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Culinary Dictionary
Cooking Glossary - Food Industry Terminology

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Rabanos: [Spanish] radishes.

Rabbit: Rabbit meat is mostly white, fine textured and mildly flavored. Domesticated rabbit is generally plumper and less strongly flavored that wild rabbits. Rabbit can be prepared in any manner suitable for chicken.

Raccoon: A North American mammal that served as an important food source for pioneers. The flesh is mostly dark meat, and the fat is strong in flavor and aroma. Young raccoons are usually roasted; older raccoons should be braised or stewed.

Rack (food industry term): A floor or counter display unit with shelves and hooks for merchandise.

Rack jobber (food industry term): A wholesaler or vendor that orders and delivers product and services a non-food department in a food store on a contract basis, e.g., health and beauty care (HBC).

Radicchio: A variety of chicory, radicchio leaves are red with white ribs, and are slightly bitter. The leaves are most often used in salads, but may be grilled, sauteed, or baked.

Radicchio: A member of the chicory family with red and white leaves. The different varieties range from mild to extremely bitter. The round Verona variety are the most common in the US. Radicchio is peppery, crunchy, and, like all members of the chicory clan, it usually has bright red leaves and a tight head. Used most often in salads, but is quite suitable to cooked preparations.bitter

Radish: A member of the mustard family grown for its root (Raphanus sativus); generally, the crisp white flesh has a mild to peppery flavor and is usually eaten raw.

Ragout: Ragout is derived from the French verb ragouter, which means "to stimulate the appetite." A ragout is seasoned stew, usually made with meat, poultry, fish, and often vegetables.

Ragout: A French term for a well seasoned stew made of meat, fish, or vegetables.

Ragu: Meaty, slow-cooked tomato sauce, ideal with lasagne, raviloi, and other fresh pasta.

Railcar (food industry term): A railroad car.

Raincheck (food industry term): A chit that stores give customers for sales items that are sold out. It allows the customer to return at a later date and purchase the item at the sale price.

Raisin: A sweet dried grape.

Raita: A yogurt salad consisting of yogurt and a variety of chopped vegetables, fruits and flavored with garam masala, herbs and black mustard seeds. Raita originates from East India.

Rajas: [Spanish] strips; usually refers to strips or ribbons of roasted or sauteed green chiles and onion.

Ramekin: A small baking dish resembling a souffle dish, a ramekin usually measures from 3 to 6 inches in diameter and is used for individual servings.

Ramekins: Individual ovenproof baking dishes made of ceramic, porcelain or glass and used in the preparation of custards and other miniature sweet or savory dishes.

Ramen Noodles: Fine Japanese deep-fried wheat noodles, which are commonly available packaged with a broth mix.

Ramp: A wild onion which resembles the leek, the ramp has a strong onion-garlic flavor. It may be used as a substitute for leeks, scallions, or onions.

Ranchero: [Spanish] country-style.

Random weight (food industry term): Perishable, bulk products priced and sold by the pound. Also called variable weight.

Ras el Hanout: This is a powdered spice mixture, used in Arabic and north African cooking, with a sweet and pungent flavor. See the definition under charmoula for a description of the ingredients and its applications.

Rascasse: A type of scorpion fish which achieved glory in Provence for its starring role in the region's famed saffron-scented bouillabaisse.

Rasher: A strip of meat, such as bacon. Rasher may also mean a serving of 2 to 3 thin slices of meat.

Raspberry: A small ovoid or conical-shaped berry (Rubus idaeus) composed of many connecting drupelets (tiny individual sections of fruit, each with its own seed) surrounding a central core; has a sweet, slightly acidic flavor; the three principal varieties are black, golden and red.

Ratafia: Flavoring made from bitter almonds; liqueur made from fruit kernels; tiny macaroon.

Ratatouille: A French vegetable stew that combines a variety of vegetables and herbs simmered in olive oil; can be served hot or cold as a side dish or appetizer.

Ratatouille: [French] a vegetable stew consisting of onions, eggplant, sweet peppers, zucchini, and tomatoes flavored with garlic, herbs, and olive oil.

Ravigote: A velout sauce with added onions, herbs, white stock and vinegar; served cold.

Ravioli: Italian for little wraps; used to describe small squares or rounds of pasta stuffed with meat, cheese or vegetables.

Ravioli: [Italian] little pasta pillows filled with cheese, meat, vegetable(s), or other fillings served in broth or with sauce.

Raw sugar: A coarse, tan granulated product similar to turbinado sugar; an intermediate product in cane sugar production. The raw sugar is then shipped to a refinery for final processing. Raw sugar is available to consumers.

Raw Sugar: Sugar that hasn't been refined enough to achieve a granulated quality. It looks like coffee crystals. This coarse sugar is harder to dissolve, making it a nice choice for sprinkling on foods.

Raw sugar: Sugar that has not been refined. Appears much like coffee crystals. Coarse or raw sugar is more difficult to dissolve. Makes a wonderful garnish.

Raw-milk cheese: Made with unpasteurized milk (parmigiano reggiano, Swiss gruyere, French roquefort, traditional cheddars).

Ray: This kite:shaped fish features edible fins. The fish is firm, white, and sweet; similar to the texture and taste of scallop. Also known as a "Ray."

Razor clam: A long, thin, razor-shaped clam, considered one of the most delicious of clams; eaten raw or cooked.

Rba (food industry term): Retailer's Bakery-Deli Association (formerly, Retail Bakers of America).

Rda (food industry term): Retail display allowance.

Rdi (food industry term): Reference daily intake.

Reach-in case (food industry term): A refrigerated display case with a self-service door used for perishable products.

Ready-to-eat (rte) (food industry term): A product designed and processed to be consumed at the time of opening the package.

Rebate (food industry term): An advertising allowance or refund that reduces a retail price for a product if a customer mails a proof-of-purchase. See floor stock.

Rebuyer (food industry term): A person in a distributor's organization responsible for routine reorders of product.

Recado: [Spanish] seasoning.

Receivable (food industry term): See account receivable.

Receiver (food industry term): An authorized associate of a warehouse or retail store who receives and checks deliveries for condition and an accurate amount. The first handler of the delivery receipt or invoice.

Receiving (food industry term): A door or dock of a warehouse or store designated for receiving merchandise from a supplier. The procedure for physically and legally accepting a shipment of product.

Receiving clerk (food industry term): See receiver.

Receiving door (food industry term): See receiving.

Receiving log (food industry term): The record or listing of products received with appropriate entries.

Recess cake tin: Sponge flan pan.

Receta: [Spanish] recipes.

Recipe: A set of written instructions for producing a specific food or beverage; also known as a formula (especially with regards to baked goods).

Reclaimed goods (food industry term): Unsalable product at the time of delivery that is returned to a wholesaler/vendor for reclamation.

Reclamation center (food industry term): A distribution center department that sorts and processes damaged or outdated products, sent by stores, for reimbursements.

Recondition (food industry term): To repair or restore a product's appearance, e.g., trimming, re-crisping, taping on labels or other method.

Reconstitute: To restore concentrated foods such as dry milk or frozen orange juice to their normal state by adding water.

Reconstitute: To restore condensed, dehydrated or concentrated foods to their original strength with the addition of liquid, usually water.

Reconstitute: To bring a dried, dehydrated food back to its original consistency by adding a liquid.

Reconstitution program (food industry term): A bakery shrink program that makes efficient use of unsold products.

Red Beans: Dark red beans similar to red kidney beans, but smaller; popular in chili and as refried beans. They stay firm when cooked and are excellent when accompanying rice. They are available dried in most supermarkets; also known as Mexican Red Beans.

Red beans: Sometimes referred to as "the Mexican strawberry" in the Southwest; brighter in color than the pinto bean and lacks the surface streaks of the slightly smaller pinto bean; similar to and interchangeable with pinto beans. Medium-size, dark red beans akin to kidneys and pintos.

Red Chili Paste with Garlic: See "Garlic and Red Chili Paste."

Red Curry Paste: A spicy condiment used in Thai cooking. Rather hot, with it's main ingredient being red chili peppers. Found in some supermarkets and Oriental markets.

Red Delicious Apple: A sweet, juicy, red variety of apple; perfect for a snack, but does not cook well. See also apples.

Red pepper flakes: The dried flakes of dried ripe red hot chile pepper. Most are quite hot.

Red perch: This important commercial fish is a member of the rockfish group. Also known as "ocean perch," although it is not a true perch.

Red snapper: This is the most popular of a few hundred species of snapper. This is a lean, firm:textured saltwater fish. Some species of rockfish and tilefish are also called snappers, but are not.

Red Snapper: A saltwater fish with red eyes, reddish-pink skin and very lean, firm, white flesh. The average market weight is 2 to 8 pounds, and fresh snapper is available whole, or cut into steaks or fillets.

Red wheat: In the U.S., wheat is classified into six classes - three of the classes have a bran coat that is considered "red" in color. These classes are hard red winter wheat, hard red spring wheat, and soft red winter wheat. Also, see glossary listing for White wheat.

Redemption (food industry term): To cash coupons or return bottles to obtain money or discounts.

Redemption center (food industry term): A manufacturer's clearinghouse for coupon reimbursements.

Redeye Gravy: A southern gravy made by adding water and sometimes hot coffee to ham drippings. It's usually spooned over biscuits which are served with the ham.

Redeye salmon: Prized for canning, the sockeye salmon has a firm, red flesh. Also known as the "sockeye salmon."

Redfish: This important commercial fish is a member of the rockfish group. Also known as "ocean perch," although it is not a true perch.

Redhead: A saltwater fish belonging to the wrasse family. Also called "California Sheesphead." Its meat is white, tender, and lean.

Reduce or reduction: The technique of cooking liquids down so that some of the water they contain evaporates. Reduction is used to concentrate the flavor of a broth or sauce and, at times, to help thicken the sauce by concentrating ingredients such as natural gelatin.

Reduce: To boil a liquid until a portion of it has evaporated. Reducing intensifies the flavor and results in a thicker liquid.

Reduce: To cook a liquid, usually a sauce or stock, over high heat, thereby decreasing its volume and intensifying its flavor.

Reduced Cholesterol: A food containing a minimum of 25% less cholesterol and 2g or less of saturated fat per serving than reference food.

Reduced Or Fewer Calories: A food containing a minimum of 25% fewer kcal per serving than a reference food.

Reduced Or Less Fat: A food containing a minimum of 25% less fat per serving than a reference food.

Reduced Or Less Saturated Fat: A food containing a minimum of 25% less saturated fat per serving than a reference food.

Reduced Or Less Sodium: A food containing a minimum of 25% less sodium than a reference food.

Reduced product (food industry term): An item reduced in price for quick sale that must be sold by the indicated date or properly discarded.

Reduced Sugar: A food containing at least 25 percent less sugar per serving than a reference food.

Reduction sauce: A sauce that uses as its base the pan juices that are created from the stove-top cooking or oven-roasting of meat, fish, poultry, or vegetables.

Reefer (food industry term): A refrigerated trailer used to ship perishable products.

Reference daily intake (rdi) (food industry term): The standardized daily vitamin and mineral intake needed by the average adult diet.

Refresh: To rinse just:boiled vegetables under very cold water to stop their cooking.

Refresh: To pour cold water over freshly cooked vegetables to prevent further cooking and to retain color.

Refrigerated case liner (food industry term): A disposable sheet placed under Vexar, which helps keep a case clean and aids in housekeeping.

Refrito: [Spanish] refried; usually describes beans that are cooked, mashed, and fried in lard.

Refund (food industry term): A consumer promotion in which the purchase of a product entitles a consumer to a cash refund, a discount or a coupon good for a discount on a next purchase.

Refund offer (food industry term): A manufacturer's promotion that reimburses a customer for all or part of a product's retail price with a proof-of-purchase.

Regional chain (food industry term): A group of retail stores owned and operated by the same company, and located in the same area of the country.

Register (food industry term): A cash register that adds up the sales of goods, holds money, and provides a display of the sales for the customer.

Register balance (food industry term): To verify a cashier's till amount against the register reading.

Regular stock (food industry term): Normal inventory carried to maintain store conditions and sales volume. See authorized stock item; overstock.

Rehydrate: To soak, cook, or use other procedures with dehydrated foods to restore water lost during drying.

Reis: [German] rice.

Related item tie-in (food industry term): Merchandising compatible products together that are often consumed or used together to encourage the sale of both items, e.g., pie shells and canned fillings, tortilla chips and salsa. See cross-merchandising.

Related items (food industry term): Products consumed or used together, e.g., wine and cheese. See related item tie-in.

Relish: A cooked or pickled sauce usually made with vegetables or fruits and often used as a condiment; can be smooth or chunky, sweet or savory and hot or mild.

Relish: Sharp or spicy sauce made with fruit or vegetables which adds a piquant flavor to other foods.

Relleno: [Spanish] stuffed.

Remodel (food industry term): To modify or enlarge a retail store or department, i.e., expansion, new equipment, new sign package.

Remoulade: Spicy sauce for seafood consisting of mayonnaise, mustard, chopped pickles, tarragon, parsley, chives and spices. It is served cold with shellfish and can sometimes include anchovies.

Remoulade: This classic French sauce (or salad dressing) is made by combining mayonnaise (usually homemade) with mustard, capers and chopped gherkins, herbs and anchovies. It is served chilled as an accompaniment to cold meat, fish and shellfish.

Render: To extract the fat from meat by cooking over low heat. Rendered fat is strained of meat particles after cooking.

Render: To cook a food over low heat until it releases its fat.

Rennet: An extract from the fourth stomach of lambs and calves used in cheese making to coagulate milk or in making junket pudding. There are also rennets obtained from vegetables such as cardoons.

Rennin: An acid-producing enzyme obtained from a calf's stomach. Rennin aids in coagulating milk and is used in cheese-making and junket; available in many supermarkets in powdered or tablet form.

Renuevos de rastrojo: [Spanish] tumbleweed shoots; they have a wild bean flavor and can be used as a vegetable or in salads.

Reorder point (food industry term): The inventory level established to trigger a buyer's replenishment order.

Repack (food industry term): To use loose items to make up a case of products.

Repeat (food industry term): A customer's repeat purchase of a product.

Repollo: [Spanish] cabbage.

Reps (food industry term): Manufacturer's representatives, food brokers or vendors selling products on commission.

Res: [Spanish] beef.

Resale price maintenance (food industry term): Using a manufacturer's suggested price as the retail price.

Reserve stock (food industry term): Product that is not on display and is instead stored in the cooler, freezer or back room.

Reset (food industry term): To totally remerchandise a category or department according to a planogram.

Resources: Materials, time, money and abilities available for use that can be drawn upon for aid or to take care of a need.

Resquesin: [Spanish] curd cheese; often called queso fresco or queso blanco.

Resting: To allow a roasted meat to sit for 20 to 30 minutes after removing from the oven before serving. Roasted meats should always be loosely covered with aluminum foil during resting to keep them warm, but allow the juices to distribute fully throughout the meat.

Restock (food industry term): To fill or replenish a product to the normal stock level.

Restricted items (food industry term): Products restricted from sale in a state or location and sold legally in another state.

Retail audit system (food industry term): A retail computer system that tracks and analyzes store conditions, e.g., pricing, stock levels, out-of-stocks.

Retail cooperative (food industry term): A group of retailers that purchase, warehouse and advertise together to achieve economies of scale.

Retail display allowance (rda) (food industry term): Monies paid by a manufacturer to have their products on display, usually in a certain location.

Retail representative (food industry term): A manufacturer's marketing employee that provides services to retailers, including promotional deals, ordering, merchandising techniques, etc.

Retail unit (food industry term): The typical product size offered for sale.

Retail value (food industry term): A product's regular retail price.

Retailer (food industry term): A store owner or operator who sells products directly to customers, sets or implements retail policies and procedures and is responsible for store conditions and profitability.

Retailer-controlled brands (food industry term): Brands and/or private label products exclusively sold by a retailer in a market area.

Retailer-owned wholesale grocer (food industry term): See co-op wholesaler.

Retailer's bakery association (rba) (food industry term): (formerly, Retail Bakers of America) 14239 Park Center Dr. Laurel, MD 20707 (301) 725-2149

Retailers' service program (food industry term): A wholesaler's marketing program designed to assist retailers with economies of scale resembling a chain operation, e.g., advertising, deal promotions, merchandising.

Retarder (food industry term): The equipment into which dough is placed and allowed to thaw or slack out. Conditions must be controlled to 36 degrees to 38 degrees and 80 percent relative humidity.

Return on assets (roa) (food industry term): A ratio in dollars of a company's net profit in relation to its net worth, calculated by dividing the company's net profit after taxes by its net worth.

Return on equity (food industry term): Earnings divided by net assets.

Return on inventory investment (roii) (food industry term): A performance index that identifies the number of dollars returned each year for each dollar invested in inventory. Calculated by dividing total gross profit dollars by the cost of the average inventory on hand. It relates profits to the money used to produce profits. Also called return per dollar invested.

Return on investment (roi) (food industry term): The total gross profit that one dollar, initially invested in inventory as it is depleted, will return during a period of time. Computed by dividing the total Gross Profit generated by the item by the amount of the initial investment in inventory.

Returns (food industry term): Unsold, damaged, or defective merchandise sent to a supplier or distributor for credit or refund.

Returns (to warehouse) (food industry term): An authorization by the warehouse to return merchandise on a certain date indicated.

Revoltijo de huevos: [Spanish] scrambled eggs.

Rework (food industry term): Perishables: To crisp or trim a product that looks case- worn. Grocery: To re-affix labels. To refine a category or shelf set.

Re-wraps (food industry term): Products that are removed, reconditioned (if salable) and displayed with limited sell- by dates.

Rf (food industry term): Radio frequency.

Rhubarb: A celery-like vegetable we treat as a fruit (in fact a court case once decided it was a fruit). Never eat the leaves of a rhubarb, which contain poisonous levels of oxalic acid.

Rhubard: A perennial plant with thick red stalks and large green leaves which are poisonous. The stalks have a tart flavor and are often used in pies and tarts.

Ri ones: [Spanish] kidneys.

Rib steak: A steak cut from the rib portion, that part of the beef from which the standing rib roast or rolled rib roast is also taken; a club steak.

Rib: A single stalk of a bunch of celery, also called a stalk.

Ribbon (food industry term): A shelf merchandising technique of arranging size, color, flavor and/or brand vertically on a shelf. See billboard.

Ribbon: The term describing the texture of egg yolks which have been beaten with sugar. When beaten sufficiently, the mixture forms a thick "ribbon" when the beater is held up over the bowl. The ribbon makes a pattern atop the batter which disappears into the batter after a few seconds.

Ribeye steak: A tender, flavorful beef steak that comes from the rib section between the chuck and the short loin.

Rice noodles: Common in Southeast Asia, we can find these dried in supermarkets and in Asian markets. Can be served after soaking in hot water, but best when soaked and then boiled quickly.

Rice Paper Wrappers: Circular sheets made from rice flour measuring approximately 8 inches in diameter, rice paper wrappers are brittle and translucent. They must be softened by dipping in hot water for a few seconds and draining. Once softened they can be used to make fresh Vietnamese-style salad rolls or deep-fried spring rolls.

Rice paper: [China] an edible paper made from rice and used to wrap dumplings, Vietnamese summer rolls, and other Asian foods; edible, glossy white paper made from the pith of a tree grown in China. Frequently used for macaroon base.

Rice Stick Noodles: Made from rice flour and water, these noodles are translucent when cooked. They are usually softened by soaking in hot water for 10-15 minutes before cooking with other ingredients. Fine rice stick noodles can also be deep fried to create a crispy garnish often used in Chinese chicken salads.

Rice sticks: Clear noodles made from ground rice. Available in varying widths. Found in most Asian markets and larger supermarkets.

Rice Vinegar: Used in both Japanese and Chinese cooking, rice vinegar is made from fermented rice and comes in several varieties, each differing in intensity and tartness. In general they are all fairly mild compared to European and American-style vinegars. They can be used in dressings, marinades, as dipping sauces and condiments.

Rice vinegar: Delicately flavored vinegar with lower acidity than many other commercial vinegars, which makes it nice for vinaigrettes. Sold in most supermarkets and all Asian stores.

Rice Wine: A clear, sweet wine made from fermented rice. Rice wines are usually lower in alcohol and can be served hot or cold. Sake and Mirin are two popular Japanese rice wines. Chinese versions include Chia Fan, Hsiang Hsueh, Shan Niang and Yen Hung.

Rice wine: Called shao hsing in Chinese markets. A good dry sherry is a fine substitute.

Rice, Arborio: One of the Italian medium-grain rices used to make risotto. Once grown only in Italy, Arborio has become so popular it is now being cultivated in California and Texas.

Rice, Aromatic: A broad term for a group of mostly long-grain rices with a pronounced nutty aroma. Basmati, Texmati, Wild Pecan and Jasmine are all aromatic rices.

Rice, Black: Rice with a black-colored bran layer, popular in Asian cuisine, that sometimes lightens to a deep purple when cooked. There are many varieties of black rice from China, Thailand and Indonesia.

Rice, Brown: Rice that has not had its bran layer removed and therefore has a slight chewy texture and nutty taste. Long-, medium- and short-grain brown and brown basmati are four popular varieties.

Rice, Pearl: A short-grain sticky rice, sometimes called sushi rice. It is grown across Asia, California and Arkansas.

Rice, red: Rice with a reddish-brown bran layer, a nutty taste and chewy consistency. Red rice is often marketed as Wehani (also called Russet), Bhutanese red rice and Thai red rice.

Rice, Valencia: Valencia rice (sometimes sold as paella rice), is a large white oval grain. Grown in Spain, it is similar to Arborio. It's the rice used for paella, the Spanish dish that pairs rice with seafood, chicken, rabbit or chorizo and vegetables.

Rice, Wild: Wild rice looks like rice but is actually an aquatic grass. Native to North America, today most wild rice is cultivated in man-made paddies from the northern Great Lakes to California.

Rice: 1. Rice (verb) To press cooked food through a utensil called a ricer. The food comes out in "strings" which vaguely resemble rice. 2. The starch seed of a semiaquatic grass (Oryza sativa), probably originating in Southeast Asia and now part of most cuisines; divided into three types based on seed size; long-grain, medium-grain and short-grain, each of which is available in different processed forms such as white rice and brown rice.

Rice: Long-grain rice (including basmati rice) cooks in firm, dry kernels; short-grain or medium-grain, rice cooks up moist and slightly sticky, as its outer outer layer absorbs more liquid than long-grain rice.

Rice-flour Noodles: Extremely thin noodles, resembling translucent white hairs, made from rice flour. They explode upon contact with hot oil, becoming a tangle of light, crunchy strands. They are a traditional ingredient in Chinese chicken salad, and can be pre-soaked and used in soups and stir-fries.

Ricer: A plunger-operated utensil that is the best tool for making mashed potatoes. It also rices potatoes for potato dumplings.

Ricotta Cheese: Ricotta is a soft, unripened Italian curd cheese. It is the by product of the whey of other cheeses. It is sweet in flavor and grainy in texture. Ricotta is used often in Italian sweets (most notably Cassata alla Sicilian) and in savory dishes as pasta stuffing.

Ricotta Salata: [Italian] a lightly salted cheese produced from sheep milk that has been pressed and dried.

Ricotta: [Italian] rich, fresh, moist cheese resembling cottage cheese, that may be made with whole or skim milk. Originally Ricotta was made from sheep's milk.

Riddling: An important step in removing sediment from Champagne. Bottles are placed in racks and then turned by hand or machine over weeks or months until they are upside down and the sediment has settled on top of the corks, whereby the sediment is readily removed.

Rigatoni: A large, grooved pasta. Rigatoni's ridges and holes are perfect with any sauce, from cream or cheese to the chunkiest meat sauces.

Rigatoni: Italian for large groove and used to describe large grooved, slightly curved pasta tubes.

Rigatoni: [Italian] large pasta tubes with ribbed sides.

Rijsttafel: A Dutch word, meaning "rice table." It is a Dutch version of an Indonesian meal consisting of hot rice accompanied by several (sometimes 20 or 40) small, well-seasoned side dishes of seafoods, meats, vegetables, fruits, sauces, condiments, etc.

Rillette: A coarse, highly spiced spread made of meat or poultry and always served cold. This is called potted meat because rillettes are often covered with a layer of lard and stored for a period of time to age the mixture.

Rind, rindfleisch: [German] beef.

Rind: The tough outer peel of a food.

Ring (food industry term): Scanning a product or tabulating a retail price on a register system.

Ring tin: Baking pan

Ring up (food industry term): To scan and complete a customer's transaction at the front end.

Ripened (aged) cheese: The drained curds are cured by heat, bacteria and soaking. Salt, spices and herbs or natural dyes (certain cheddars) may be added. Aging in a controlled environment begins.

Ris: [French] sweetbreads.

Riser (food industry term): A shelf that extends above the normal top shelf to give a higher profile.

Risotto: Rice sauteed in butter then cooked and stirred as stock is slowly added in portions. As each addition of stock is absorbed, another is added until the rice is creamy and tender. Vegetables, meat, seafood, herbs, cheese, wine, and other ingredients may be added.

Risotto: A classic dish of Northern Italy whose preparation of rice results in a creamy liaison with stock and butter. Usually made with Arborio rice. This may be served as a first course, main course, or side dish and embellished with meat, seafood, cheese, or vegetables. The best known version of this dish is Risotto a la Milanese, with saffron and Parmagiano Reggiano cheese.

Rissole: Small pies similar to empanadas and piroshki. They are filled with meat, vegetables, or cheese and deep fried.

Ristra: [Spanish] string of red chiles for drying in the sun.

Roa (food industry term): Return on assets.

Roast Surrounding food with hot air, either in an oven or over a fire-usually applies to meat, poultry, game, or vegetables/potatoes; a dry-heat cooking method

Roast: To cook in an uncovered pan in the oven to produce a well:browned exterior and a moister, cooked interior. During roasting, no liquid (such as water or wine) comes into contact with the food. Example

Roast: To cook uncovered in hot air. Meat usually is roasted in an oven or over coals, ceramic briquettes, gas flame, or electric coils. The term also applies to foods such as corn or potatoes cooked in hot ashes, under coals, or on heated stones or metal.

Roast: To cook a food in an open pan in the oven, with no added liquid.

Roasted Garlic Process: Cut the top third of the garlic head off and discard it. Drizzle the remainder with olive oil and put it in aluminum foil. Bake in a 400 degree F oven until edges of the garlic are caramelized (about 40 min.).

Roaster: A size classification for a chicken about 5 pounds in weight and from 10 to 20 weeks old.

Roasting: Cooking method utilizing the oven with radiant heat, or on a spit over or under an open flame.

Róbalo: [Spanish] bass.

Robert: A spicy brown sauce containing onions and vinegar, served with game and other meats.

Robinson-patman act (1936) (food industry term): Federal legislation that prohibits discrimination through price discounts, special terms or services, or other means, e.g., false brokerage payments; promotion allowances for certain customers.

Rocambole: Rocambole is similar to both garlic and leeks. It looks like a leek yet has a taste similar to garlic and is found predominantly in Europe.

Roccal (food industry term): A chlorine-based agent to sanitize sink and food preparation areas.

Rock Cornish Hen: A hybrid chicken, Rock Cornish Hens are very small. The average whole hen is from 1 to 1 1/2 pounds.

Rock Salt: A crystalline form of salt that is mixed with cracked ice to freeze ice cream.

Rockfish: A low:fat fish of the Pacific Coast. There are two categories

Rockfish: Firm, white- and sweet-fleshed fish that is the West Coast equivalent of red snapper. Tasty a highly versatile, although not sturdy enough to grill, then can be considered and all-purpose fish.

Rockmelon: [Great Britain] Cantaloupe.

Roe: A seafood delicacy with two varieties

Roe: Fish eggs. This delicacy falls into two categories-hard roe and soft roe. Hard roe is female fish eggs, while soft roe (also called white roe) is the milt of male fish. Salting roe transforms it into caviar. Roe is marketed fresh, frozen and canned.

Roe: A word used to refer to either a female fish's eggs or male fish's milt, or sperm. May come from carp, mackerel, or herring, but Americans seem to focus on the roe of shad. Roe should smell fresh and be firm. Milt of the male fish is called soft roe. Eggs of the female fish are called hard roe. Shellfish roe, called coral, because of its color.

Roggenbrot: Rye bread.

Rognoni: [Italian] kidneys.

Rognons: [French] kidneys.

Roi (food industry term): Return on investment.

Roii (food industry term): Return on inventory investment.

Rojo: [Spanish] red.

Roll: To coat lightly with a powdery substance; to dredge.

Roller (food industry term): A conveyer that moves merchandise cases.

Rolling Boil: A very fast boil that doesn't slow when stirred.

Rolling Mincer: A tool with several circular blades arranged in a row with a handle. The mincer is used by rolling the device over vegetables and herbs in a back and forth manner.

Rolling Pin: A cylindrical kitchen utensil with many uses, which include rolling pastry, crushing bread crumbs, and flattening other foods. Though the most common is hardwood, rolling pins may be made from other materials, such as ceramic, marble, metal, and plastic.

Rolling stone (food industry term): A food store on wheels from which a retailer sells merchandise house-to-house. Usually found in rural areas.

Roll-out (food industry term): A marketing campaign to introduce a new product.

Romaine (Cos) lettuce: This lettuce has long, narrow leaves, crunchy ribs and a slight tang. Also called Cos lettuce because of its origin on the Aegean island of Cos.

Romano Cheese: Named for the city of Rome, this hard grana cheese has a brittle texture and pale yellow-white color; mostly used for grating after aging for one year.

Romano: [Italian] prepared in the style of Rome.

Romero: [Spanish] rosemary.

Rompope: Mexican eggnog.

Roquefort Cheese: One of the oldest and best-known cheeses in the world, this French cheese made from sheep's milk is considered the prototype of blue cheeses.

Rosbif: [French] roast beef.

Rose water; rosewater: [Middle East] an aromatic liquid made by distilling rose petals. Frequent found in pastries of the Middle East.

Rosefish: This important commercial fish is a member of the rockfish group. Also known as "ocean perch," although it is not a true perch.

Rosemary: An herb (Rosmarinus officinalis) with silver-green, needle-shaped leaves, a strong flavor reminiscent of lemon and pine and a strong, sharp camphor-like aroma; available fresh and dried.

Rosette and Rosette Iron: A fried pastry made by dipping a rosette iron into a thin (usually sweet) batter then into hot, deep fat. The fried pastries are then drained and sprinkled with a mixture of cinnamon and sugar. The rosette iron is a metal rod with a heat-proof handle. Decorative shapes--to be dipped in the batter--are attached to the end.

Rosti: A Swiss potato pancake made from cooked potatoes, sometimes flavored with bacon.

Rotation (food industry term): A shelf-stocking procedure that ensures first-in, first-out by pulling older stock forward and placing newer stock at the back during restocking. See stock rotation.

Rotation list (food industry term): A manufacturer's marketing process of featuring certain products at the same time each year.

Róti: [French] roast.

Rotini: ("Spirals" or "Twists"): This pasta's twisted shape holds bits of meat, vegetables and cheese, so it works well with any sauce, or you can use it to create fun salads, baked casseroles, or stir-fry meals.

Rotisserie (food industry term): A rotating grill with an electrically turned spit that cooks meats.

Rotisserie: A device which contains a spit with prongs. Food (usually meat or poultry) is impaled on the the spit, fastened securely then cooked. Most rotisseries are motorized so they automatically turn the food as it cooks.

Rotisserie: [French] rotating spit used for roasting or grilling meat or poultry.

Roto (rotogravure) (food industry term): A colorful; circular that advertises a retailer's featured sale items, included inside a newspaper or delivered directly to homes.

Roto ad (food industry term): A corporate level ad generated for an entire company and distributed throughout a trade area, e.g., newspaper, home delivery.

Rotogravure (food industry term): See roto.

Rouille: A thick sauce similar to aioli, made of dried chiles, garlic, and olive oil. Rouille is traditionally served with bouillabaisse and soup de poisson. Other recipes also add saffron and tomatoes.

Roulade: A thin piece of meat which is stuffed with a filling, secured with picks or string, then browned and baked.

Roulade: [French] rolled meat, chocolate cake, vegetables, etc.

Round steak: Meat from the thick central portion of the hind leg.

Route list (food industry term): A daily list of retail stores on a delivery schedule.

Roux: A mixture of fat and flour which is blended and cooked slowly over low heat until the desired consistency or color is reached. Roux is used as a base for thickening sauces.

Roux: [French] a mixture of flour and fat used to thicken sauces, soups, and stews. Though usually made with butter, roux is also made with bacon or poultry fats, margarine, and vegetable oil. The mixture is cooked for a brief time to remove the raw taste of the starch from the flour. Longer cooking results in a darker color, which is favorable in Creole cooking where roux are cooked for long periods until they reach a dark brown color with a nut-like flavor and aroma.

Rows (food industry term): See facings.

Royal Icing: An icing which hardens when dried. Royal icing is made with confectioners' sugar, egg whites, flavoring, and sometimes food coloring.

R-t-e (food industry term): Ready-to-eat.

Ruote: Wheel shaped pasta. Ruote is Italian for "cartwheels."

Russe, a la: Served with sour cream.

Russian dressing: Basically a simple mixture of mayo and ketchup.

Rutabaga: A member of the cabbage family with firm, pale-yellow flesh and a slightly sweet flavor. Also known as a Swedish turnip.

Rutabaga: A root vegetable that is not a turnip, but is treated like one, the rutabaga (also sold under the name "Swede" or Swedish turnip) is larger and somewhat coarser in texture than its cousin.

Rye flour: Milled from rye grain, the flour is darker, heavier, and low in gluten. It is sold as light, dark, or medium for home baking. The light and medium rye flour have most of the bran removed. Dark rye flour is whole grain. Also, see Pumpernickel in the glossary listing.

Rye Flour: Finely ground flour made from rye grain; the most important bread flour after wheat.