of vegetables cut in a small square, usually about 1/4". Used in soups or granish for meats and seafood.

Paysanne: A dish prepared country-style. A vegetable garnish.

Peach Melba: A dessert created in the late 1800s by the famous French chef Escoffier for Dame Nellie Melba, a popular Australian opera singer. It's made with two peach halves that have been poached in syrup and cooled. Each peach half is placed hollow side down on top of a scoop of vanilla ice cream, then topped with Melba sauce (a raspberry sauce) and sometimes with whipped cream and sliced almonds.

Peach: A medium-sized stone fruit (Prunus persica) native to China; has a fuzzy, yellow-red skin, pale orange, yellow or white juicy flesh surrounding a hard stone and a sweet flavor; available as a clingstone and freestone.

Peaks: The mounds made in a mixture. For example egg white that has been whipped to stiffness. Peaks are "stiff" if they stay upright or "soft" if they curl over.

Peanut Oil: Clear oil pressed from peanuts; very useful in cooking and as a salad oil. Peanut oil has a delicate flavor and high smoke point, making it perfect for deep-frying.

Peanut oil: This flavorful oil borders on all-purpose. Its flavor, though distinctive, is not overpowering, and it is a great oil for cooking (especially highly spiced foods and Asian dishes in which olive oil is out of place).

Peanut: A legume and not a nut (Arachis hypogea), it is the plant's nut-like seed that grows underground; the hard nut has a papery brown skin and is encased in a thin, netted tan pod and is used for snacking and for making peanut butter and oil; also known as a groundnut; earthnut, goober (from the African work nguba) and goober pea.

Peanut: Ground nut, eaten plain or roasted - sometimes salted and sometimes not. Used to make peanut butter and oils.

Pear: A spherical to bell-shaped pome fruit (Pyrus communis), generally with a juicy, tender, crisp off-white flesh, moderately thin skin that can range in color from celadon green to golden yellow to tawny red and a flavor that can be sweet to spicy; pears can be eaten out of hand or cooked and are grown in temperate regions worldwide.

Pearl barley: De-husked barley grains, primarily used in soups.

Pearl Onions: Mild-flavored onions about the size of a small marble; often cooked as a side dish or pickled as a condiment or garnish.

Pearl onions: Tiny, marble-size onions that are difficult to peel but make a good side dish or addition to soups and stews. Frozen ones are easier to handle, but less flavorful.

Peas: The edible seeds contained within the pods of various vines; the seeds are generally shelled and the pod discarded; although available fresh, peas are usually marketed canned or frozen.

Pease pudding: Puree of cooked, dried peas which is made into puddings, boiled and traditionally served with pork.

Pecan: The nut of a tree of the hickory family (Carya oliviformis), native to North America; has a smooth, thin, hard, tan shell enclosing a bilobed, golden brown kernel with beige flesh and a high fat content.

Pecans (Sp: pacanas): An oil-rich native American nut; probably originated in Texas; grown commercially in Arizona, Georgia, New Mexico and Texas.

Peche Melba: Peaches served with a raspberry sauce.

Peche: [French] peach.

Pecorino Romano: The Pecorino cheeses are made from sheep's milk in Italy. Romano is the best known. Parmesan is a good Romano substitute.

Pecorino Romano: Hard grating cheese made from sheep's milk with a nutty, earthy flavor.

Pectin: Pectin is a natural substance used to thicken jams, jellies, and preserves. Pectin is naturally present in fruits, but most don't have enough to jell. The alternative is to cook the mixture until it's reduced to the desired consistency. Pectin will only work when combined with a specific balance of sugar and acid.

Pectin: Found naturally in fruits and vegetables, gelatin-like pectin is used as a thickener in jellies and jams. Available in liquid and dry forms.

Peel: To strip of the outer covering. Peel is applied to oranges, grapefruit, etc.

Peel: To strip off the outside covering.

Peel: To remove the outside covering, such as the rind or skin, of a fruit or vegetable with a knife or vegetable peeler.

Peel: A large tool, that looks like a shovel, used to slide pizza onto a hot stone.

Pegboard (food industry term): A display used for small products or individual items.

Pemmican: Of Native American origin; dried, pounded meat mixed with fat and berries, pressed into cakes for survival food; was later adapted by the U.S. Army.

Pennant (food industry term): A display poster with three visible sides.

Penne: Italian for pen or quill and used to describe short to medium-length straight tubes (ridged or smooth) of pasta with diagonally cut ends.

Penne: Diagonally cut smooth tubes are great for trapping sauces. Those with ridged sides are called penne rigate. Cooks in 12 minutes.

Penne: Quill-shaped pasta tubes with smooth sides. Those with ridges are called penne rigati. These are also called mostaciolli. Large quill-shaped tubes are called manicotti.

Peperoni: Made with peppers.

Pepinos: [Spanish] cucumbers.

Pepitas: [Spanish] pumpkin seeds with the shells removed.

Pepper steak: A beefsteak sprinkled with black pepper, sauteed in butter and served with a sauce made from the drippings, stock, wine, and cream. Also refers to a Chinese stir:fry of steak strips, green peppers, and onion cooked in soy sauce.

Pepper: The fruit of various members of the Capsicum genus; native to the Western hemisphere, a pepper has a hollow body with placental ribs (internal white veins) to which tiny seeds are attached (seeds are also attached to the stem end of the interior); a pepper can be white, yellow, green, brown, purple or red with a flavor ranging from delicately sweet to fiery hot; the genus includes sweet peppers and hot peppers.

Peppercorn: Peppercorns are small berries from a vine plant. The black peppercorn is picked when it is almost ripe, then dried. Whole ground or cracked, black peppercorns produce our everyday black pepper. The milder white pepper is made from the dried inner kernel of the ripe berry.

Peppermint: An herb and member of the mint family (Mentha piperita); has thin stiff, pointed bright green, purple-tinged leaves and a pungent, menthol flavor; used as a flavoring and garnish.

Pepperoni: A highly spiced dry sausage made of pork and beef. Seasoned with salt, black pepper, cayenne, and garlic. Often thin sliced and served as an appetizer or as a topping for pizzas.

Peppers: "

Anaheim: (ANN-uh-hime) Fresh, six inches long, can be green or red; mildly hot and fleshy, good for stuffing and grilling.

Ancho: (AHN-choh) Wrinkled skin, squat, dark red-brown; lots of pulp; sweet and medium hot, lots of flavor; used for making mole.

Arbol: (ARE-bowl) Skinny, small, hot; red or green when fresh; reddish brown dried; adds heat and flavor to tomato and tomatillo salsas.

Banana: Fresh, can be mild or slightly hot; roast on the grill to eat or use to season tacos.

Cascabel: (KAS-kuh-behl) Dry, smooth skin, brick red, one and one-half inches wide; fairly hot; woodsy, tobacco flavor; great in sauces.

Cayenne: (KI-yehn) Red fresh or dry; long, extremely hot; associated with Cajun food.

Chipotle: (chih-POHT-lay) Smoked jalapeno; dried, dull brown skin up to three inches long; also sold canned in adobo sauce; widely popular in United States to season simultaneously with heat and smoke. ""

Guajillo: In Italian, fiori means flower. This pasta has rounded petals that provide extra surface area for chunky tomato-based sauces. Has lots of kid appeal. Cooks in seven minutes.

Serrano:: (seh-RRAH-noh) Fresh, two or three inches long in red or green; hot; used to season green sauce and fresh foods such as salsa and guacamole.

Habanero: (ah-bah-NEH-roh) When fresh, orange to red; extremely hot and beloved for underlying fruitiness.

Jalapeno: (hah-lah-PEH-nyoh) Fresh, favorite supermarket pepper in green and red; medium-hot; thick flesh; roast and use as seasoning; chop for fresh and cooked foods.

Mata: (MAH-tah) Small; when fresh, extremely hot; use in fresh sauces or stir-fry into oil before adding vegetables; add to shaker jar with vinegar to make hot sauce.

Mora and morita: (MO-ruh and mo-REET-uh) Dried red jalapeno, two or three inches long, red-brown; smoked flavor; medium hot; used in salsas, soups, etc. (Moritas are smaller.) "

Pera: [Spanish] pear.

Percent of profit (food industry term): The selling price of an item minus its cost, expressed as a percentage of its selling price. Also referred to as margin or percent of margin.

Perch: Any of a number of spiny:finned freshwater fish found in North America and Europe. The best known U.S. perch is the "yellow perch." Perch have a mild, firm, low:fat flesh. The saltwater white perch and ocean perch are not true perches.

Perciatelli: Pasta whose shape is similar to that of spaghetti, but with a hollow center; also called bucatini.

Perciatelli: Long macaroni.

Percolator: Two-part coffee pot which forces boiling water from lower half up through coffee grains contained in upper half, and finally filtered through a fine sieve.

Perdrix: [French] partridge.

Perejil: [Spanish] parsley.

Performance allowance (food industry term): A manufacturer's allowance to a retailer on completion of a promotion.

Performance requirements (food industry term): Specific promotional activities that a manufacturer requires before a retailer can receive a performance allowance.

Perigeux: A brown sauce made with Madeira wine and truffles.

Perigourdine: A P rigeux sauce with added goose liver.

Perilla: A Japanese herb that has a dark, russet-purple dentate leaf.

Perimeter department (food industry term): An outer wall of a retail store where the meat, dairy, produce, deli and bakery departments are typically located in a store.

Perishables (food industry term): Foods requiring refrigeration or special handling because they spoil easily, such as meat, seafood, produce, deli, bakery and dairy.

Peron or Manzana: (pay-RHON or mahn ZAHN-ah) Fresh, thin fleshed, meaty; medium hot to extremely hot; add to sauces or roast and peel for stuffing or rajas.

Perpetual inventory system (food industry term): A system that maintains an expected inventory level within a store that reflects all physical product movement sales, deliveries, credits, etc.

Persil: [French] parsley.

Persillade: A mixture of paste garlic, finely chopped parsley, a little olive oil, and sometimes bread crumbs.

Persillade: A combination of chopped parsley and garlic, usually added to dishes at the end of cooking. nice combined with breadcrumbs as a crust.

Persimmon: A round fruit with a glossy skin that can range in color from yellow to deep orange with sweet, creamy orange flesh. All persimmons have a characteristic astringent flavor that causes the mouth to pucker when they are not ripe.

Persimmon: A brilliant orange, smooth-skinned fruit that is terribly tart when unripe, but very sweet when fully ripe. Unlike most other fruits, there is no such thing as an overripe persimmon.

Pescado: [Spanish] fish.

Pesce: [Italian] fish.

Pesto: Pesto is an Italian basil sauce. Many variations of this sauce exist including different nut based pestos, different herb based pestos, sun dried tomato pesto, and black olive pesto.

Pesto: [Italian] a delicious sauce used for pastas, grilled meats, and poultry. This is made of fresh basil, garlic, olive oil, and parmesan cheese. Some versions will also add parsley and walnuts or pine nuts. The ingredients are ground into a paste and moistened with the olive oil. Pesto is also used to describe similar sauces that contain other herbs or nuts.

Pet food institute (pfi) (food industry term): 1101 Connecticut Ave., N.W., Suite 700 Washington, DC 20036 (202) 857-1100

Pet foods and supplies (food industry term): An area of the grocery department designated for food and supplies for domestic pets. Often considered a profit center.

Petit Four: Small bite-size cakes, petits fours are usually square or diamond-shaped. They're typically coated with icing and decorated.

Petit Four: Small, decoratively iced, rich cookie or cake served on elaborate buffets or at the end of a multi-course meal.

Petit pain: [French] a roll.

Petit pois: [French] Tiny young green peas.

Petite marmite: A rich meat and vegetable soup.

Pfeffer: [German] pepper.

Pfeffern sse: [German] Peppernuts; Small spicy cake balls, dusted with confectioners sugar.

Pfi (food industry term): Pet Food Institute.

Pharmacy (food industry term): A place where prescription medicines are compounded and dispensed.

Pharmacy only (food industry term): A store that generates at least 95 percent of sales from prescription drugs.

Pheasant: A medium:sized game bird related to the partridge and the quail. The female's flesh is plumper, juicier, and more tender. Farm:raised birds have a somewhat milder flavor than wild varieties.

Pheasant: A game bird with dark flesh and an average weight of 1.5 to 2 lbs.

Phyllo Dough (Filo): Paper-thin sheets of pastry dough for Middle Eastern baking. Can be found in most supermarkets frozen in boxes. Used for Greek Baklava and many other baked dishes.

Phyllo: A Greek pastry, phyllo is made up of tissue-thin layers of dough. The dough is used for dishes such as baklava and spanikopita. It can usually be found frozen in supermarkets. Phyllo is sometimes spelled filo.

Physical distribution (food industry term): The process of planning, storing, order picking, and shipping of products through the supply chain.

Physical inventory (food industry term): A written accounting of salable stock on hand as of a specified date, valued at actual or replacement cost.

Pib, pibil: Yucatecan pit barbecue; barbecued.

Picadillo: A Spanish dish made up of ground pork and beef, tomatoes, garlic, onions, and other foods, depending on the region. In Mexico, picadillo is used as a stuffing.

Picadillo: [Spanish] hash; shredded or ground beef, spices and other ingredients; normally used as a filling.

Picante: Spanish for flavored with hot peppers (chiles).

Picante: [Spanish] sharp, hot and spicy (to taste).

Piccata: [Italian] chopped meat.

Picholine Olive: French green olive, salt-brine cured, with a subtle, slightly salty flavor; sometimes preserved with citric acid in the United States.

Pichon: [Spanish] squab; domesticated pigeons.

Pick ticket (food industry term): A small label that warehouse selectors use to select items to be shipped.

Pick to belt (food industry term): Warehouse selectors select items or cases, apply price labels, place them on an automated conveyor to the dock to ship to a retailer.

Pick to light (food industry term): A lighting system that guides warehouse selectors to the correct products.

Pick to pack (food industry term): A selector at a warehouse finds, prices and packs small items in totes and transports them to the dock for shipping.

Pickapeppa Sauce: A sweet and sour, mild hot pepper sauce from Jamaica.

Pickerel: A small (between two and three pound) variety of the freshwater pike. Pickerel are know for their lean, firm flesh.

Pickle: To preserve food in a vinegar mixture or seasoned brine. Cucumbers, cauliflower, onions, baby corn, and and watermelon rind are some of the most popular foods to pickle.

Pickle: To preserve food in a vinegar or brine mixture.

Pickling salt: A fine-grained salt without iodine, used in pickled meat dishes. Found in all supermarkets.

Pickling Spice: A combination of spices usually including mustard seed, bay leaves, cinnamon, pepper, allspice, ginger, turmeric, and cardamom. Pickling spices are used primarily for pickling foods, but may also be used to season certain dishes.

Pickup (cash) (food industry term): The removal of surplus cash from registers to prevent losses.

Pickup allowance, cpu allowance (food industry term): A manufacturer's discount offered to wholesalers who pick up orders at the manufacturing site or distribution center rather than having them delivered. See customer pickup.

Pickups (food industry term): An out-of-stock product purchased to complete scheduled orders or to fill a store shelf until a scheduled delivery arrives.

Pico de Gallo: Literally rooster's beak, a coarse uncooked tomato salsa.

Pico de Gallo: [Mexican] "beak of the rooster"; salsa cruda; very hot, raw salsa with tomatoes, onions, cilantro and serrano chiles; called salsa m xicana in Mexico.

Picoso: [Spanish] hot (to taste).

Piece count (food industry term): A receiving method for checking a load against the invoice by counting cases instead of each item.

Pierogi: Polish dumplings filled with a minced mixture, such as pork, onions, cottage cheese and seasonings.

Pigeon: A widely distributed bird that is normally eaten only when young. Squabs are young pigeons that have never flown are therefore very tender. Squabs are normally under a pound and about 4 weeks old. May be prepared like chicken.

Piggyback (food industry term): The transporting of a loaded truck trailer on a flat railcar. See trailer on flat car.

Pignoli: Pine nuts.

Pig's feet: The feet and ankles of a pig. Available fresh, pickled, and smoked. Fresh and smoked pig's feet are used in sauces, soups, and stews. Pig's feet are called "trotters" in England.

Pike: A family of fish that includes the pike, pickerel, and the muskellunge. These freshwater fish have long bodies, pointed heads, vicious teeth, and provide a lean, firm, bony flesh. Used in French "quenelles" and the Jewish "gefilte fish."

Piki: Indian bread baked as thin and crisp as paper.

Pilaf, Pilau: An Armenian, Greek or southern Russian rice dish with seasonings, often with meats, vegetables or poultry added.

Pilaf: A side dish of rice or other grains cooked in a broth with seasonings and sometimes tossed with vegetables or meat. Also known as pilau.

Pilferage (food industry term): Shoplifting, theft of money, or product tampering by employees or customers.

Piloncillo: [Spanish] an unrefined cane sugar that is purchased in molded hard cones; It is beige to brown in color; the deeper the color, the more molasses flavor it has; dark brown sugar may be substituted.

Pilot store (food industry term): A prototype store used to test management practices, systems and products.

Pilze: [German] mushrooms.

Pimenton: Mexican paprika; similar in taste to New Mexico ground red mild chile peppers.

Pimentos: A name used for roasted red peppers that have been canned or bottled in liquid. Used for stuffing green olives.

Pimienta negra: [Spanish] black pepper.

Pimienta: [Spanish] pepper.

Pimiento chile: Meaty and luscious with a tinge of spice; grown in California and southern United States; when dried, is ground into paprika; use fresh red bell peppers if pimientos are unavailable.

Pimiento or Pimento: A large red, sweet pepper. Pimientos are usually found diced in cans and jars and are added to dishes to enhance the color and flavor.

Pimientos dulces: [Spanish] sweet peppers.

Pin bone steak: A steak cut from the sirloin.

Pinas: [Spanish] pineapples; used in salsas, relishes, desserts and cocktails.

Pinch: As much of an ingredient that can be held between the thumb and forefinger. A very small, approximate amount.

Pine Nuts: The blanched seeds from pine cones. Other names are: Indian nut, pinon, pignoli, and pignolia.

Pine nuts: Also pignoli nuts, small, pellet-shaped nuts. Expensive (wonderfully sweet and rich) little nuts that come from a large pinecone of Italy. May substitute slivered almonds. The Southwestern Pignons are similar.

Pineapple: A tropical fruit (Ananas comosus) with a spiny, diamond-patterned, greenish-brown skin and swordlike leaves; the juicy yellow flesh surrounds a hard core and has a sweet-tart flavor.

Pink salmon: A lower fat variety of salmon. Also called the "humpback salmon."

Pinon: Pine nuts, seeds of large pine cones. Used in deserts and breads or roasted and enjoyed as nut meats.

Pinones: [Spanish] pine nuts, pignolis; seeds of the pi on pine which ripen in the crevices of pine cones throughout the desert Southwest; delicious raw or toasted; store tightly covered and either refrigerate or freeze them, depending on how soon they are to be used.

Pint: A unit of volume measurement equal to 16 fl. oz. in the U.S. system.

Pintade: [French] Guinea hen.

Pinto Bean: A medium-sized pale pink bean with reddish-brown streaks; available dried; also known as a crabeye bean and a red Mexican bean.

Pinto beans: Name taken from pintar (to paint); reddish-brown speckled beans that turn pink when cooked; used in traditional Mexican cookery; when a recipe title says "frijoles," it is most likely referring to pinto beans. Pinto beans make great refried beans; they are also good for beans and rice, chili, or served as a puree.

Pipe: To squeeze icing or other soft food through a pastry bag to make a design or decorative edible edging.

Pipe: To squeeze a paste-like mixture (usually frosting) through a pastry bag.

Pipeline (food industry term): The stock flow s from producers to consumers necessary in all inventory locations throughout the channel to keep product on the retail shelf available for customers to purchase.

Pipian: [Spanish] sauce containing ground nuts or seeds and spices; Indian stew or fricassee thickened by its ingredients rather than by flour.

Piquant, Piquante: Spicy or sharp in flavor.

Piquant: A term which generally means a tangy flavor.

Piquante Sauce: A sauce made with shallots, white wine vinegar, gherkins, parsley, and a variety of herbs and seasonings.

Piquin: (pay-KEEN) Small, dried, red; extremely hot; simmer in cooked sauces, soups, stews.

Piroshki: Small Russian meat pies, like empanadas, eaten for lunch or snacks.

Pissaladiere: A southern French pizza consisting of a thick bread crust covered with cooked onions flavored with garlic. The pizza is then topped with black olives and anchovies.

Pit: To remove the seed from a piece of fruit by cutting around the sides of the fruit and pulling the seed away from the flesh.

Pit: (Or "stone.") To remove the pit or seed from a fruit or olive.

Pita bread: Flat round bread made with or without a pocket.

Pita: A round, Middle Eastern flat bread made from white or whole wheat flour. When a pita is split, the pocket may be filled to make a sandwich.

Pitch book (food industry term): A salesperson's loose-leaf notebook that lists prices, product specifications and other selling information.

Pith: The white cellular lining of the rind covering the flesh of citrus fruits.

Pizza: [Italian] Flat baked dough covered with various combinations of tomatoes, olive oil, anchovies, sausage, cheese, etc.

Pizzaiola: [French] meat or chicken, cooked in red wine, tomato sauce and flavored with garlic; plat du jour - dish of the day.

Pizzelles: Thin decoratively patterned Italian wafer cookies that are made in an iron similar to a waffle iron. They may be flat or rolled into ice cream cones.

Placement (food industry term): The initial selling and subsequent establishment of a product brand or pack on a store shelf that previously did not stock or purchase it; a "new sale."

Placement allowance (food industry term): A manufacturer's allowance for ordering new or promotional products.

Plank: An oiled, grooved hard-wood platter, usually oak, on which meat is served and carved. Also, sometimes roasted on.

Planogram (food industry term): A department, shelf, or display schematic for allocating products by the number of facings and/or the depth of the display.

Plans committee (food industry term): A management group that approves product mix, formulates advertising and merchandising programs and projects sales volume. See advisory board; buying committee; merchandising committee.

Plantains: Also known as machos. The plantain is a green skinned, pink fleshed banana which is usually flatter and longer than a regular banana. It also contains more starch and less sugar. It is usually eaten fried, mashed, or in stews in South American, African, and West Indian cuisine.

Plantains: Vegetable banana. Resemble bananas in size and shape but are starchier and not sweet. Both green (hard) and brown (ripe) are used in the cuisines of the Caribbean and South America. Ripe plantains can be peeled like bananas but not green ones. Most commonly sliced thin and fried. Found in some larger supermarkets, Hispanic and Caribbean markets. Also known as machos.

Plants: Four sacred plants of the Southwest Indians are beans, corn, squash and tobacco.

Plastic Wrap: A thin sheet of clear polymers such as polyvinyl chloride; clings to surfaces and is used to wrap foods for storage.

Platano macho: [Spanish] plantain; a tropical plant resembling the banana; very large with a thick skin; the fruit is deeper yellow than that of the banana; cooked, unripe platana is eaten like a potato; when ripe, the skins are black, and this is when they are sweetest; platanas will ripen after being harvested.

Platano: [Spanish] banana; coarse-textured banana that cannot be eaten raw.

Platter cart (food industry term): A wheeled rack used to transport deli trays.

Plma (food industry term): Private Label Manufacturers Association.

Plu (food industry term): Price look-up.

Pluck: Offal; to remove the feathers from a domesticated or game bird.

Plugra butter: also known as European-style butter, has a higher butterfat and lower moisture content than regular butter, which makes pastries flakier and sauces smoother.

Plum Sauce: Also known as duck sauce, plum sauce is a Chinese condiment made from plums, apricots, vinegar and sugar. It has a thick, jam-like consistency and tart-sweet flavor. Plum sauce is used predominately as a dipping sauce for roasted meats and fried appetizers.

Plum sauce: An Asian sweet-and-sour sauce made from plums, apricots, sugar, and other seasonings. Sold in jars or cans, store tightly covered, in the refrigerator.

Plum tomatoes: These oval-shaped tomatoes have great flavor. They are the best sauce tomato, because is quite thick in comparison to the round tomato.

Plum: A small to medium-sized ovoid or spherical stone fruit (Prunus domestica) that grows in clusters; has a smooth skin that can be yellow, green, red, purple or indigo blue, a juicy flesh, large pit and sweet flavor.

Plus out (food industry term): A forced distribution of products from the warehouse to the retail stores of a chain operation.

Pm (food industry term): Push money.

Pm allowances (food industry term): Promotional money paid by vendors for advertising allowances.

Pma (food industry term): Produce Marketing Association.

Po (food industry term): Purchase order.

Poach Submerging food into a hot liquid (approximately 1600 F-1800 F)

Poach: To cook in liquid held just below boiling so it just shimmers slightly on the surface. Example Puree:

Poach: To cook in a hot liquid, using precautions to retain shape. The temperature used varies with the food.

Poach: To cook food in liquid, at or just below the boiling point. For eggs, meat, or fish, the liquid is usually water or a seasoned stock; fruit is generally poached in a sugar syrup.

Poach: To cook food simmered in a liquid, just below the boiling point.

Poblano chiles: "People chiles"; in dried form, known as ancho chiles; frequently used for chiles rellenos; dark green, almost black, ranging from mild to hot, they look like deflated bell peppers; normally roasted before using; when dried, it is called the ancho chile; in California it is usually called a pasilla chile; preferred choice for making chiles rellenos.

Poblano Chili Pepper: A dark, sometimes almost black green chili pepper with a mild flavor. Best known for its use in "Chili Rellanos".

Poblano: (poh-BLAH-noh) Fresh, dark green or red; up to five inches long and three and one-half inches wide; medium-hot; always roasted before using for stuffing or rajas.

Poele: A method of cooking (usually in a covered pot) where foods are cooked in their own juices. Also referred to as butter roasting.

Poi: A Hawaiian dish made from cooked taro root that has been pounded to a smooth paste and mixed with water.

Point of sale (pos) (food industry term): The place in a retail store where products are scanned through the register system, data is collected, and sales are tendered. POS also describes sales data generated by checkout scanners.

Point-of-purchase (food industry term): The locations within a retail store where a customer purchases products.

Point-of-sale advertising (food industry term): Signs, recorded messages or gimmicks in a store that direct attention to products on sale. They may be either supplied by a manufacturer and mention specific brand names, or they may have been made by the retailer himself to call attention to a special.

Point-of-sale system (food industry term): An electronic register system that scans purchases and collects data.

Poisson: [French] fish.

Poivrade: Made with pepper.

Pole display (food industry term): An advertising display that is mounted on a pole and placed above a product, e.g., produce displays, meat signs, coffin cases signs.

Polenta: A mush made from cornmeal, polenta may be eaten hot or cooled and fried. Polenta is a staple of northern Italy.

Polenta: The Italian version of cornmeal mush. Coarsely ground yellow cornmeal is cooked with stock or water and flavored with onions, garlic, and cheese. Polenta may be eaten fresh out of the pot, as a perfect accompaniment to stews. Polenta may also be poured into a greased pan and allowed to set. It is then sliced, saut ed, and topped with cheese or tomato sauce.

Polish sausage: Also called "kielbasa," this is a highly seasoned smoked sausage of Polish origin made from pork and (sometimes) beef. It is flavored with garlic an other spices. It can be served cold or hot.

Pollack: This low to moderate fat fish has firm, white, flesh with a delicate, somewhat sweet flavor. Pollack is often used to make imitation crab meat. Also known as "Coalfish" or "Saithe," this saltwater fish is a member of the cod family.

Pollo: Spanish term for chicken.

Pollo: [Spanish] chicken.

Pollyfish: Any of various chiefly tropical marine fish, especially those of the family Scaridae. These fish are called parrot fish because of the brilliant coloring and the shape of their jaws. "Also called "parrot fish."

Polyunsaturated Fat: A fatty acid with two or more double bonds between carbon atoms; the good kind of fat.

Pomegranate molasses: [Middle Eastern] also known as pomegranate syrup. Condiment prepared from yellow sour pomegranates cooked with sugar. Provides fruity and tangy flavor to savory dishes.

Pomegranate: A red to purple fruit with thin leathery skin and hundreds of crunchy seeds encased in translucent, sweet-tart flesh. The seeds are separated from the flesh by a bitter membrane that should be discarded.

Pomegranate: A strangely constructed fruit - a labyrinth of seeds wrapped in fruit buried in a mass of inedible flesh surrounded by a tough skin. The pulp and juice surrounding the tiny seeds have a sweet-tart flavor. Pomegranate juice is used in making Grenadine and pomegranate molasses is available in Middle Eastern stores.

Pomfret: This small, high:fat fish has a tender texture and a rich, sweet flavor. Found off the coast of the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico, this fish is also called the "butterfish."

Pomidoro: [Italian] tomato.

Pomme de terre: [French] potato.

Pomme: [French] apple.

Pompano: This saltwater fish is a succulent, fine:textured fish with a mild delicate flavor. This expensive, moderately fat fish is considered by many experts as America's finest fish.

Pone bread: Corn bread.

Pone: A round, flat food, such as corn pone.

Pooch: Cowboy favorite of stewed tomatoes, sugar and biscuits.

Pool car (food industry term): A rail car shipment of the same brand of products, shipped to one geographic area, but delivered to different retailers.

Pop (p-o-p) (food industry term): Point-of-purchase signage. See point-of-purchase.

Pop radio (food industry term): Advertising a particular product on radio.

Popover: Indian fry bread.

Poppy Seed or Poppyseed: Tiny bluish-gray seeds of the poppy plant. Poppy seeds are often sprinkled on food, used as a filling, or added to a variety of foods, such as cakes, breads, and salad dressings.

Porcini: A large wild mushroom with a smooth cap and thick stem. Porcini mushrooms have an earthy flavor.

Porcini: [Italian] also called c pes, these meaty, large-topped mushrooms are a treat. Most frequently sold dried but becoming increasingly available fresh.

Porgy: Also know as "Scup" or "Porgie." These saltwater fish are generally lean, and coarse:grained. Porgy is often grilled, poached, and pan:fried.

Porgy: Widely known as sea bream, there are many different varieties of this fish family in the United States and around the world. The most popular United States porgy is the scup, which is found in Atlantic waters. Porgies have a firm, low-fat flesh with a delicate, mild flavor. Although some grow to 20 pounds, most fall into the 1/2- to 3-pound range. They're available fresh and frozen, and are generally sold whole. The porgy is suitable for almost any method of cooking, including baking, grilling and frying.

Pork chitterlings: The small intestines of freshly slaughtered pigs. They are cleaned and simmered until tender. Chitterlings are served with sauce, added to soups, battered and fried, and used as sausage casings.

Pork: The flesh of domestic swine. Today's pork is leaner (1/3 fewer calories) and higher in protein than a decade ago. And with improved feeding techniques, trichinosis has become extremely rare. Most pork is slaughtered at 6 to 9 months.

Pork: The flesh of hogs, usually slaughtered under the age of 1 year.

Porridge: Hot cooked (usually oatmeal) cereal.

Portabella: A very large crimini; the mushroom has a dense texture and a rich, meaty flavor.

Porter house steak: A steak cut from the thick end of the tenderloin, or short loin, of beef.

Porterhouse Steak: A cut of meat from the rear end of the short loin. The name originates from the days when it was served in public alehouses that also served a dark beer called porter. It consists of a hefty chunk of tenderloin with an even heftier chunk of sirloin tip. Some folks like to remove the tenderloin to serve separately as filet mignon.

Portion pack (food industry term): A product package of single-service portions.

Portobello mushrooms: Enormous version of cremini with robust flavor. Great when grilled, broiled, or saut ed.

Pos (food industry term): Point of sale.

Positive check authorization (velocity-based) (food industry term): A database management system that allows a company to track and manage check authorizations through or with an electronic POS system.

Posole, Pozole: Hominy stew made with dried lime-treated corn and combined with pork and seasonings.

Posole, pozole: Corn that has been treated with slaked lime to remove the tough outer husks of the kernels, then dried; thick stew made with hominy as an ingredient; the stew usually includes pork and chiles; also another name for hominy. The base of the soup is water flavored with onions, tomatoes (or tomatillos), and herbs. Hominy is cooked into this broth and condiments include minced onion, avocado, lime wedges, oregano, queso fresco, and fried pork skin.

Posting bills (food industry term): The entering of all transactions onto the proper receiving records at a store.

Postre: [Spanish] dessert.

Pot Liquor, or Pot Likker: The liquid left after cooking greens, vegetables, or other food. It's traditionally served with cornbread in the South.

Pot Roast: A large piece of meat browned in fat quickly and then cooked in a covered pan.

Pot roast: Beef cooked in a manner similar to braising, but on top of the stove.

Pot Sticker Wrappers: Very thin sheets of dough made from flour, eggs and salt; used for small meat and vegetable filled dumplings known as pot stickers, as well as for won ton and egg rolls.

Potage: French term for a thick soup intended to serve as a complete meal. It defines a soup with a thickness that is between consomme and soupe.

Potage: [French] thick soup.

Potassium: A mineral used primarily to assist the transmissions of nerve impulses and to develop protein. Good potassium sources include green vegetables, kiwi, bananas and other fruits.

Potato starch or flour: Starch made from dried potatoes ground into flour. Find in some Scandinavian shops, delicatessens and health food stores.

Potato: The starchy tuber of a succulent, nonwoody annual plant (Solanum turberosum) native to the Andes Mountains; cooked like a vegetable, made into flour, processed for chips and used for distillation mash.

Pot-au-feu: A combination of stock with meat, bones, and vegetables, cooked together but often served as separate courses.

Pothook: Bent iron for hanging a kettle over the fire.

Pots de cr me: Small custards, variously flavored.

Potted meat: A meat that has been cooked and ground to a fine paste, lightly seasoned, and packed.

Poule: [French] chicken.

Poulet: [French] young chicken.

Poultry Seasoning: A blend of herbs and spices, poultry seasoning usually contains sage, celery seed, thyme, savory, marjoram, onion, and pepper.

Poultry Seasoning: Equal amounts of dried sage, dried thyme and dried marjoram.

Poultry: Any domesticated bird used for food; the USDA recognizes six kinds of poultry: chicken, duck, goose, guinea, pigeon and turkey.

Pound: A basic measure of weight in the U.S. system; 16 ounces = 1 pound, 1 pound = 453.6 grams or 0.4536 kilogram .

Power wing (food industry term): Gondola extensions used to display promotional products.

Ppo (food industry term): Preferred provider organization.

Ppum (food industry term): Price per unit measure.

Prairie coal: Cow or buffalo manure, dried and used in campfires.

Prairie strawberries: Red beans; also called Arizona strawberries.

Praline: A confection made with pecans and brown sugar.

Praline: In French cookery this is a powder or paste made of caramelized almonds and/or hazelnuts. American cookery refers to a candy consisting of caramel and pecans. Candy eaten in the Southwest; made from brown sugar and pecans.

Prawn: Term commonly used for any large shrimp, although a true prawn has a thinner body and longer legs than a shrimp, and an average market length of 3 inches or 4 inches.

Prawns: For culinary purposes, the same as shrimp. In the U.S., large shrimp are sometimes called prawns. The true prawn is a small shellfish closely related to shrimp, but it is European.

Pre-built display (food industry term): See prepack.

Preferred provider organization (ppo) (food industry term): A healthcare provider group that offers reduced medical costs to members.

Preheat: Heating the empty oven to the recommended temperature before placing the product to be baked in it.

Preheat: To allow the oven or pan to get to a specified temperature before adding the food to be cooked.

Preorders (food industry term): Future advertised items that are ordered in advance from the warehouse.

Prepack (food industry term): A shipping container designed to display products on a retail sales floor. Also called a shipper, pre-built display or display case.

Prepackaging (food industry term): A manufacturer's packaging and pricing of products before delivery to the retail store. e.g., display-ready packs of produce and meat.

Prepricing (food industry term): Items priced by a manufacturer before delivery to the retail store, e.g., produce and meat.

Preprint order form (food industry term): A printed inventory guide for a warehouse that lists current inventory available to retailers for ordering.

Prescription drugs (food industry term): Medicines that can be obtained only by means of a physician's written order.

Preserve: To prepare foods for long storage. Some ways to preserve food are drying, refrigeration, freezing, canning, curing, pickling, and smoking.

Preserves: A thick cooked mixture of whole or cut up fruit, sugar, and usually pectin.

Preserves: Fruits or vegetables, whole or chopped, simmered in a sugary syrup.

Pressure Cooker: A cooking pot made to cook food under pressure. The pressure cooker has a locking lid and a valve system to regulate the internal pressure. Cooking time may be reduced by as much as 50% without destroying the nutritional value of the food.

Price book (food industry term): A manufacturer's or a wholesaler's printed current list of products and correct prices.

Price brand (food industry term): A featured brand of product on sale to attract customers.

Price card (food industry term): Display signs indicating the cost of a featured product.

Price changes (food industry term): The reduction or increase in the selling price of a product.

Price discrimination (food industry term): Discounting a product's price for one customer and not for others within a trading area.

Price fixing (food industry term): An illegal practice among competitors of setting the same price for a product. Also known as price gouging.

Price leader (food industry term): A brand of product featured at a low price point to increase sales volume.

Price list (food industry term): A manufacturer's listing of all products by UPC and price.

Price look-up (plu) (food industry term): Codes assigned to products that are normally not bar-coded, such as fast-moving items and weighed produce, to allow for fast and accurate pricing.

Price maintenance (food industry term): The upkeep of a central pricing database to ensure accurate and consistent pricing.

Price marking (food industry term): Placing the retail price on a package using labels, stamps or other means.

Price per unit measure (ppum) (food industry term): A label used on items stocked on shelves. Used for ordering and to help customers compare prices.

Price protection (food industry term): A manufacturer, wholesaler or retailer agreement to maintain a product's price for a set period of time.

Price verification (food industry term): A cross check of a product's shelf price compared with the scanned price at the register.

Price war (food industry term): A price war among retailers designed to retaliate against each other for price reductions.

Price zones (food industry term): Price categories in an area that reflect a local market's competition and local warehouse costs.

Pricing integrity (food industry term): A matching of the price of a product and the price charged on the electronic scanner at the checkout.

Pricing office (food industry term): An area in-store where scanning coordinators change prices, enter new items, maintain the item file on the computer database and generate reports.

Pricing zones (food industry term): See zone pricing.

Prick: To make small holes in the surface of a food, usually using the tines of a fork. Pie crust is usually pricked.

Prickly pear: Egg-size fruit of the prickly pear cactus; the fruit is referred to as tuna; flesh is garnet-colored. Often made in to prickly pear jelly.

Primavera: Italian for "spring style," this term refers to the use of fresh vegetables as a seasoning or garnish in a dish.

Prime Rib: Meats found in supermarkets labeled "prime rib" are most often actually rib roasts.

Printanier: [French] garnish of spring vegetables.

Private label (food industry term): A product line exclusively distributed by a wholesaler/ retailer, which may be manufactured under contract for the private label user. See controlled brand; franchised label; house brands.

Private label manufacturers association (plma) (food industry term): 369 Lexington Ave. New York, NY 10017 (212) 972-3131

Processed cheese: Some amount of cheese cooked together with dyes, gums, emulsifiers and stabilizers (American cheese, Laughing Cow, rambol).

Processor (food industry term): A company that produces consumer products from raw goods or materials. Also known as a packer.

Produce (food industry term): Fresh fruits and vegetables.

Produce marketing association (pma) (food industry term): 1500 Casho Mill Rd. Newark, DE 19714-6036 (302) 738-7100

Producer (food industry term): A grower or processor.

Product liability (food industry term): A legal term in tort law that means consumers can sue manufacturers, distributors or retailers for defective or unsafe products

Product line (food industry term): A group of products with similar uses and characteristics.

Product lookup number (food industry term): A number assigned to a coupon or produce product that, when entered into the register, retrieves a product's name and price.

Product mix (food industry term): A variety and size of products comprising the total assortment of products that a retailer offers for sale.

Product movement (food industry term): An item's rate of sale.

Product movement record (food industry term): Data showing the volume of each product's sales by day, week, period and/or quarter.

Product recall (food industry term): The mandatory withdrawal for public safety reasons of a product that is for sale.

Product sampling (food industry term): A consumer promotion in which small sizes of products, usually new, are sold at a low price to encourage consumers to try them. Free tastings or demonstrations to introduce consumers to a new item.

Productive labor (food industry term): An accounting term used for the hours charged to the normal operation of the store.

Productivity measures (food industry term): Standards or benchmarks used to improve productivity, business processes and organizational performance.

Profit and loss statement (p&l) (food industry term): A financial statement of gains and losses for a specific time period.

Profit items (food industry term): Products that have a high profit margin.

Profit opportunity (food industry term): Products that enjoy a higher gross margin. Creative displays of such items will return a larger than average margin of profit.

Profit sharing (food industry term): A company's incentive program whereby employees share a percentage of net profits.

Profit, gross (food industry term): See gross profit.

Profit, net (food industry term): See net profit.

Profitability (food industry term): A calculation of the profit of a product by the number of product turns and gross profit.

Profiterole: Tiny cream puff, filled with sweet or savory mixtures, served as dessert or hors d'oeuvres.

Progressive grocer (food industry term): A monthly magazine for the food industry, published by

Progressive grocer associates, llc (food industry term): 23 Old King's Highway, South Darien, CT 06820

Projections (food industry term): The process of determining what and how much product will be sold at what price during a predetermined time period.

Promotion (food industry term): A marketing campaign to increase sales through advertising, merchandising, signage, and special events.

Promotion allowance (food industry term): A discount offered by manufacturers to wholesalers and retailers to advertise, reduce the price of, or provide a special display of a product during a sales promotion period. See advertising allowance.

Promotion money (food industry term): See push money.

Promotional business (food industry term): A product that is sold under promotional allowances or other price considerations as a buyer's incentive to support a specific merchandising program. See turn business.

Promotional licensing (food industry term): A marketing agreement between a manufacturer and a celebrity to use his or her image in promoting a product.

Proof box (food industry term): A piece of equipment, in which heat and humidity are controlled in order for dough to rise in preparation for baking.

Proof Box: A sealed cabinet that allows control over both temperature and humidity.

Proof of performance (food industry term): A retailer's certification to a manufacturer that promotional performance requirements were met and allowances should be paid.

Proof of purchase (food industry term): Evidence used by a customer to verify the purchase of a product and mailed to a manufacturer to receive a premium, refund or rebate.

Proof: In bread baking, this term indicates the period of time a product is allowed to rise after it is shaped and placed on or in pans. Products are usually proofed until doubled in size, or when a finger, lightly placed on the side of the loaf, leaves an indentation. Products are "proofed" in a humid, draft-free, 950F to 1000F place. In homes, a barely damp, clean, non-terry cloth towel or plastic wrap sprayed with pan spray may be lightly placed over the product to prevent the crust from drying. Some ovens have a proofing feature. Follow the manufacturer's use guide.

Proof: 1) To "prove" yeast is alive by dissolving it in warm water and setting it aside in a warm place for 5 to 10 minutes. If it swells and becomes bubbly, it is alive. 2) Proof is an indication of the amount of alcoholic content in a liquor. In the U.S., proof is twice the percentage of alcohol. If a liquor is labeled 80 proof, it contains 40% alcohol

Proofing/rise (food industry term): A fermentation stage in the baking process in which dough rests after kneading and before baking.

Proportionate shelving (food industry term): A space management procedure that utilizes share of sales to determine the number of facings for a product on a shelf.

Prosciutto: An unsmoked, seasoned, salt:cured, and air:dried ham. The meat is pressed to produce a firm texture, then sliced very thin. "Parma ham" is the true prosciutto. "Prosciutto cotto" is cooked ham, "Prosciutto crudo" is raw.

Prosciutto: The Italian word for ham.

Prosciutto: The Italian word for ham, usually referring to the raw cured hams of Parma. Though once impossible to obtain in the United States due to USDA regulations, fine prosciuttos from Italy and Switzerland are now being imported. These hams are called prosciutto crudo. Cooked hams are called prosciutto cotto. Prosciutto is best when sliced paper thin served with ripe figs or wrapped around grissini.

Protein: Protein can be found in both animal and vegetable sources, and provides the body with energy while performing a large number of other functions.

Provencale: [French] in the Provence style; served with a spicy garnish of tomatoes, mushrooms and garlic in oil.

Provolone Cheese: Pale yellow, sharp Italian cheese originating in the southern province of Catania, made from cow's or buffalo milk. Most provolone is aged for two to three months, though some is aged six months to a year or more.

Prune: A dried red or purple plum.

Prune: dried plum.

Puchero: [Spanish] stew.

Pudding: Like custards, thick, creamy mixtures of milk, sugar, and flavorings. Custards are thickened with eggs, puddings with cornstarch or flour.

Puerco: [Spanish] pork.

Puerro: [Spanish] leek.

Puesto: [Spanish] a stand in the market or on the street.

Puff paste, pastry: Layers upon layers of pastry dough, each separated by a film of butter. Time-consuming but fairly easy to make.

Puff Pastry: A rich, multilayered French pastry made with butter, flour, eggs, and water. Puff pastry is made by placing chilled butter pats between layers of dough, then rolling the dough, folding it in thirds and letting it rest. The process is repeated several times, producing a dough with hundreds of layers of dough and butter. When baked, the moisture in the butter creates steam, which causes the dough to separate into flaky layers.

Pull date (food industry term): The date by which a product must be either sold or pulled from a shelf.

Pull down (food industry term): Organizing merchandise so lower product layers are full on the shelf.

Pulla: (POO-yah) Dried, up to five inches long, light reddish brown; hot; used like arbol in sauces and for seasoning soups and stews.

Pulp: The succulent flesh of a fruit.

Pulque: [Spanish] beer made by fermenting the juice of the maguey cactus (century plant).

Pulse: An action used with processors and blenders. If a recipe tells you to pulse, turn the start button on and off rapidly serveral times or until the ingredients are appropriately processed.

Pulverize: To reduce to powder or dust by pounding, crushing or grinding.

Pulverize: To break a food down to powder by crushing or grinding.

Pumate: Italian for sun-dried tomatoes.

Pumate: [Italian] sun-dried tomatoes.

Pumpernickel: A medium- to coarsely ground, rye flour, light brown in color. It may be labeled "medium rye." A mixture of rye and wheat flour used to produce a distinctive bread. Molasses are usually used to add color and flavor.

Pumpernickel: A course black bread made with rye flour.

Pumpkin seeds: [Sp.] pepitas; husked inner seed of the pumpkin; seeds are roasted and used as a snack or garnish; when seeds are roasted and ground, used as a thickener and flavoring agent.

Pumpkin: A spherical winter squash with a flattened top and base, size ranging from small to very large, fluted orange shell (yellow and green varieties are also available), yellow to orange flesh with a mild sweet flavor and numerous flat, edible seeds.

Punch down: In reference to bread dough - when dough has doubled in size or when a dent remains after two fingers are lightly pressed ½ inch into the dough, make a fist and push it into the center of the dough. Pull the edges of the dough to the center and turn the dough over. Cover and let rest or rise again before shaping.

Punch Down: To deflate a risen dough. With your hand, press on the dough until the gas escapes.

Purchase allowance (food industry term): A manufacturer's deal to retailers and wholesalers to lower the case price if an order is received during a promotional time period.

Purchase order (po) (food industry term): A form used to order products.

Purchasing power (food industry term): A measure of a family's or individual's disposable income.

Puree: Food that has been mashed or sieved.

Puree: A thick soup made from a pureed vegetable base. To finely blend and mash food to a smooth, lump-free consistency. You can puree foods in a blender, food processor, or food mill.

Purse: [French] sieved raw or cooked food; thick vegetable soup which is passed through a sieve or an electric blender or food processor.

Purslane: A small plant with reddish stems and rounded leaves. Purslane can be eaten cooked or raw and has a mild flavor.

Purslane: Pink-stemmed purslane weed used as a vegetable and in salads.

Push items (food industry term): Products that receive maximum marketing and merchandising attention to increase their sales volume.

Push money (pm) (food industry term): A manufacturer's incentive to wholesalers to actively market their products. Usually payments are based on the number of cases sold. Also called promotion money or a spiff.

Push/pull (food industry term): A marketing concept in which product is "pushed" by a manufacturer with a special promotion (advertising, merchandising) and "pulled" out of the store through customers' demand created by the promotion.

Put-away (food industry term): Reshelving items not purchased by customers in a store.

Puttanesca: A piquant pasta sauce made of tomatoes, onions, black olives, capers, anchovies, and chile flakes.

Puttanesca: A piquant pasta sauce made of tomatoes, onions, black olives, capers, anchovies, and chile flakes. The hot pasta is tossed in this sauce prior to serving. Some recipes leave the ingredients raw, allowing the heat of the pasta to bring out the flavors.

Pyramid (food industry term): A hand-stacked, triangular display.

Pyramide Cheese: A truncated pyramid is the shape of this small French chevre that is often coated with dark gray edible ash. The texture can range from soft to slightly crumbly and depending upon its age, in flavor from mild to sharp. It is wonderful served with crackers or bread and fruit.